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Sahure

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Sahure (also Sahura, meaning "He who is close to Re", in Greek as Sephrês, Σϵϕρής) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh and second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC during the Old Kingdom Period. Sahure's reign is considered to mark the political and cultural high point of the Fifth Dynasty.[28] He was probably the son of his predecessor Userkaf with queen Neferhetepes II, and was in turn succeeded by his son Neferirkare Kakai.

During Sahure's time on the throne, Egypt had important trade relations with the Levantine coast. Sahure launched several naval expeditions to modern day Lebanon to procure cedar trees, people (possibly slaves) and exotic items. His reign may have witnessed the flourishing of the Egyptian navy, which disposed of a high-seas fleet as well as specialised racing boats. Relying on this, Sahure ordered the earliest attested expedition to the land of Punt, which brought back large quantities of myrrh, malachite and electrum. Sahure is shown celebrating the success of this venture in a relief from his mortuary temple which shows him tending a myrrh tree in the garden of his palace named "Sahure's splendor soars up to heaven". This relief is the only one in Egyptian art depicting a king gardening. Sahure sent further expeditions to the turquoise and copper mines in Sinai. He also ordered military campaigns against Libyan chieftains in the Western Desert, bringing back livestock to Egypt.

Sahure had a pyramid built for himself in Abusir, thereby abandoning the royal necropolises of Saqqara and Giza, where his predecessors had built their pyramids. This decision was possibly motivated by the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf in Abusir, the first such temple of the Fifth Dynasty. The Pyramid of Sahure is much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding Fourth Dynasty but the decoration and architecture of his mortuary temple is more elaborate. The valley temple, causeway and mortuary temple of his pyramid complex were once adorned by over 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of exquisite polychrome reliefs, representing the highest form reached by this art during the Old Kingdom period. The Ancient Egyptians recognised this particular artistic achievement and tried to emulate the reliefs in the tombs of subsequent kings and queens. The architects of Sahure's pyramid complex introduced the use of palmiform columns (that is columns whose capital has the form of palm leaves), which would soon become a hallmark of ancient Egyptian architecture. Sahure is also known to have constructed a sun temple called "The Field of Ra", and although it is yet to be located it is presumably in Abusir as well.

Family[edit]

Parentage[edit]

Image of a dark papyrus covered with writings in black ink and scattered holes
The Westcar Papyrus, dating to the 17th Dynasty but probably first written during the 12th Dynasty, tells the myth of the origins of the Fifth Dynasty.

Excavations at the pyramid of Sahure in Abusir under the direction of Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady in the early 2000s provide a picture of the royal family of the early Fifth Dynasty. In particular, reliefs from the causeway linking the valley and mortuary temples of the pyramid complex reveal that Sahure's mother was queen Neferhetepes II.[29] She was the wife of pharaoh Userkaf, as indicated by the location of her pyramid immediately adjacent to that of Userkaf,[30] and bore the title of "king's mother".[note 2][31] This makes Userkaf the father of Sahure in all likelihood. This is further reinforced by the discovery of Sahure's cartouche in the mortuary temple of Userkaf at Saqqara, indicating that Sahure finished the structure started most probably by his father.[30]

This contradicts older, alternative theories according to which Sahure was the son of queen Khentkaus I,[32] believed to be the wife of the last pharaoh of the preceding Fourth Dynasty, Shepseskaf and a brother to either Userkaf or Neferirkare.[note 3][35]

Large figure of a king standing and holding a staff. On the left, two rows of small figures with hieroglyphs detailing their names.
Sahure's figure towering next to those of his sons including Netjerirenre, Khakare and Neferirkare Kakai on a relief from his mortuary temple.[36]

Children[edit]

Sahure is known to have been succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai,[note 4] who was believed to be his brother[37] until 2005. In that year, a relief originally adorning the causeway of Sahure's pyramid and showing Sahure seated in front of two of his sons, Ranefer and Netjerirenre,[38] was discovered by the Egyptologists Miroslav Verner and Tarek El-Awady.[39] Next to Ranefer's name the text "Neferirkare Kakai king of Upper and Lower Egypt" had been added, indicating that Ranefer was Sahure's son and had assumed the throne under the name "Neferirkare Kakai" at the death of his father.[29] Since both Ranefer and Netjerirenre are given the titles of "king's eldest son", Verner and El-Awady speculate that they may have been twins with Ranefer born first. They propose that Netjerirenre may have later seized the throne for a brief reign under the name "Shepseskare", although this remains conjectural.[40] The same relief further depicts queen Meretnebty,[41] who was thus most likely Sahure's consort[42] and the mother of Ranefer and Netjerirenre.[39] Three more sons, Khakare,[43] Horemsaf,[44] and Nebankhre[45] are shown on reliefs from Sahure's mortuary temple, but the identity of their mother(s) is unknown.[24]

