Sahabzada Yaqub Khan

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Yaqub Ali Khan
صاحبزادہ یعقوب خان;
Sahabzada Yaqub Khan (cropped).jpg
Yaqub Ali Khan (1920–2016) in Paris, ca. 2002
Foreign Minister of Pakistan
In office
11 November 1996 – 24 February 1997
President Farooq Leghari
Prime Minister Moin Qureshi
Preceded by Asif Ahmad Ali
Succeeded by Gohar Ayub
In office
21 March 1982 – 20 March 1991
President Zia-ul-Haq (1982–88)
Ghulam Ishaq Khan (1988–91)
Prime Minister Mohammad Juneijo
Benazir Bhutto
Preceded by Agha Shahi
Succeeded by Abdul Sattar
Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Western Sahara
In office
23 March 1992 – August 1995
Preceded by Johannes Manz
Succeeded by Erik Jensen
Pakistan Ambassador to the United States
In office
19 December 1973 – 3 January 1979
President Fazal Illahi
Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Preceded by Syed Mohammad Khan
Succeeded by Syed Mohammad Khan
Governor of East-Pakistan
In office
7 March 1971 – 6 April 1971
President Yahya Khan
Prime Minister Nurul Amin
Preceded by VAdm Syed Mohammad Ahsan
Succeeded by Lt.Gen Tikka Khan
In office
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969
President Yahya Khan
Preceded by MGen Muzzafaruddin
Succeeded by VAdm S.M. Ahsan
Personal details
Born Mohammad Yaqub Ali Khan
(1920-12-23)23 December 1920
Rampur, Uttar-Pradesh, British Indian Empire
(Present-day India)
Died 26 January 2016(2016-01-26) (aged 95)
Islamabad, Pakistan
Citizenship British Subject (1920–1947)
Pakistan (1947–2016)
Political party Pakistan Peoples Party
(1974–77; 1988–96)
Alma mater Rashtriya Indian Military College
Command and Staff College
Cabinet Zia administration
Yahya administration
Benazir ministry
Civilian awards Star*.svgOrd.Nishan-i-Pakistan.ribbon.gif Sitara-e-Pakistan
Military service
Nickname(s) SYAK
Prince Soldier
Allegiance  Pakistan
Service/branch  British Indian Army (1940–1947)
 Pakistan Army
(1947–1971)
Years of service 1940–1971
Rank OF-8 PakistanArmy.svgUS-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant-General
Unit 18th Cavalry, Armoured Corps
Commands Eastern Military Command, East Pakistan
1st Armoured Division, Armoured Corps
Command and Staff College
Chief of General Staff
Battles/wars Siege of Tobruk
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani war of 1971
Bangladesh Liberation War
Soviet war in Afghanistan
Military awards Military Cross.jpgMilitary cross BAR.svgMilitary Cross
S/No. PA – 136

Sahabzada Yaqub Ali Khan Urdu: (صاحبزادہ یعقوب خان; December 23, 1920 – January 26, 2016) MC, SPk,[1] was a Pakistani statesman, diplomat, military figure, pacifist, linguist, and a retired three-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army.[2]

Born into an Indian nobility, he was educated at the Indian Military College at Dehradun and served well in the World War II on the side of Great Britain as an officer in the British Indian Army. After the partition of India in 1947, he opted for Pakistan and joined Pakistan Army where he participated in war against India in 1965. He was the Chief of General Staff of East Pakistani military and eventually appointed its commander in 1967. He was appointed as Governor of East-Pakistan in 1969 and 1971 but recalled to Pakistan after submitting resignation amid civil unrest. In 1973, he joined the Foreign Service and was appointed as Pakistan Ambassador to the United States and later ascended as Foreign Minister, serving under President Zia-ul-Haq in 1982.

