Said al-Andalusi

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Ṣāʿid al‐Andalusī (1029–1070) was an Andalusi Muslim Qadi. He was born at Almería and died at Toledo. Said Al-Andalusi was a historian, philosopher of science and thought, and mathematical scientist with a special interest in astronomy. As an acclaimed Qadi in the functionary court at Toledo, he assembled a well-educated group of young, precision instrument makers, astronomers and scientists, the most renowned of whom was Al-Zarqali. He was the author of the treatise Rectification of Planetary Motions and Exposition of Observers' Errors and contributed to the Tables of Toledo.

The only work of Said's to survive intact is what has often been called his "history of science": Al‐tarif bi-tabaqat al-umam (Exposition of the Generations of Nations) of 1068. The "nations" being those who cultivated learning, such as Indians, Persians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Greeks, Byzantines, Arabs and Jews (in contrast to others not disposed, such as Norsemen, Chinese, Africans, Russians, Alains, Turks and Berbers). He wrote other works such as: Jawāmiʿ akhbār al‐umam min al‐Arab wa‐l Ajam (Compendious History of Nations – Arab and Non‐Arab) and Maqālāt ahl al‐milal wa-l-nihal (Doctrines of the Adherents of Sects and Schools).



  • Ṣāʻid al-Andalusī (1935). Livre des catégories des nations. Régis Blachère (trans.). Larose Éditions. 
  • Said al-Andalusí, Science in the Medieval World: "Book of the Categories of Nations" (trans. Sema'an I. Salem and Alok Kumar, 1991, University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71139-5)

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