Netjerirenre bore several religious titles corresponding to high ranking positions in the court and which suggest that he may have acted as a vizier for his father.[46] This is debated however, as Michel Baud points out that at the time of Sahure, the eviction of royal princes from the vizierate was ongoing if not already complete.[47]

Reign[edit]

Chronology[edit]

Three hieroglyphs inscribed on a cream-colored stone: a circle, beneath it three toes and a chick
Cartouche of Sahure on the Abydos king list

Relative chronology[edit]

The relative chronology of Sahure's reign is well established by historical records, contemporary artefacts and archaeological evidences, which agree that he succeeded Userkaf and was in turn succeeded by Neferirkare Kakai.[48] An historical source supporting this order of succession is the Aegyptiaca (Αἰγυπτιακά), a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ptolemy II (283–246 BC) by Manetho. No copies of the Aegyptiaca have survived and it is now known only through later writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius. According to the Byzantine scholar George Syncellus, Africanus wrote that the Aegyptiaca mentioned the succession "Usercherês → Sephrês → Nefercherês" at the start of the Fifth Dynasty. Usercherês, Sephrês, and Nefercherês are believed to be the Hellenized forms for Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare, respectively.[49] Manetho's reconstruction of the early Fifth Dynasty is in agreement with those given on two more historical sources, the Abydos king list where Sahure's cartouche is on the 27th entry, and the Saqqara Tablet where Sahure's name is given on the 33rd entry. These lists of kings were written during the reigns of Seti I and Ramesses II, respectively.[50]

Reign length[edit]

The Turin canon, a king list written during the 19th Dynasty in the early Ramesside era (1292—1189 BC), credits him with a reign of twelve years five months and twelve days. In contrast, the near contemporary annal of the Fifth Dynasty known as the Palermo Stone records his second, third, fifth and sixth years on the throne as well as his final 13th or 14th year of reign[note 5] and even records the day of his death as the 28th of Shemu I, which corresponds to the end of the ninth month.[55][56] Taken together these informations indicate that the royal annal of the Fifth Dynasty recorded a reign of 13 years 5 months and 12 days for Sahure, only one year more than given by the Turin Canon and close to the 13 years figure given in Manetho's Aegyptiaca.[49]

Sahure appears in two further historical records: on the third entry of the Karnak king list, which was made during the reign of Thutmose III (1479—1425 BC) and on the 26th entry of the Saqqara Tablet dating to the reign of Ramses II (1279—1213 BC).[12] Neither of these sources give his reign length. The absolute dates of Sahure's reign are uncertain but most scholars date it to the first half of the 25th century BC, see note 1 for details.[12]

Foreign activities[edit]

Trade and tribute[edit]

Relief showing two profiles of the king wearing the crown of upper and lower Egypt, surrounded by hieroglyphs
Relief of Sahure from the Wadi Maghareh.[57][58]

Historical records and surviving artefacts suggest that contacts with foreign lands were numerous during Sahure's reign. Furthermore, these contacts seem to have been mostly economic rather than military in nature. Reliefs from his pyramid complex show the return of a naval expedition to Lebanon, the boats laden with the trunks of precious cedar trees.[27] Other ships are represented loaded with "Asiatics",[note 6] both adults and children, who were possibly slaves,[9][12][59] greeting Sahure:

A unique relief depicts several Syrian brown bears, presumably brought back from the Levantine coast by seagoing ships as well. These bears appear in association with 12 red-painted one-handled jars from Syria and are thus likely to constitute a tribute.[61][62]

Trade contacts with Byblos certainly took place during Sahure's reign and indeed excavations of the temple of Baalat-Gebal yielded an alabaster bowl inscribed with Sahure's name.[63] The layout of fourth phase of this temple might even have been influenced by the architecture of Sahure's valley temple,[note 7][66] although this remains debated.[67] There is further corroborating evidence for trade with the wider Levant during the Fifth Dynasty, with a number of stone vessels inscribed with cartouches of pharaohs of this dynasty discovered in Lebanon.[note 8][71] So much so that the archeologist Gregory Mumford points to the fact that "Sahure is [the] best attested [king] for international relations" and has the highest number of texts inscribed in Sinai proportionally to its reign length.[72]

In his last year on the throne, Sahure sent the first documented[73] expedition to the fabled land of Punt,[74] probably along the Somalian coast.[75] The expedition, which is conjectured to have departed Egypt from the harbor of Mersa Gawasis,[16] is reported on the Palermo Stone[6] where it is said to have come back with 80,000 measures of myrrh, along with malachite, 6000 measures of electrum and 2600 or 23,020 staves,[63][76] possibly made of ebony.[19] In his last year of reign Sahure sent another expedition abroad, this time to the copper and turquoise mines of Wadi Maghareh[5][57][77] and Wadi Kharit in Sinai,[note 9][79][80] which had been active since at least the beginning of the Third Dynasty.[81] This expedition, also mentioned by the Palermo stone,[6] brought back over 6000 units of turquoise to Egypt[60] and also produced two reliefs in Sinai, one of which shows Sahure in the traditional act of smiting Asiatics[63] and boasting "The Great God smites the Asiatics of all countries".[82] In parallel with these activities, diorite quarries near Abu Simbel were also exploited throughout Sahure's reign.[75]