His stint as Foreign Minister played a major role in Soviet intervention in Afghanistan (1979–89) and took part in negotiations to end the proxies in Nicaragua (1981–87) on the behalf of the United Nations. In the 1990s, he served as an official of the United Nations for Western Sahara until reappointed as Foreign Minister under Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. After retiring from diplomatic services in 1997, he spent his remaining years in Islamabad and died in Islamabad in 2016.

Biography[edit]

Youth and World war II[edit]

Mohammad Yaqub Ali Khan was born into an aristocrat Royal Indian family in Rampur, Uttar Pradesh, British Indian Empire on 23 December 1920.[3] The title, Sahabzada (lit. Young Prince), is an honorific bestowed to him to represent the Indian royalty.[4] He was of the Afghan descent and was an ethnically a Pashtun who belonged to a Yousafzai tribe.[4]

His father, Sir Abdus Samad Khan was an aristocrat and politician who served as chief minister of Rampur, and as British India's representative to the League of Nations. His ancestral roots traced back to Mirza Ghalib who was appointed teacher of Nawab of Rampur in 1857, who travelled to Rampur twice, in 1860 and 1865.[5]

He was educated at the Rashtriya Indian Military College at Dehradun and gained commissioned in British Indian Army in 1940 and attached to the 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry.[6]

His military career saw the actions in the World War II and served in the North African Campaign where he took participation in Tobruk siege and was taken POWs by Afrika Korps, spending year-and-half in the Axis powers's camp before making his escape.[7] His escape attempt was partially successful and was recaptured shortly by the German forces who held him till April 1945 when he was rescued by the U.S. Army soldiers.[7] During his time in German custody, he learnt languages by interacting with fellow prisoners and reading literature in those languages.[7] After the World War II, he was awarded the Military Cross by the United Kingdom for his actions.[1]

Upon returning to India in 1945, he was selected as an adjutant to Field Marshal Lord Wavell with an army rank of Major.[7] After hearing the news of partition of India and creation of Pakistan, he decided to opt for Pakistan, and initially was selected as Aide-de-camp to the Muhammad Ali Jinnah– the first Governor-General of Pakistan.[6] It was then-Lieutenant S.M. Ahsan who was made the ADC at the behest of Lord Mountbatten, and Yaqub was appointed as commandant of the Governor-General's bodyguard for the first Governor-General which he led until 1948.[6] During this time, he attended the short but brief one-year course in the Command and Staff College in Quetta and graduated with a staff officer's degree.[8] In 1948–51, he commanded the regiment in the Armoured Corps that was stationed in Lahore, Punjab.[9]

In 1951, he served in the Military Intelligence (MI) as Lieutenant-Colonel, and directed initiatives to analytical branch of the ISI for the whereabouts of the Indian Army but he reportedly struggled with providing factual intelligence that was provided to ISI.:27–28[10] He was appointed as Colonel in 1953 and went Paris in France to attend the famed École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr where he graduated in 1954.[9]

Upon returning to Pakistan, he was promoted as Brigadier in 1955 where he served as a chief instructor at the Command and Staff College.[11]

Staff and war appointments:1960–69[edit]

In 1958, he was appointed as the vice Chief of General Staff at the Army GHQ and later becoming the Commandant of the Command and Staff College in Quetta in 1960.[7] In 1960, he was promoted as Major-General and commanded the 1st Armoured Division of Armoured Corps and was said to have a portrait of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in his office.[12] As an armored commander, he arranged a course on philosophy on the Panzer doctrine to educate the armoured division on the tank battles and strategies.[12]

He participated in the war against India in 1965, having command his 1st Armoured Division.[13] He helped develop the operational planning of the armoured vehicular warfare deployments against the Indian Army advances in Punjab and presented his views at the Army GHQ.:22–23[14] Soon after, he was appointed as Director-General Military Operations (DGMO) by General Musa Khan and directed all formats of ground operations during the 1965 war against India.[1]

After the war, he was appointed as Chief of General Staff at the Army GHQ under army chief General Yahya Khan in 1966 and remained until 1969.[15]

East Pakistan: military advisor and governorship (1969–71)[edit]

