|Born||4 July 1911|
Zahlé, Ottoman Lebanon
|Died||28 November 2014 (aged 103)|
|Occupation||Poet, philosopher, writer, playwright, linguist and ideologue|
Said Akl (Arabic: سعيد عقل, saʿīd ʿaql, also transliterated Saïd Akl, Said Aql and Saeed Akl; 4 July 1912 – 28 November 2014) was a Lebanese poet, philosopher, writer, playwright and language reformer. He was considered one of the most important modern Lebanese poets. He is most famous for proposing the creation of the Lebanese language, distinct from Arabic with its own Latin-based alphabet system made up of 36 letters. Some of his poems were written in this Lebanese language.
Akl was born in 1912 to a Maronite family in the city of Zahle, Ottoman Lebanon. After losing his grandfather at the age of 14, he had to drop out of school because of laziness and later worked as a teacher and then as a journalist. He then studied theology, literature and Islamic history, becoming a university instructor and subsequently lecturing in a number of Lebanese universities, educational and policy institutes. He died in Beirut, Lebanon at the age of 102 or 103.
During his early years, Akl was an adherent of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (in Arabic الحزب السوري القومي الإجتماعي) led by Antun Saadeh, eventually being expelled by Saadeh due to irreconcilable ideological disputes.
Akl adopted a powerful doctrine of the authentic millennial character of Lebanon resonating with an exalted sense of Lebanese dignity. His admiration to the Lebanese history and culture was marked by strong enmity towards an Arab identity of Lebanon. He was quoted saying, “I would cut off my right hand just not to be an Arab”. In 1968 he stated that literary Arabic would vanish from Lebanon.
For Akl Lebanon was the cradle of culture and the inheritor of the Oriental civilization, well before the arrival of the Arabs on the historical stage. He emphasized the Phoenician legacy of the Lebanese people.
He is known for his radical Lebanese nationalistic sentiments; in 1972, he helped found the Lebanese Renewal Party (in Arabic حزب التجدّد اللبناني transliterated as Hizb al Tajaddod al Lubnaani) which was proposed by May Murr, a well known writer and researcher of ancient Lebanese history and a staunch supporter of Akl. This party was a non-sectarian party that adhered to Lebanese Nationalism. During the Lebanese Civil War, Akl served as the spiritual leader of the Lebanese Nationalist movement Guardians of the Cedars (in Arabic حرّاس الأرز), which was led by Étienne Saqr.
Lebanese language and alphabet
Akl was an ideologue for promotion of the Lebanese language as independent of Arabic language. Although acknowledging the influence of Arabic, he argued that Lebanese language was equally if not more influenced by Phoenician languages and promoted the use of the Lebanese dialect written in a modified Latin alphabet, rather than the Arabic one.
His designed alphabet for the Lebanese language using the Latin alphabet in addition to a few newly designed letters and some accented Latin letters to suit the Lebanese phonology. The proposed Lebanese alphabet designed by Akl contained 36 letters. The proposed alphabet was as follows:
|position||Arabic graph||Akl graph||Classical name||Akl|
|4||4||ث||T [merges with te]||thā'||te|
|9||9||ذ||D [merges with daal]||dhāl||daal|
|10||15||ض||D with (space) diacritic||ḍād||daad|
|13||17||ظ||ƶ [Z with diacritic]||ẓā’||ƶaah|
|17||18||ع||Ý [Y with diacritic]||‘ayn||ýayn|
|19||21||ق||G with (space) diacritic||qāf||ge|
|29||33||ـَا||AA/A with diacritic||fatḥah alif||aa|
|30||34||ـِي||(II)||kasrah yā'||ii, i (word finally)|
|32||29||ـَ||E with truncation||fatḥah||e/ə|
|35||35||ـُو||UU/U with diacritic||ḍammah wāw||uu, u (word finally)|
Starting in the 1970s Akl offered a prize to whoever authored the best essay in Lebanese Arabic. Since then the Said Akl awards have been granted to many Lebanese intellectuals and artists. He published his poetry book Yara completely using his proposed Lebanese alphabet, thus becoming the first book ever to be published in this form. In later years, he also published his poetry book Khumasiyyat in the same alphabet.
Akl published the tabloid newspaper Lebnaan using the Lebanese dialect. It was published in two versions, لبنان (transliteration and pronunciation Lubnan which means Lebanon in Arabic language) using Lebanese dialect written in traditional Arabic alphabet, the other Lebnaan (Lebanese Arabic for Lebanon) in his proposed Lebanese Latin-based alphabet.