Military campaigns[edit]

Small cylinder of grey silver with hieroglyphic signs inscribed on it
Silver cylinder seal of king Sahure, Walters Art Museum.[7]

Sahure's military career is known primarily from reliefs from his mortuary complex. It apparently consisted of campaigns against the Libyans Tjemehu in the Western desert.[6] These campaigns are said to have yielded livestock in huge numbers[note 10] and Sahure is shown smiting local chieftains. The historical vericity of these depictions remains in doubt as such representations are part of the standard iconography meant to exalt the king.[6] The same scene of the Libyan attack was used two hundred years later in the mortuary temple of Pepi II (2284–2184 BC) and in the temple of Taharqa at Kawa, built some 1800 years after Sahure's lifetime.[86] In particular, the same names are quoted for the local chieftains. Therefore, it is possible that Sahure too was copying an even earlier representation of this scene.[87][88] Nonetheless, several overseers of the Western Nile Delta region were nominated by Sahure, a peculiar decision as these officials occupied an administrative position that existed only irregularly during the Old Kingdom period and which likely served to provide "traffic regulation across the Egypto-Libyan border".[89] At the same time, Sahure's mortuary temple presents the earliest known mention of pirates raiding the Nile Delta, possibly from the coast of Epirus.[90]

Sahure's pretensions regarding the lands surrounding Egypt are encapsulated in a relief from his mortuary temple which records a god telling the king "I grand thee all western and eastern foreign lands with all the Montiu bowmen who are in every land".[60]

Activities in Egypt[edit]

Religious activities[edit]

Photography og the Nile with a lush green papryrus plants and palm trees in the background
Sahure might have visited Elephantine early in his reign

The majority of Sahure's activities in Egypt recorded in the Palermo stone are religious in nature. The annal record that in the "year of the first time of traveling around", Sahure journeyed to the Elephantine fortress, where he may have received the submission of the Nubian chiefs in a ceremonial act connected with the commencement of his reign.[91][92] During Sahure's fifth year on the throne, the Palermo stone mentions the making of a divine barge, possibly in Heliopolis, the exact quantity of daily offerings of bread and beer to Ra, Hathor, Nekhbet and Wadjet fixed by the king and the gift of land to various temples.[82] The stone register corresponding to this reign also gives the earliest known mention of the city of Athribis in the Delta region.[93] The fashioning of statues of the king as well as the subsequent opening of the mouth ceremonies are also reported.[94]

Further indication of religious activities lies in that Sahure is the earliest known king to have used the Egyptian title of Nb írt-ḫt.[95] This title, possibly meaning "Lord of doing effective things", indicates that he personally performed physical cultic activities to ensure the existence and persistence of the Maat, the Egyptian concept of order and justice.[96] This title remained in used until the time of Herihor, some 1500 years later.[97] Sahure's reign is also the earliest during which the ceremony of the "driving of the calves" is known to have taken place. This is singificant in the progressive emergence of the cult of Osiris throughout the Fifth Dynasty as this ceremony subsequently became an integral part of the Osiris myth, corresponding to Seth's threshing of Osiris by driving calves trampling fields of barley.[98]

On the administration of religious activities, Sahure reorganised the cult of his mother Nepherhetepes II, whose mortuary complex had been built by Userkaf in Saqqara.[99] He notably added an entrance portico with four columns to her temple, so that the entrance was not facing Userkaf's pyramid anymore.[99][100]

Building and mining activities[edit]

In the foreground the Nile, in the middle ground, luxurious plants and palms trees, in the background the barren hills of the desert
A statue of Sahure was uncovered in Elkab, which may have been the starting point of mining expeditions during his reign

Archeological evidence suggests that Sahure's further building activities were mostly concentrated in Abusir, where he constructed his pyramid, and its immediate vicinity which probably housed his sun temple.[101] Also located nearby was the palace of Sahure, called Uetjes Neferu Sahure, "Sahure's splendour soars up to heaven". The palace is known from an inscription on tallow containers discovered in February 2011 in Neferefre's mortuary temple.[102] A second palace, "The Crown of Sahure appears", is known from an inscription in the tomb of his chief physician.[103] Both palaces, if they were different buildings, were likely located on the shores of the Abusir lake.[104]

The stones necessary for these building activities and the making of statues where quarried throughout Egypt. For example, the limestone cladding of the pyramid comes from Tura, while the black basalt used for the flooring of Sahure's mortuary temple comes from Gebel Qatrani, near the Faiyum in Middle Egypt.[105] South of Egypt, a stele bearing Sahure's name was discovered in the diorite quarries located in the desert north-west of Abu Simbel in Lower Nubia.[106]

