Safir (rocket)

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Not to be confused with Saphir (rocket).
Iran rocket irilv.jpg
Prior to the 2 February 2009 launch with Omid on board
Function LEO launch vehicle
Manufacturer Iranian Space Agency
Country of origin  Iran
Height 22 m (72ft)
Diameter 1.25 m (4.10ft)
Mass 26,000 kg
Stages 2
Payload to LEO 50 kilograms (110 lb)[1]
Associated rockets
Family Shahab
Launch history
Status Operational
Launch sites Iran Space Center
Total launches Orbital: 6[2]
Successes Orbital: 4[2]
Failures 2[2]
First flight Suborbital: Orbital: 2008-08-17

The Safir (Persian: سفیر‎‎, meaning "ambassador") is the name of the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit.[3] The first successful orbital launch using the Safir launch system took place on 2 February 2009 when a Safir carrier rocket placed the Omid satellite into an orbit with a 245.2 km (152.4 mi) apogee.[4][5]


A sub-orbital test flight, named Kavoshgar-1 (Persian: کاوشگر ۱‎‎, "Explorer-1"), was conducted on 4 February 2008, as announced by state-run television. A launch on 25 February 2007, may also have been of the same type. The first flights carried instruments to measure the higher atmosphere. The rocket launched on 4 February 2008 was a liquid-propellant-driven rocket, probably a derivative of the Shahab-3, that reached an altitude of 200–250 km in space, and successfully returned science data according to the Iranian News Agency.

On 19 February 2008, Iran offered new information about the rocket and announced that Kavoshgar-1 used a two staged rocket.[6] The first stage separated after 100 seconds and returned to earth with the help of a parachute. The second stage continued its ascent to the altitude of 200 kilometres. However it was not intended to reach orbital velocity.

Earlier reports by the Iranian News Agency suggested that Kavoshgar-1 used a three staged rocket with the first stage separating after 90 seconds and the rocket reaching an orbit between 200 and 250 kilometres.[7][8]

The successful development and launch of a sounding-space-rocket was already announced a year earlier, on 25 February 2007. It is unknown if the sounding rocket launched on 25 February 2007, and the rocket launched on 4 February 2008, are of the same type.

Operational history[edit]


On 17 August 2008, Iranian officials reported that a Safir was launched successfully without a payload, in preparation for the launch of Iran's first indigenously launched satellite, Omid.[9] Reza Taghizadeh, head of the Iranian Aerospace Organization, told state television "The Safir (Ambassador) satellite carrier was launched today and for the first time we successfully launched a dummy satellite into orbit".[10] As it was announced by Iran, a dummy satellite was put into a 650 km LEO passing over Iran six times every 24 hours.[11][12]

Alleged failure[edit]

According to an American official, "The vehicle failed shortly after liftoff and in no way reached its intended position."[13] However, the video of the liftoff of the rocket was shown on the Iranian state television for several minutes.[14] Iranian officials released a statement denouncing the allegations as propaganda and stated that Iran would soon launch the Omid satellite.[15] Iran indeed launched the satellite on 2 February 2009, less than six months later.

Omid launch[edit]

On 2 February 2009, a Safir rocket conducted Iran's first orbital launch, with the Omid satellite.[16] The two-staged launch vehicle named SAFIR-2 was 22 m long with a diameter of 1.25 m, weighing about 26 tonnes. The 27 kg Omid satellite was launched into an orbit with a 245.5 km perigee and 381.2 km apogee.[4][17] The evidence is mounting that Safir-2 was more powerful and advanced than initially thought.[18]

Further launches[edit]

Iran has begun the development of the planned Block-II Safir booster intended to double its payload capacity with the intent to make it operational by some time in 2010. The launch vehicle is to acquire its increased payload capacity into low earth orbit through the addition of two Samen, solid motor strap-on boosters added to the Shahab-3C derived first stage and possible a new solid motor third stage added to the existing two-stage Safir space booster. The announcement of the development start on this booster was made on 14 April 2009 by the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. This booster is capable of placing satellite in 700-kilometre (430-mile) orbits or doubling its payload capacity. Iran is known to be combining these liquid propellant and solid motor technologies to the development of a more capable Safir block-II class space booster expected in 2010 with over twice the capability of the present Safir space booster. Iran is known to be working on a new, nearly all solid propellant boosters with a payload capacity of 330 kilograms to low earth orbit.[19] On the maiden flight of the Safir-B rocket, designated Safir-B1, from a launch site in Semnan Province, Iran's third indigenous satellite, the 15.3 kg Rasad 1 was launched. The launch occurred at approximately 09:14 UTC on 15 June 2011 with the spacecraft reaching orbit several minutes later.

On 3 February 2012, the 50 kg Navid satellite was launched by an upgraded Safir rocket with 20% more thrust. The second stage of the new rocket was wider.[1]

On 3 February 2015, a 50 kg Fajr satellite was launched by a Safir rocket.[2]

Alleged failures[edit]

As were alleged, non-announced by Iran three failed launches of Fajr Earth imaging satellites occurred from Semnan spaceport on May, 23 and September, 22 in 2012 and on February, 17 in 2013 .[2][20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c d e Stephen Clark (2 February 2015). "Iranian satellite successfully placed in orbit". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  3. ^ Parisa Hafezi (2008-08-17). "Iran launches first home-made satellite into space". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  4. ^ a b "OMID Spacecraft - Trajectory Details". NASA NSSDC. 
  5. ^ "The Threat". US Missile Defense Agency. 
  6. ^ "Iran provides space launch info". Press TV. 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  7. ^ Ali Akbar Dareini (2008). "Iran to Launch 2 More Research Rockets Before Placing Satellite into Orbit This Summer". Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  8. ^ "Iran's Research Rocket Beams Back Science Data". Associated Press. 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  9. ^ "Iran launches satellite carrier". BBC News. 2008-08-17. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  10. ^ "Iran says it has put first dummy satellite in orbit". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-08-18. [dead link]
  11. ^ "伊朗将于下周发射自主生产的卫星". 伊通社. 2008-08-16. Retrieved August 18, 2008. 
  12. ^ Iran Sends First Satellite into Orbit
  13. ^ "Iran satellite launch a failure: U.S. official". Reuters. 2008-08-19. 
  14. ^ YouTube - Iran launches rocket into space
  15. ^ Press TV
  16. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Issue 606". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  17. ^ "OMID Satellite Launch Report" (PDF). Iranian Space Agency. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  18. ^ Shiga, David (2009-02-09). "Is Iran's space programme more advanced than thought?". New Scientist. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  19. ^ Safir IRILV Block-II
  20. ^ Hansen, Nick (October 1, 2012). "Rocket science - Iran's rocket programme". Jane's Intelligence Review. 24 (10). 

External links[edit]