In 1969, Major-General Yaqub Khan was posted in East Pakistan as the deputy chief of staff Eastern Command in Dacca by President Yahya Khan and helped evaluate the command rotation of the Eastern military.:359[16] Soon, he was promoted as the Lieutenant-General and was immediately appointed as Governor of East Pakistan where he began learning the Bengali language and became accustomed to Bengali culture.:24[17] His first tenure was short lived and was succeeded by Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan who approved his appointment as the senior military adviser to the East Pakistan Army and eventually becoming the Chief of General Staff of the East-Pakistani military.:110[18] He was highly respected by the East Pakistani military officers due to his stance and professionalism and was said to be very well liked and respected in the East.[19]

He was known to be an unusual military officer who knew very well of "limits of force",:62[20] and did not believe in the use of brute force to settle political disputes.[15] In 1969–71, he worked together with the Admiral Ahsan in advising the Yahya administration in an effort to resolve the situation and restricted strictly on the proposal of usage of military force in the province.[21]

At the cabinet meeting, he was often fierce and strictly resisted the usage of military option but was respected in the military due to his understanding of Bengali issues whose colleague often labeled him as "Bingos."[22] In 1970, he notably coordinated the relief operations when the disastrous cyclone had hit the state and gained prestige for his efforts in the country.:114[23]

In 1971, he participated in the area contingency and fact-finding mission, which would known as Ahsan–Yaqub Mission, to resolve the political deadlock between the East Pakistan and Pakistan as both men argued that "military measures would not change the political situations".:69–71[24]

In March 1971, he became aware of the rumors of "usage of military force" and sent desperate military signals to President Yahya Khan in Islamabad for a halt to the military solution.:225–226[25] After the resignation of Admiral Ahsan, he was ordered the use the military force against the civil agitation led by the Awami League but refused to take this order and tendered his resignation to be posted back to Pakistan.:71[22][24] His resignation came in the light of resisting the military orders and fiercely maintained the President Yahya that "military solution was not acceptable.":225–226[25]

Commenting on the situation, Yaqub maintained that: "[President] Yahya was also keen to impose the "open sword" martial law to roll back the situation was it was in 1969.[21] He lodged a strong protest against the military solution and maintained that the "central government had failed to listen to the voices of their co-citizens in the East.":225–226[25] To many authors, Yaqub Khan had become a "conscientious objector" in the military.:226[25]

He was posted back to Pakistan and was joined in the Army GHQ and participated in winter war against India in 1971 without commanding an assignment and retired from the military after the war, in 1972.[26]

Foreign service[edit]

Ambassadorship to France, United States, and Soviet Union[edit]

After seeking the honorable discharge from the army, he joined the Foreign Service as a career diplomat in 1972, initially taking his first assignment as Pakistan Ambassador to France until 1973.:185[27] In 1973, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto appointed him as the Pakistan Ambassador to the United States which he served in this capacity until 1979.:185[27] He was sent Pakistan's envoy to United States when the foreign relations with the United States were cooling but he gained international prominence when he became involved with Egyptian ambassador Ashraf Ghorbal and Iranian Ambassador to the United States Ardeshir Zahedi to take part in defusing the siege of three federal buildings in the Washington D.C. by the group of American Muslims in 1977.[28]

In 1979, he was sent to Moscow and was appointed as Pakistan Ambassador to the Soviet Union where he worked towards building foreign relations with the Soviet Union by signing an educational accord.:11–12[29] In 1980, he was reassigned in France again which he remained until 1982.:185[27]

Foreign Minister and United Nations[edit]

Yaqub Ali Khan was brought in to the Zia administration as Foreign Minister in 1982 when Agha Shahi was departed from President Zia-ul-Haq's cabinet.[30] He was appointed Foreign Minister in the conservative-aligned government but Yaqub maintained his composure and his Western wit in the Zia administration.[30]