Further mining and quarrying expeditions may be inferred from indirect evidences. An inscription of Sahure in the Wadi Abu Geridah in the Eastern desert[107] as well as other Old Kingdom inscriptions there suggest that iron ore was mined in the vicinity since the times of the Fourth Dynasty.[108] The lower half of a statue with the name of the king was discovered in 2015 in Elkab, a location likely connected with such expeditions to the Eastern desert and south of Egypt to Nubia.[note 11][109] Sahure's cartouche has been found in a graffiti in Tumas and on seal impressions from Buhen at the second cataract of the Nile in Lower Nubia.[110][111][112]

Development of the Egyptian Navy[edit]

Fragmentary relief showing a large boat with men onboard working the mast and sails
Relief from Sahure's mortuary temple showing the Egyptian fleet returning from the Levant

Sahure's reign seem to have been a time of development for the Egyptian navy. His expeditions to Punt and Byblos demonstrate the existence of a high seas navy and reliefs from his mortuary complex are the "first definite depictions of seagoing ships in Egypt" (Shelley Wachsmann),[113][114] some of which must have been 100-cubits long (c. 50 m, 170 ft).[27] Because of this, Sahure has been credited by past scholars with establishing the Egyptian navy. It is recognised today that this is an overstatement: fragmentary reliefs from Userkaf's temple depict numerous boats, while a high seas navy must have existed as early as the Third Dynasty.[114] In addition, the oldest known sea harbor, Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea was operating under Khufu.[115] Nonetheless, Sahure remains the earliest known ruler to have made use of sea power for transporting troops over the Mediterranean sea to Syria.[116]

The extensive nautical scenes from Sahure's mortuary complex are sufficiently detailed to show that specialized racing boats for the military and perhaps for ceremonial training were built at the time.[117] They also give the earliest depiction of specific rope uses aboard ships, such as that of a hogging-truss,[118] and permit precise estimates regarding ship building, for example indicating that the mid-ship freeboard for seagoing vessels was of 1 m (3.3 ft),[119] and that the masts were bipodal.[120] Further rare depictions include the king standing in the stern of a sailing boat with a highly decorated sail,[121][122] and one of only two[note 12] reliefs from ancient Egypt showing men aboard a ship paddling in a wave pattern, possibly during a race.[124]

Court Life[edit]

Relief with a man and a woman standing, surrounded by hieroglyphs
Niankhsekhmet and his wife shown on his false door, carved and painted in the presence of Sahure

Known Officials[edit]

A number of high officials serving Sahure during his lifetime are known from their tombs as well as from the decoration of the mortuary temple of the king. Niankhsekhmet, chief physician of Sahure and first rhinologist in history,[125] reports that he asked the king that a false door be made for his tomb, to which the king agreed.[126] Sahure had the false door made of fine Tura limestone, carved and painted blue in his audience-hall, with daily inspection.[10][103][127] The king wished a long life to his physician, telling him:

A similar though much less detailed anecdote is reported by Khufuankh, who was overseer of the palace and singer of the king.[129] Other officials include Hetepka, who was keeper of the diadem and overseer of the hairdressers of the king,[130] Pehenewkai, priest of the cult of Userkaf during the reigns of Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai, then vizier for the latter;[131] Persen, a mortuary priest in the funerary cult of Sahure's mother Nepherhetepes;[note 13] and Washptah, a priest of Sahure, then vizier of Neferirkare Kakai.[135] The high-official Ptahshepses, probably born during the reign of Menkaure, was high priest of Ptah and royal manicure under Sahure, later promoted to vizier by Nyuserre Ini.[136]

Two viziers of Sahure are known: Sekhemkare, royal prince, son of Khafre and vizier under Userkaf and Sahure;[137] and Werbauba, vizier during Sahure's reign, attested in the mortuary temple of the king.[138][139][140]

Evolution of the high offices[edit]

Drawing of a fragmentary relief showing a man standing
Werbauba on Sahure's royal hunt relief[141]

Sahure pursued Userkaf's policy of appointing non-royal people to high offices.[138][142] This is best exemplified by the office of vizier, which was exclusively held by princes of royal blood with the title of "King's son" since the mid-Fourth Dynasty and up until the early Fifth Dynasty.[143] Toward the end of this period princes were progressively excluded from the highest office, an evolution undoubtedly correlated with changes in the nature of kingship.[144] This process, possibly initiated by Menkaure because of dynastic disputes,[145] seems to have been completed by Sahure's time as from then onwards no royal prince was promoted to vizier. Those already in post were allowed to keep their status[146] and so in the early part of Sahure's reign vizier Sekhemkare was a "King's son" while his successor, Werbauba, seems to have been non-royal. In response to this change, the state administration began its expansion.[147]

