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In educational institutions, safe-space (or safe space), safer-space, and positive space originally were terms used to indicate that a teacher, educational institution or student body does not tolerate anti-LGBT violence, harassment or hate speech, thereby creating a safe place for all lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students. The term safe space has been extended to refer to a space for individuals who feel marginalized to come together to communicate regarding their experiences with their perceived marginalization, typically on a university campus. It has been criticized for being contrary to freedom of speech.
Positive Space initiatives are prevalent in post-secondary institutions across Canada including McGill University, the University of Toronto, Algonquin College, the University of British Columbia, and Queen's University.
In early 2015 the increasing adoption of safe spaces in UK universities aroused controversy due to accusations that they were used to stifle free speech and differing political views.
In April 2016, a member of the Edinburgh University Students' Union was subject to a vote on whether to be expelled from a meeting within a safe-space for violating rules about making gestures of disagreement; the vote went in her favour. She had waved her arms in disgust with a claim made against her by another speaker.
In September 2016, Prime Minister Theresa May hit out at universities for implementing "safe space" policies amid concerns that self-censorship is curtailing freedom of speech on campuses. The Prime Minister said it was "quite extraordinary" for universities to ban the discussion of certain topics which could cause offence. She warned that stifling free speech could have a negative impact on Britain's economic and social success.
In the United States the concept originated in the women's movement, where it "implies a certain license to speak and act freely, form collective strength, and generate strategies for resistance...a means rather than an end and not only a physical space but also a space created by the coming together of women searching for community." The first safe spaces were gay bars and consciousness raising groups.
In 1989 Gay & Lesbian Urban Explorers (GLUE) developed a safe spaces program. During their events including diversity-training sessions and antihomophobia workshops, they passed out magnets with an inverted pink triangle, "ACT UP's...symbol", surrounded by a green circle to, "symbolize universal acceptance," and asked, "allies to display the magnets to show support for gay rights and to designate their work spaces free from homophobia."
Advocates for Youth states on their website that a safe-space is "A place where anyone can relax and be fully self-expressed, without fear of being made to feel uncomfortable, unwelcome or challenged on account of biological sex, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, cultural background, age, or physical or mental ability; a place where the rules guard each person's self-respect, dignity and feelings and strongly encourage everyone to respect others.
In general, these may be individuals or institutions which support a safe space for LGBT students and employees. They may offer or mandate staff training on diversity, include being a safe space in the organization's mission statement, develop and post a value statement in the organization's office, online, or on printed documents, or, if part of a coalition, encourage the coalition to include being a safe space in its mission and values.
Writing for The New York Times, journalist Judith Shulevitz distinguished between meetings where participants mutually consent to provide a safe space, and attempts to make entire dormitories or student newspapers safe spaces. According to Shulevitz, the latter is a logical consequence of the former: "Once you designate some spaces as safe, you imply that the rest are unsafe. It follows that they should be made safer." The same article gave the following example of a safe space at Brown University, when libertarian Wendy McElroy, who was known for criticizing the term "rape culture," was coming to give a speech: "The safe space, Ms. Byron explained, was intended to give people who might find comments 'troubling' or 'triggering,' a place to recuperate. The room was equipped with cookies, coloring books, bubbles, Play-Doh, calming music, pillows, blankets and a video of frolicking puppies, as well as students and staff members trained to deal with trauma." Conservative and libertarian critics accused the college of treating the students like babies.
Journalist Conor Friedersdorf criticized the use of outdoor safe spaces to block press coverage of student protests. According to Friedersdorf, such uses reverse the intent of safe spaces: "This behavior is a kind of safe-baiting: using intimidation or initiating physical aggression to violate someone’s rights, then acting like your target is making you unsafe."
- Nicole Christine Raeburn (2004). Changing Corporate America from Inside Out: Lesbian and Gay Workplace Rights. University of Minnesota Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-8166-3998-4.
- Waldman, Katy (2016-09-05). "What science can tell us about trigger warnings". Slate.com. Retrieved 2016-09-10.
- Amenabar, Teddy (19 May 2016). "The New Vocabulary of Protest". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Office of Student Life. "Positive Space Campaign". University of Toronto. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Queen's Positive Space Program. "The Queen's Positive Space Program". Queen's University. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Positive Space. "The Positive Space Campaign". University of British Columbia. Retrieved 18 June 2011.
- Dunt, Ian (6 February 2015). "Safe space or free speech? The crisis around debate at UK universities". The Guardian.
- Mann, Sebastian (5 April 2016). "Student 'violated university safe space rule... by raising her arm at a meeting'". Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
- Hughes, Laura (14 September 2016). "Theresa May hits out at universities 'safe spaces' for stifling free speech". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Kenney, Moira Rachel (2001). Mapping Gay L.A.: The Intersection of Place and Politics. p. 24. ISBN 1-56639-884-3.
- Raeburn, Nicole C. (2004). Changing Corporate America from Inside Out: Lesbian and Gay Workplace Rights. p. 209. ISBN 0-8166-3999-X.
- "Glossary". Advocates for Youth. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- "Tips and Strategies for Creating a Safe Space for GLBTQ Youth". Advocates for Youth. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
- Shulevitz, Judith (March 21, 2015). "In College and Hiding From Scary Ideas". Op-ed. New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- ‘Infantilized’ College Students Need ‘Safe Spaces’ to Avoid Scary Free Speech, Breitbart, March 23, 2015
- Students Are Literally 'Hiding from Scary Ideas,' Or Why My Mom's Nursery School Is Edgier Than College, Reason, March 22, 2015
- Underground at Brown National Review, November 30, 2015
- Friedersdorf, Conor (November 10, 2015). "Campus Activists Weaponize 'Safe Space'". Politics. The Atlantic. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- George, Bowden (11 April 2016). "Stephen Fry Speaks About Erosion Of 'Free Speech' On Student Campuses In Controversial Rubin Report Interview". Huffington Post. Retrieved 25 August 2016.