As Foreign Minister, he directed a proactive and keen pro-American policy and supported the U.S. sponsored clandestine program to arm the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet sponsored Afghanistan.:120–129[31] He advised President Zia-ul-Haq on many key matters and firmly had gripped the country's foreign policy towards on the track of pro-U.S. foreign policy as many military officers joined his Foreign ministry.:277–278[32] During this time, the matters were kept out of the sight of the Foreign Office with Yaqub handling matters with the military.:277–278[32] He continued his role as Foreign Minister after the general elections held in 1985 by the Prime Minister Mohammad Junejo.[28]

At foreign fronts, he played a crucial role in providing the support for his country's cover and clandestine nuclear development whilst maintaining a strong policy of deliberate ambiguity.:170–171[33] In 1984, he reportedly issued a statement in Washington D.C. on Pakistan's massive retaliation when observing India's pre-emptive strikes on Pakistan's facilities, and made unsuccessful proposal to United States to put Pakistan under its nuclear umbrella.:149–150[34]

In the 1980s, he provided his diplomatic expertise in resolving the Soviet–Afghan War when he explored the possibility of setting-up the interim system of government under former monarch Zahir Shah but this was not authorized by President Zia-ul-Haq.:247–248[35] In 1984-85, he paid visits to China, Saudi Arabia, Soviet Union, France, United States and the United Kingdom to develop framework for the Geneva Accords which was signed in 1988.:335[36] About the death and state funeral of President Zia-ul-Haq, Yaqub was earlier warned by Soviet Foreign Minister Edward Shevardnadze that Pakistan's support for Afghan mujahideen "would not go unpunished.":407[37] Yaqub Khan, on the other hand, stressed for troop withdrawal from Afghanistan by the Soviet Union.[38]

In the 1980s, he also managed to maintained to retain Pakistan's close friendship with Iran and the rich Arab States during the Iran-Iraq war.:xxx[17] After the general elections held in 1988 in the country, Yaqub was kept as Foreign Minister in the First Benazir ministry by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in order to engage in negotiation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF).:196[39]

In 1988–90, he aided Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to reach to sign an arms control treaty with her Indian counterpart Rajiv Gandhi.:285[40] In 1990, he met with Indian External Minister, I.K. Gujral to convened a secret message to Indian Prime Minister V. P. Singh to warn against an active conflict between two countries. :231–232[40]

After the general elections held in 1990, he was inducted in first Sharif ministry by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif which he remained until 1991.:xxxvi[41] He once again put country's foreign policy to supporting U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in the Gulf War.:77[17] After the Gulf War, Yaqub left his post as Foreign Minister following his resignation on 26 February 1991.:225[42]

After his resignation, he went on to joined the United Nations when he was named the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Western Sahara in 1992 which he remained until 1995.:194[43] In 1996, he was again re-appointed as Foreign Minister by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto but it was short-lived when his tenure was cut-short after President Farooq Leghari who dismissed Benazir Bhutto's government.[6]

Although he retired from politics in 1997, Yaqub Ali Khan did provide his support to President Pervez Musharraf's to stabilise his writ against the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in 1999 when he visited United States to provide legitimacy of military martial law.[44]

Post-retirement and death[edit]

In 1981, he was apponited as the founding chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Aga Khan University which he chaired for almost two decades until his retirement in 2001.[45] He was also a commissioner in the now retired Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict in New York City, United States.[46]

Yaqub Ali Khan was married to Begum Tuba Khaleeli of the Iranian Khaleeli family of Calcutta from whom he had two sons, Samad and Najib.[2] He was said to be proficient in seven global languages including English, Russian, French, Urdu, German, Italian, and Bengali languages.:260[47] He died of an old age, at 95, in Islamabad where he was laid to rest in Westridge cemetery in Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan. His funeral services were attended by the Chairman joint chief General Rashad Mahmood, army chief General Raheel Sharif, air chief General Sohail Aman, naval chief Admiral Muhammad Zakaullah and other a large number of high-ranking civil and military officials and people from all walks of life.[48]

Autobiography[edit]