Concurrently with these evolutions, a number of architectural and artistic innovations concerning the tombs of private individuals can be dated to Sahure's reign. These including torus moulding and cornices for false doors, first found in Persen's tomb.[148] This feature would subsequently become common and here demonstrates the particularly high esteem in which Persen must have been held by the king.[149] Another innovation is the depiction of small unusual offerings such as that of seven sacred oils on false doors, first found in Niankhsekhmet's tomb.[150] The canonical list of offerings was also developed during or shortly before Sahure's time in the tombs of the royal family, only to spread to those of non-royal high-officials[151] the first of whom was Seshemnefer I under Sahure.[152]

Sun temple[edit]

Sahure built or started to build a temple dedicated to the sun god Ra, the second such temple of the Fifth Dynasty. Yet to be located, it is known to have existed thanks an inscription on the Palermo stone where it is called Sekhet Re, meaning "The Field of Ra"[82] as well as mentions of it in 24 tombs of administration officials.[153] A few limestone blocks bearing reliefs which once adorned the temple have been found embedded in the walls of the mortuary complex of Nyuserre Ini, Sahure's fourth successor.[101] This suggests either that these blocks were leftovers from the construction of the temple, or as Wener Kaiser has posited,[154] that Nyuserre dismantled Sahure's temple,[155] using it quarry for construction materials because it was largely unfinished.[52][101] Indeed, the rather meagre evidence for the Sekhet Re leads Miroslav Verner to propose that it never fully functionned as a sun temple.[155]

New analyses of the verso of the Palermo stone performed in 2018 by the Czech Institute of Archeology enabled the reading of further inscriptions mentioning precisely the architecture of the temple as well as lists of donations it received, establishing firmly that it was a distinct entity from the earlier sun temple of Userkaf, the Nekhenre but leaving its ultimate fate uncertain.[156] Further precision as to the architecture of the temple may be inferred from the absence[155] of the obelisk determinative in some hieroglyphic variants of the name Sekhet Re and its presence in others. For Anthony Spalinger this possibly indicates that Sahure's temple sun temple acquired such an obelisk at some point after its construction, perhaps after Sahure's reign.[157]

Pyramid complex[edit]

Crumbling pyramid in the desert with scattered stones in front
The ruined pyramid of Sahure as seen from the pyramid's causeway

Sahure built a pyramid complex for his tomb and funerary cult, named Khaba Sahura (Ḫˁ-bʒ Sʒḥw Rˁ),[158] which is variously translated as "The Rising of the Ba Spirit of Sahure",[159][160] "The Ba of Sahure appears",[6] "Sahure's pyramid where the royal soul rises in splendour",[161] or "In glory comes forth the soul of Sahure".[162] The builders and artisans who worked on Sahure's mortuary complex lived in an enclosed pyramid town located next to Sahure's causeway. The town later flourished under Nyuserre and seem to have still been in the existence during the First Intermediate Period.[163]

In terms of size and volume, the main pyramid of the complex exemplifies the decline of pyramid building.[note 14] At the same time, the quality and variety of the stones employed increased,[165] and the accompanying mortuary temple is considered to be the most sophisticated one built up to that time.[63] With its many architectural innovations, such as the use of palmiform columns, the overall layout of Sahure's complex would serve as the template for all mortuary complexes constructed from Sahure's reign until the end of the Sixth Dynasty, some 300 years later.[166][167] The highly varied coloured reliefs decorating the walls of the entire funerary complex display a quality of workmanship and a richeness of conception that reach their highest level of the entire Old Kingdom period.[165]

Location[edit]

Sahure chose to construct his pyramid complex in Abusir, thereby abandoning both Saqqara and Giza, which had been the royal necropolises up to that time. A possible motivation for Sahure's decision was the presence of the sun temple of Userkaf,[168] something which supports the hypothesis that Sahure was Userkaf's son.[169] Following Sahure's choice, Abusir became the main necropolis of the early Fifth Dynasty, as pharaohs Neferirkare Kakai, Neferefre, Nyuserre Ini and possibly Shepseskare built their pyramids there. In their wake, many smaller tombs belonging to members of the royal family were built in Abusir, with the notable exceptions of those of the highest ranking members, many of whom chose to be buried in Giza or Saqqarah.[170]

Mortuary temple[edit]

Relief showing two rows of people with hieroglyphic signs
Nome deities and personified agricultural estates marching into the mortuary temple of Sahure with offerings

Sahure's mortuary temple was extensively decorated with an estimated 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of fine reliefs.[171] This extensive decoration seems to have been completed within Sahure's lifetime.[172] The walls of the entire causeway were also covered with polychrome bas-reliefs.[159][173]

Many surviving fragments of the reliefs which decorated the temple walls are of very high quality and much more elaborate than those from preceding mortuary temples.[68][174] Several reliefs from the temple and causeway are unique in Egyptian art. These include a relief showing Sahure tending a myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha) in his palace in front of his family;[175][176] a relief depicting Syrian brown bears and another showing the bringing of the pyramidion to the main pyramid and the ceremonies following the completion of the complex. The high craftmanship of the reliefs is here manifested by the finely rounded edges of all figures, so that they simultaneously blend in with the background and stand out clearly.[177] Reliefs are sufficiently detailed to permit the identification of the animals shown, such as hedgehogs and jerboas,[178] and even show personified plants such as corn represented as a man with corn-ears instead of hair.[90]