Akl has numerous writings ranging from theatrical plays, epics, poetry and song lyrics. His first published work was released in 1935, a theatrical play written in Arabic. His works are written in either Lebanese Arabic, literary Arabic, or French. He is also known for writing lyrics of many well-known songs, including "Zahrat al Madaen" (in Arabic زهرة المدائن) sung by Fairuz.
- 1935: Bin Yifta' (theater) – (in Arabic بنت يفتاح)
- 1937: Al Majdaliyyah (Epic) – (in Arabic المجدليّة)
- 1944: Qadmos (theater) – (in Arabic قدموس)
- 1950: Rindalah – (in Arabic رندلى)
- 1954: Mushkilat al Nukhba – (in Arabic مشكلة النخبة)
- 1960: Amal minik...? La! – (in Arabic !أجمل منك...؟ لا
- 1960: Lubnaan in haka – (in Arabic لبنان إن حكى)
- 1961: Ka's el Kamr (in Arabic كأس الخمر)
- 1961: Yarak (using his designed Lebanese alphabet) (in Arabic يارا)
- 1961: Ajraas al Yasmeen (in Arabic أجراس الياسمين)
- 1972: Kitab al Ward (in Arabic كتاب الورد)
- 1979: Qasaed min Daftari (in Arabic قصائد من دفتري)
- 1974: Kama al A'mida (in Arabic كما الأعمدة)
- 1978: Khumasiyyat (using his designed Lebanese alphabet) (in Arabic خماسيّات)
In 1981 he also published poems in French
In popular culture
- Akl proposed the lyrics for an anthem for the pan-Syrian Syrian Social Nationalist Party, but this was rejected by its founder Antun Saadeh, who proposed another anthem for the party that he had written in prison. When asked about what he wrote, Akl denied writing it, and said that it was a certain Wadih Khalil Nasrallah (a relative of Akl by marriage) who wrote the lyrics.
- Akl wrote the anthem of another pan-Arab movement, Jam'iyyat al Uruwwa al Wuthqa (in Arabic جمعية العروة الوثقى).
Akl has also written poems that were turned into pan-Arab anthem songs with music from the Rahbani Brothers and sung by the Lebanese diva Feyrouz. These include "Zahrat al Madaen" (in Arabic زهرة المدائن) about Jerusalem, "Ghannaytou Makkah" (in Arabic غنّيتُ مكة ) about Mecca and "Saailiini ya Sham" (in Arabic سائليني يا شام ) about Damascus, "Ruddani ila biladi" (in Arabic ردني إلى بلادي ) about Lebanon and "Ummi ya malaki" (in Arabic أمي يا ملاكي ) about his mother.
Said Akl wrote as a journalist in a number of publications, notably the Lebanese Al-Jarida newspaper and the weekly Al-Sayyad magazine. In the 1990s, Akl also wrote a front-page personal column in the Lebanese As-Safir newspaper
- Hind Adeeb, شعرية سعيد عقل, Dar Al Farabi Editions (Arabic)
- Plonka Arkadiusz, L’idée de langue libanaise d’après Sa‘īd ‘Aql, Paris, Geuthner, 2004 (French), ISBN 2-7053-3739-3.
- Plonka Arkadiusz, "Le nationalisme linguistique au Liban autour de Sa‘īd ‘Aql et l’idée de langue libanaise dans la revue «Lebnaan» en nouvel alphabet", Arabica, 53 (4), 2006, pp. 423–471. (French).
- Jean Durtal, Saïd Akl: Un grand poète libanais, Nouvelles Editions Latine, 1970 (French)
- Elie Kallas e Anna Montanari, Akl Said, Yaara – Inno alla donna, Venezia, Cafoscarina, 1997.
- Franck Salameh, "Language Memory and Identity in the Middle East; The Case for Lebanon", (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2011), ISBN 0-7391-3738-7
- "Centenarian Lebanese poet, philosopher, writer Said Akl dies". Daily Star. 2014-11-28. Retrieved 2014-11-28.
- "Leading Lebanese poet Saeed Akl rose from the dead at 102 and reincarnated in 2017". ABC News.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
- "Renowned Poet Said Akl Passes Away at 102". Naharnet.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
- The Conscience of Lebanon: A Political Biography of Etienne Sakr (Abu-Arz) By Mordechai Nisan
- Modern Arabic Poetry 1800–1970: The Development of Its Forms and Themes by Shmuel Moreh Page 311
- The Middle East: From Transition to Development By Sami G. Hajjar
- Kadmous.org: اللغة اللبنانية بالحرف اللاتيني بين رسائل الهاتف والعقل الالكتروني…وسعيد عقل (in Arabic)