  • Khan, Sahabzada Mohammad Yaqub Ali (2005). Strategy, diplomacy, humanity : life and work of Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan. Karachi: International Forum Takshila Research University. p. 396. ISBN 0975586017. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781631440397. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Roberts, Sam (28 January 2016). "Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, Pakistani Diplomat, Dies at 95". The New York Times. The New York Times, Pakistan Bureau. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  3. ^ Rajagopalan, Rajesh; Mishra, Atul. Nuclear South Asia: Keywords and Concepts. Routledge, Mishra and Rajagopalan. pp. 169–170. ISBN 9781317324768. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Najibabad: GENEALOGY". www.royalark.net. Royal Ark GENEALOGY. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  5. ^ "Royal Ark: Rampur"
  6. ^ a b c d Bangash, Yaqood Khan (27 January 2016). "Pakistan's prince soldier, diplomat, statesman - The Express Tribune". Express Tribune, Bangash editorial. Express Tribune. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Ahmad, Imtiaz (26 January 2016). "Former Pakistan foreign minister Yaqub Khan dead at 95". Hindustan Times, Pakistan Bureau. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  8. ^ Jafri, Iqbal (27 July 2010). "Civil-military relations". DAWN.COM. Islamabad: Dawn newspapers, Iqbal. Dawn newspapers. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Times, Special To The New York (12 March 1977). "3 Ambassadors Who Negotiated An End to Siege". The New York Times. The New York Times, 1977. The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  10. ^ Sirrs, Owen L. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: Covert Action and Internal Operations. Routledge. ISBN 9781317196099. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  11. ^ Staff college, Army. "Gallery Chief Instructors". armystaffcollege.gov.pk. Army ISPR. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Zafar, M. (October 2000). "Prince, Soldier, Statesman: Sahabzada Yaqub Khan". www.defencejournal.com. defencejournal,zafar. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  13. ^ Recorder, Business. "Sahibzada Yaqub Ali Khan passes away—→Business Recorder". Business Recorder. Business Recorder. Business Recorder. Retrieved 6 September 2016. 
  14. ^ Husain, Abrar. Men of steel: 6 Armoured Division in the 1965 war. Amry Education Publishing House, Army Education Directorate GHQ. ISBN 9789698125196. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Bangabhaban. "Bangabhaban- The President House of Bangladesh". bangabhaban.gov.bd. Bangabhaban, Bangladesh. Retrieved 9 December 2016. 
  16. ^ Singh, Ravi Shekhar Narain Singh. The Military Factor in Pakistan. Lancer Publishers. ISBN 9780981537894. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c Khan, Sahabzada Yaqub. Strategy, diplomacy, humanity: life and work of Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan. International Forum Takshila Research University. ISBN 9780975586013. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  18. ^ Shah, Aqil. The Army and Democracy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674728936. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  19. ^ Abbas, Hassan. Pakistan's Drift into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. Routledge. ISBN 9781317463276. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  20. ^ Friend, Theodore. Woman, Man, and God in Modern Islam. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802866738. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  21. ^ a b Raghavan, Srinath. 1971. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674731271. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  22. ^ a b Sirrs, Owen L. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: Covert Action and Internal Operations. Routledge. ISBN 9781317196082. 
  23. ^ Gates, Professor Scott; Roy, Dr Kaushik. Unconventional Warfare in South Asia: Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9781409437062. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  24. ^ a b Haqqani, Husain. Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military. Carnegie Endowment. ISBN 9780870032851. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c d Saikia, Yasmin. Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822350386. 