The many reliefs of the mortuary, causeway and valley temples also depict, among other things, hunting scenes,[179] the earliest depiction of the king fishing and fowling,[180][181] a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat, which egyptologist Mark Lehner believes was "meant to ward off any evil or disorder",[159] the god Sopdu "Lord of the Foreign Countries" leading bound Asiatic captives,[72] and the return of an Egyptian fleet from Asia, perhaps Byblos. Some of the low relief-cuttings in red granite are still in place at the site.[28][182] Among the seminal innovations of Sahure's temple are the earliest relief depictions of figures in adoration, either standing or squatting with both arms raised, their hands open and their palms facing down.[183]

The mortuary temple featured the first palmiform columns of any Egyptian temple,[166] massive granite architraves inscribed with Sahure's titulary overlaid with copper, lion-headed waterspouts, black basalt flooring[184] and granite dados.[166]

Pyramid[edit]

Enormous beam of granite with large hieroglyphs on it, some of which are still green
A massive pink granite architrave inscribed with Sahure's titulary, from the courtyard of his mortuary temple.

The pyramid of Sahure reached 47 m (154 ft) at the time of its construction,[159] much smaller than the pyramids of the preceding Fourth Dynasty. Its inner core is made of roughly hewn stones organized in steps and held together in many sections with a thick mortar of mud. This construction technique, much cheaper and faster to execute than the stone-based techniques hitherto employed, fared much worse over time. Owing to this, Sahure's pyramid is now largely ruined and amounts to little more than a pile of rubble showing the crude filling of debris and mortar constituting the core, which became exposed after the casing stones were stolen in antiquity.[166]

While the core was under construction, a corridor was left open leading into the shaft where the grave chamber was built separately and later covered by leftover stone blocks and debris. This construction strategy is clearly visible in later unfinished pyramids, in particular the Pyramid of Neferefre.[166] This technique also reflects the older style from the Third Dynasty seemingly coming back into fashion after being temporarily abandoned by the builders of the five great pyramids at Dahshur and Giza during the Fourth Dynasty.[166]

The entrance at the north side is a short descending corridor lined with red granite followed by a passageway ending at the burial chamber with its gabled roof comprising large limestone beams of several tons each.[185] Today all of these beams are fractured, which weakens the pyramid structure. Fragments of a basalt sarcophagus, likely Sahure's, were found here in the burial chamber when it was first entered by John Shae Perring in the mid 19th century.[166]

The mortuary complex immediately around the pyramid also includes a second smaller cult pyramid which must have stood nearly 12 m (39 ft) high, originally built for the Ka of the king.[166]

Legacy[edit]

Column of limestone, its capitals made to look like a palm tree
Palmiform columns, an innovation of Sahure's temple, became a hallmark of Egyptian architecture[166]

Artistic and architectural[edit]

The painted reliefs covering the walls of Sahure's mortuary temple were recognised as an artistic achievement of the highest degree by the Ancient Egyptians. A New Kingdom inscription found in Abusir for example poetically compares the temple to the heaven lit by full moon.[186]

Subsequent generations of artists and craftsmen tried to emulate Sahure's reliefs, using them as templates for the tombs of later kings and queens of the Old Kingdom period.[187] The layout of Sahure's high temple was also novel and it became the standard template for all subsequent pyramid complexes of the Old Kingdom. Some of its architectural elements, such as its palmiform columns, became hallmarks of Egyptian architecture.[note 15][166][189]

This trend continued to be hold in later times for example, in the Middle Kingdom, Senusret I had reliefs for his temple directly copied from those of Sahure. He also chose to follow the innovative layout of Sahure's complex once again. At the time, Senusret I's decision represented an abrupt departure from the burial customs of the 11th Dynasty pharaohs, who were buried in saff tombs dug in the hillside of El-Tarif and Deir el-Bahari near Thebes.[note 16][190]

Funerary Cult[edit]

Old Kingdom[edit]

Sahure's was the recipient of a funerary cult from the time of his death and which continued until the end of the Old Kingdom, some 300 years later. At least 22 agricultural estates were established to produce the goods necessary for providing the offerings to be made for this cult.[138] In addition, decorated reliefs from the upper part of the causeway represent the procession of over 150 personified funerary domains created by and for Sahure, demonstrating the existence of a sophisticated economic system associated to the king's funerary cult.[191] The enormous quantities of offerings pouring into the mortuary and sun temples of Sahure benefitted other cults as well, such as that of Hathor, which had priests officing on the temple premises.[192]

