Prior to the 2 February 2009 launch with Omid on board
|Function||LEO launch vehicle|
|Manufacturer||Iranian Space Agency|
|Country of origin||Iran|
|Height||22 m (72ft)|
|Diameter||1.25 m (4.10ft)|
|Payload to LEO||50 kilograms (110 lb)|
|Launch sites||Iran Space Center|
|Failures||1 (2 unknown)|
|First flight||17 August 2008|
|Last flight||2 February 2015|
The Safir (Persian: سفیر, meaning "ambassador") is the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit. The first successful orbital launch using the Safir launch system took place on 2 February 2009 when a Safir carrier rocket placed the Omid satellite into an orbit with a 245.2 km (152.4 mi) apogee.
A sub-orbital test flight, named Kavoshgar-1 (Persian: کاوشگر ۱, "Explorer-1"), was conducted on 4 February 2008, as announced by state-run television. A launch on 25 February 2007, may also have been of the same type. The first flights carried instruments to measure the higher atmosphere. The rocket launched on 4 February 2008 was a liquid-propellant-driven rocket, probably a derivative of the Shahab-3, that reached an altitude of 200–250 km in space, and successfully returned science data according to the Iranian News Agency.
On 19 February 2008, Iran offered new information about the rocket and announced that Kavoshgar-1 used a two staged rocket. The first stage separated after 100 seconds and returned to earth with the help of a parachute. The second stage continued its ascent to the altitude of 200 kilometres. However it was not intended to reach orbital velocity.
Earlier reports by the Iranian News Agency suggested that Kavoshgar-1 used a three staged rocket with the first stage separating after 90 seconds and the rocket reaching an orbit between 200 and 250 kilometres.
The successful development and launch of a sounding-space-rocket was already announced a year earlier, on 25 February 2007. It is unknown if the sounding rocket launched on 25 February 2007, and the rocket launched on 4 February 2008, are of the same type.
Safir has made 6 launches so far putting 4 satellites into orbits.
|Flight No||Date & Time (GMT)||Payload||Type||Outcome||Remarks|
|1||17 August 2008||Unknown; may be boilerplate||Safir-1||Unknown||US defense officials claimed the vehicle failed after first-stage powered flight; Iranian officials claimed that the launch was a suborbital test carrying a boilerplate satellite.|
|2||2 February 2009||Omid||Safir-1||Success||First successful orbital launch of Safir making Iran the ninth country to develop an indigenous satellite launch capability.|
|3||15 June 2011||Rasad||Safir-1A||Success||Rasad-1 was launched on the maiden flight of the Safir-1B with increased thrust.|
|4||3 February 2012||Navid||Safir-1B||Success||New configuration of the Safir carrier rocket, featuring a larger second stage with 20% more thrust.|
|5||Between 18 May and 21 June 2012||Unknown (Possibly the first version of Fajr)||Safir-1B+||Unknown||Satellite imagery shows a blast scar on launch pad, suggesting that there has been a launch. No officials have confirmed a launch. It may have been either an engine test or rocket failure at high altitude.|
|6||Between 22 September and 25 October 2012||Unknown (Possibly Tadbir)||Safir-1B+||Failure||Satellite imagery shows a damaged pad, indicating Safir exploded on the launch pad destroying the first version of Fajr satellite.|
|7||2 February 2015||Fajr||Safir-1B+||Success||First Iranian satellite with orbital maneuverability using cold-gas thrusters|
- Comparison of orbital launchers families
- Comparison of orbital launch systems
- International rankings of Iran in Science and Technology
- Simorgh (rocket)
- Rasad 1
- Iranian Space Agency
- List of orbits
- Asian space race
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- Iran Launches Indigenous Carrier Rocket