  26. ^ "A Soldier's View on Pakistan's Partition". www.saglobalaffairs.com. Retrieved 13 December 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c Hamburg, David A. Preventing Deadly Conflict. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9780788170904. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  28. ^ a b et.al. (15 December 2016). "Sahibzada Yaqub Khan, 1920-2016: The end of an era | Brookings Institution". Brookings Institute. Brookings Institute. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  29. ^ Pakistan Affairs. Information Division, Embassy of Pakistan. 1977. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  30. ^ a b Editorial (27 January 2016). "Sahibzada Yaqub Khan". DAWN.COM. Dawn Newspapers, 2016. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 15 December 2016. 
  31. ^ Singh, introduction by P.N. Haksar ; edited by Kalim Bahadur, Uma (1989). Pakistan, transition to democracy : joint study of Indian and Pakistani scholars. New Delhi: Patriot Publishers on behalf of Indian Centre for Regional Affairs. ISBN 8170501008. 
  32. ^ a b Jaffrelot, Christophe (2002). Pakistan: Nationalism Without A Nation. Zed Books. pp. 277–278. ISBN 978-1-84277-117-4. 
  33. ^ Levy, Adrian; Scott-Clark, Catherine (2010). Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-0-8027-1860-0. 
  34. ^ Malik, Hafeez. Soviet-American Relations with Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan. Springer. ISBN 9781349085538. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  35. ^ Rubin, Barnett R. (2002). The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System. Yale University Press. pp. 248–. ISBN 978-0-300-09519-7. 
  36. ^ Amstutz, J. Bruce (1994). Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation. DIANE Publishing. pp. 335–. ISBN 978-0-7881-1111-2. 
  37. ^ Gupte, Pranay. Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi. Penguin Books India. ISBN 9780143068266. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  38. ^ "Pakistan Affairs" (google books). Pakistan Affairs. Washington D.C.: Information Division, Embassy of Pakistan. 39-40 (5): 117–127. 1 January 1986. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  39. ^ Bahadur, Kalim. Democracy in Pakistan: Crises and Conflicts. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124100837. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  40. ^ a b Khan, Feroz. Eating Grass: The Making of the Pakistani Bomb. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804784801. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  41. ^ Burki, Shahid Javed. Historical Dictionary of Pakistan. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442241480. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  42. ^ Publications, Europa. A Political Chronology of Central, South and East Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781135356804. 
  43. ^ Beigbeder, Yves. International Monitoring of Plebiscites, Referenda and National Elections: Self-Determination and Transition to Democracy. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 079232563X. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  44. ^ Rajagopalan, Rajesh; Mishra, Atul. Nuclear South Asia: Keywords and Concepts. Routledge. ISBN 9781317324751. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  45. ^ "The Life and Work of Sahabzada Yaqub Khan" Aga Khan University News & Events
  46. ^ "Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict"
  47. ^ Reza, S. Mohammad. Persons who Shape Our Destiny: A Compendium of Bio-datas of Those Persons who are Rendering Important Services in Various Fields of National Activity. Dar Publications. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  48. ^ "Former foreign minister Sahibzada Yaqub Khan dies at 95". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  • Indian Army List (April 1942, April 1945)
  • Maj Gen Gurcharn Singh Sadu, I serve The Eighteenth Cavalry

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Sher Bahadur
Chief of General Staff
1966–1969
Succeeded by
Gul Hassan Khan
Preceded by
LGen Kamal Matinuddin
Unified Commander of Eastern Military High Command
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969
Succeeded by
MGen Muzaffaruddin
Political offices
Preceded by
Muzaffaruddin
Martial Law Administrator, Zone B (East Pakistan)
1969–1971
Succeeded by
Tikka Khan
Preceded by
Muzaffaruddin
Governor of East Pakistan
1969
Succeeded by
Syed Mohammad Ahsan
Preceded by
Syed Mohammad Ahsan
Governor of East Pakistan
1971
Succeeded by
Tikka Khan
Preceded by
Agha Shahi
Foreign Minister of Pakistan
1982–1991
Succeeded by
Abdul Sattar
Preceded by
Aseff Ahmad Ali
Foreign Minister of Pakistan (caretaker)
1996–1997
Succeeded by
Gohar Ayub Khan
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Sultan Muhammad Khan
Pakistan Ambassador to the United States
1973–1979
Succeeded by
Sultan Muhammad Khan