Several priests serving the mortuary cult or in Sahure's sun temple during the later Fifth and Sixth Dynasties are known thanks to inscriptions and artefacts from their tombs in Saqqara and Abusir.[193] These include Tjy, overseer of the sun temples of Sahure, Neferirkare, Neferefre and Nyuserre;[194] Neferkai priest of Sahure's funerary cult;[195] Habauptah hem priest of Sahure, Neferirkare, Neferefre, and Niuserre,[196][197] Atjema, priest of the sun temple of Sahure during the Sixth Dynasty;[198] Khuyemsnewy, who served as priest of the mortuary cult of Sahure during the reigns of Neferirkare and Nyuserre;[note 17] Nikare, priest of the cult of Sahure and overseer of the scribes of the granary during the Fifth Dynasty.[200] Further priests are known, such as Senewankh, serving in the cults of Userkaf and Sahure and buried in a mastaba in Saqqara;[201] Sedaug, a priest of the cult of Sahure, priest of Ra in the sun-temple of Userkaf and holder of the title of royal acquaintance;[202] Tepemankh, priest of the cults of kings of the Fourth to early Fifth Dynasty including Userkaf and Sahure, buried in a mastaba at Abusir.[203][204][205]

Middle Kingdom[edit]

Statue of a seated man
Statue of Sahure enthroned commissioned by Senusret I[206]

No priest serving in the funerary cult of Sahure is known from the Middle Kingdom period. Evidence from this period rather come from works undertaken in the Karnak temple by 12th Dynasty pharaoh Senusret I, who dedicated a number of statues of Old Kingdom kings[207] including one of Sahure.[note 18][209] The statue and the accompanying group of portraits of deceased kings indicates the existence of a generic cult of royal ancestor figures, a "limited version of the cult of the divine" as Jaromir Málek writes.[210] The statue of Sahure, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo (catalog number CG 42004), is made of black granite and is 50 cm (20 in) tall. Sahure is shown enthroned, wearing a pleated skirt and a round curly wig. Both sides of the throne bear inscriptions identifying the work as a portrait of Sahure made on the orders of Senusret I.[211]

Sahure's legacy had endured sufficiently by the Middle Kingdom period that he is mentioned in a story of the Westcar Papyrus, probably written during the 12th Dynasty although the earliest extent copy dates to the 17th Dynasty.[212] The papyrus tells the mythical story of the origins of the Fifth Dynasty, presenting kings Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai as three brothers, sons of Ra and a woman named Rededjet destined to supplant Khufu's line.[213]

New Kingdom and later times[edit]

As a deceased king, Sahure continued to receive religious offerings during the New Kingdom as part of the standard cult of the royal ancestors. For example, Sahure is present on the Karnak king list, a list of kings inscribed on the walls of the Akhmenu, the Karnak temple of Thutmose III. Unlike other ancient Egyptian king lists, the kings there are not listed in chronological order. Rather, the purpose of the list was purely religious, its aim being to name the deceased kings to be honored in the Karnak temple.[209]

In the second part of the 18th Dynasty and during the 19th Dynasty numerous visitors left inscriptions,[214] stelae and statues in the temple. These activities were related to an unusual cult then taking place in the mortuary temple of Sahure, which had become dedicated to the king in a form associated with the goddess Sekhmet.[215][216][217] For example, the scribe Ptahemuia and fellow scribes visited Sahure's temple in the 30th year of Ramses II's reign (c. 1249 BC) to ask Sekhmet to grant them a long life of 110 years.[218] At the same period, prince Khaemwaset, a son of Ramesses II, undertook restoration works throughout Egypt on pyramids and temples which had fallen into ruin. Inscriptions on the stone cladding of the pyramid of Sahure show that it was restored at this time.[193][219] This renewed attention also had negative consequences as the first wave of dismantlement of the Abusir monuments, particularly for the acquisition of valuable Tura limestone, arrived with it. Sahure's mortuary temple may have been spared at this time due to the presence of the cult of Sekhmet.[220] The cult's influence likely waned after the end of Ramesses II's reign, becoming a site of local worship only.[221]

During the 25th Dynasty (744 BC–656 BC), some of Sahure's temple reliefs were copied by Taharqa,[222] including images of the king crushing his enemies as a sphinx.[223] Shortly after, under the 26th Dynasty (664–525 BC) of the Late Period, a statue of Sahure was among a group of statues of Old Kingdom kings hidden in a cachette of the Karnak temple, testifying to some form of cultic interest up to that time.[224] In parallel, a new period of dismantlement of the pyramids of Abusir took place, yet Sahure's was once again spared. This might be because of the cult the temple hosted well into the Ptolemaic period (332–30 BC), albeit with a very reduced influence.[225] Several graffiti dating to this time period attest to some continued activity.[193][226]

The dismantlement of Sahure's pyramid started in earnest with the Roman period, as shown by the abundant production of mill-stones, presence of lime production facilities and worker shelters in the vicinity.[227]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Proposed dates for the reign of Sahure: 2517—2505 BC,[4] 2506—2492 BC,[5][6] 2496—2483 BC,[7][8] 2491—2477 BC,[9] 2487—2475 BC,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] 2471—2458 BC,[17] 2458—2446 BC,[1][18][19] 2446–2433BC,[8] 2428—2417 BC,[20] 2428—2416 BC.[21]
  2. ^ Ancient Egyptian Mwt-Nswt.[31]
  3. ^ In a version of this theory, Khentkaus possibly remarried Userkaf after the death of her first husband[33] and became the mother of Sahure and his successor on the throne, Neferirkare Kakai.[10] This theory is based on the fact that Khentkaus is known to have borne the title of mwt nswt bity nswt bity, which could be translated as "mother of two kings". Additionally, a story from the Westcar Papyrus tells of a magician foretelling to Khufu that the future demise of his lineage will come from three brothers, born of the god Ra and a woman named Rededjet, who will reign successively as the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty.[34] Some egyptologists have therefore proposed that Khentkaus was the mother of Sahure and the historical figure on which Rededjet is based. Following the discoveries of Verner and El-Awady in Abusir, this theory has been abandoned[29] and the real role of Khentkaus remains difficult to ascertain. This is in part because the translation of her title is problematic and because the details of the transition from the Fourth to the Fifth Dynasty are not yet clear. In particular, an ephemeral pharaoh Djedefptah may have ruled between Shepseskaf and Userkaf.[33]
  4. ^ The first pharaoh to have a throne name, called the prenomen, different from his birth name, called the nomen
  5. ^ During the Old Kingdom period, the Egyptians did not record time as we do today. Rather, they counted years since the beginning of the reign of the current king. Furthermore these years were referred to by the number of cattle counts which had taken place since the start of the reign. The cattle count was an important event aimed at evaluating the amount of taxes to be levied on the population. This involved counting cattle, oxen and small livestock.[51] During the first half of the Fifth Dynasty, this count might have been biennial[52] although it may not always have happened at regular intervals.[53] Following these principles, the Palermo stone actually talks of the years after the first, second and either sixth or seventh[54] cattle counts of Sahure's reign. If the count was indeed biennial, which is uncertain, this would correspond to Sahure's second, third and fourteenth years.
  6. ^ In the context of Egyptology, the term "Asiatics" is used to refer to people from the Levant, including Canaan, modern day Lebanon and the southern coast of modern day Turkey.
  7. ^ It is possible that the Egyptians wielded sufficient influence over Byblos at the time to have the temple built to satisfy their cultic needs, as they could have sought the protection of Baalat as a form of Hathor. As this remains conjectural, alternative explanations have been brought forth to explain the presence of Egyptian artefacts and Egyptian influence on the temple layout. The architects of the temple may have been Egyptians working for the Byblite king while the alabaster bowl found in the temple could come from Egyptian payments to the Byblite king for wood,[64] or it may have been donated by pious individuals.[65] While the Egyptian influence over Byblos cannot be denied, there is far from enough evidence to conclude that Byblos functioned as an Egyptian colony at the time of Sahure.[65]
  8. ^ Finally, a piece of thin gold stamped to a wooden throne and bearing Sahure's cartouches has been purportedly found during illegal excavations in Turkey among a wider assemblage known as the "Dorak Treasure".[68][69][6] The existence of the treasure is now widely doubted however.[70]
  9. ^ The expedition to the copper mine of Wadi Kharit left an inscription reading: "Horus Lord-of-Risings, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sahure, granted life eternally. Thot lord-of-terror who smashes Asia".[78]
  10. ^ The relief say that the following was taken as bounty: over 123,440 cattle, more than 223,200 donkeys, 232,413 goats and 243,688 sheep.[83] In another scene, 212,400 donkeys are said to have been taken.[84][85] Even if these numbers are over-estimates, they show that Tjemehu was seen by the Egyptians as a rich land.[83]
  11. ^ This is one of only three known statues of Sahure, the other two being that of Sahure with a nome god heading this article, and that dedicated by Senusret I shown at the end this article.[109]
  12. ^ The only other similar relief is found in Userkaf's temple.[123]
  13. ^ His mastaba tomb is located close to Nepherhetepes's pyramid in Saqqara.[132][133][134]
  14. ^ For example, Sahure's main pyramid had a volume of 98,000 m3 (3,500,000 cu ft) versus Khufu's 2,595,000 m3 (91,600,000 cu ft).[164]
  15. ^ The standard work on Sahure's pyramid complex is Borchardt's excavation report, available online in its entirety.[188]
  16. ^ This change may have been spurred by the return of the Egyptian capital to Middle Egypt, in Itjtawy, close to Memphis and the attraction of then already ancient pyramids of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties.[190]
  17. ^ Khuyemsnewy was also priest of Ra and Hathor in Neferirkare's sun temple, priest of Neferirkare, priest in Nyuserre Ini's and Neferirkare Kakai's pyramid complexes and Overseer of the Two Granaries.[199]
  18. ^ Another statue from this group is that of Intef the Elder.[208]

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Preceded by
Userkaf
Pharaoh of Egypt
Fifth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferirkare Kakai