|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014)|
|Source model||Open source with added components of third parties which can be of other licences also.|
|Latest release||22.214.171.124 / July 15, 2015|
|Marketing target||Mobile and general purpose|
|Package manager||RPM Package Manager|
|Platforms||32-bit ARM and 64-bit x86|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|License||For end-user the EULA defines used open source and other licences components with a component's origin.|
Sailfish OS is a Linux-based general-purpose operating system, widely known as a mobile operating system combining the Linux kernel for a particular hardware platform use, the open source Mer core middleware, the proprietary UI contributed by Jolla, and other third party components some of which are free software, and others of which are proprietary.
Sailfish is being developed by Jolla in permanent cooperation with the Sailfish community (which in open model makes development requests and decides development priorities in voting), the Mer project and its community (open source project contributing middleware for Jolla which also is active Mer project contributor, what assures compatibility of both projects with established standard), corporate members of the Sailfish Alliance and various open community members.
- 1 History and development
- 2 Software architecture
- 3 Software overview
- 4 Hardware overview
- 5 OS development status
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
History and development
The OS is an evolved continuation of the Linux MeeGo OS previously developed by alliance of Nokia and Intel. The MeeGo legacy is contained in the Mer core in about 80% of its code; the Mer name thus expands to MEego Reconstructed.
Jolla and MERproject.org follow meritocratic government to avoid the mistakes that lead to the MeeGo project's then-unanticipated discontinuation.
Sailfish 2.0 is currently in development for mobiles and the announced Jolla Tablet. Sailfish OS 2.0 is developed with a continuous integration model, with the aim to provide monthly software updates to all Sailfish OS users and development partners. Customers using Sailfish 1.x with any device can upgrade to Sailfish 2.0.
The main elements for Sailfish OS 2.0 include:
- Technically stronger OS core
- Improved Android application compatibility
- Support for Intel architecture, including the Intel Atom x3 processor
- Design to provide visibility in the UI for digital content providers and to enable OS level integration for mobile commerce
- Strong multitasking (one of the most important advantage of the OS and declared to be the best one at market)
- Strong privacy and personalization features
- Enhanced user interface with new UI/UX features, including simpler swipe access to main functions, enhanced notifications and events views.
The Sailfish OS and the Sailfish software development kit (SDK) are based on the Linux kernel and Mer. Sailfish OS includes a multi-tasking graphical shell called "Lipstick" built by Jolla on top of the Wayland display server protocol. Jolla uses free and open-source graphics device drivers but the Hybris library allows use of proprietary graphics device drivers for Android. Jolla's stated goal is for Sailfish to be open source eventually.[needs update?]
Targeted device classes
Sailfish is commonly known to be targeted at mobile devices, although like MeeGo previously and as part of its legacy because around 80% of Sailfish code is de facto MeeGo code, Sailfish can be used with any device as it is complete general-purpose Linux OS, for such devices as IVI, navigation, smart TV, desktops and notebooks, yachts, automotive, e-commerce, house goods, measuring and control equipment, intelligent building equipment etc.; See use use of original MeeGo to compare. See the Devices section for devices that run the Sailfish OS.
Sailfish OS SDK
The Sailfish OS SDK was announced in Helsinki at Slush in 2012, and the alpha was published in February 2013. The SDK, installation and coding tutorials are available for free download from the Sailfish OS website although the overall license is not open source.
Sailfish SDK uses Qt with VirtualBox for development, compiling and emulation purposes, in contrast to simulation method. This technique allows compilation on the Sailfish OS and full testing of developed software in the virtual machine, emulating but not simulating the whole Sailfish OS. The technique also separates development activities and side effects from everything else running on the host particular computer, leaving it undisturbed by developments and tests. According to Jolla, development with Sailfish SDK is development on Sailfish OS itself; there are no differences between developed software appearance and behaviour in the SDK and on a device running Sailfish OS.
The availability of source code to the SDK allows shaping and rebuilding for companies' or developers' specific needs, creating a context-specific environment that is set once and needs no preparation when the device is booted. The SDK runs on the operating systems Android, 32- and 64-bit versions of Linux, 64-bit versions of OS X, and Microsoft Windows. It can be used for compiling software for Sailfish OS devices from Linux sources. Its general console/terminal mode follows a commonly used standard. Compatible binaries or libraries can also be used.
Application programming interfaces
SailfishOS uses open source Qt APIs (Qt 5, QtQuick 2 etc.) and a closed source Sailfish Silica for the UI. Standard Linux APIs are provided by the Mer Core.
Public "Early access" for betatesters
After positive experiences with testing of pushing early updates to a small group of opt-in users for update9 and the connectivity hotfix Jolla has allowed all interested in via "Early access" to try new version of Sailfish OS about 1-2 weeks before official release. It is expected to be useful for developers and technically minded users, and a step towards more community integration into Sailfish release process, including improvement of quality by identifying critical issues which only show up in certain environments or device setups before rolling the update out to the larger crowd. As an added bonus it provides a window for developers to test their applications on new releases.
In the long term it will help Jolla to establish a developer program with early release candidate access for registered developers, and to have more community involvement in platform development. The first detail Jolla is hoping to learn from this is how can gather feedback from a large audience in a reasonable way.
Basic details about the early access update:
- The early release access is meant primarily for advanced users, and/or developers.
- To sign up for the program there is a checkbox in the Jolla accounts profile page.
- Installed early-access release will not be downgraded. The only way to downgrade from early access releases is to do a factory reset after removing the sign up check from your account profile.
- Early access releases should be considered "stable". Issues found during that period will either be fixed, or added to "known issues" on the release notes
- Signing up for the early access releases will not void warranty 
SailfishOS has three naming conventions: version number, update number and version name. Each Sailfish OS version is named after a Finnish lake.
|Software version||Release date||Name|
|27 November 2013||Kaajanlampi|
|v126.96.36.199||9 December 2013||Update 1, Laadunjärvi|
|v188.8.131.52||16 December 2013|
|v184.108.40.206||27 December 2013||Update 2, Maadajävri [sic]|
|v220.127.116.11||31 January 2014||Update 3, Naamankajärvi|
|v18.104.22.168||17 March 2014||Update 4, Ohijärvi|
|v22.214.171.124||11 April 2014||Update 5, Paarlampi|
|v126.96.36.199||24 April 2014|
|v1.0.6.x||N/A||Update 6 was merged into Update7|
|v188.8.131.52||9 June 2014||Update 7, Saapunki|
|v184.108.40.206||14 July 2014||Update 8, Tahkalampi|
|v220.127.116.11||6 October 2014|
|23 October 2014||Update 9, Uitukka|
|24 October 2014|
|v18.104.22.168||18 December 2014||Update 10, Vaarainjärvi|
|v22.214.171.124||19 December 2014|
|v126.96.36.199||19 February 2015||Update 11, Yliaavanlampi|
|v188.8.131.52||25 February 2015|
|v1.1.3.x||N/A||Update 12 was merged into Update 13|
|v184.108.40.206||15 April 2015||Update 13, Äijänpäivänjärvi|
|v220.127.116.11||4 May 2015|
|v1.1.5.x||N/A||Update 14, dropped during Release Candidate phase|
|v18.104.22.168||8 June 2015||Update 15, Aaslakkajärvi|
|v22.214.171.124||15 July 2015||Update 16, Björnträsket|
For readers not speaking Finnish it might be difficult to remember the Finnish words. It might be helpful to note that the names start in the order of the Finnish alphabet. R, Å, and Ö are skipped with updates 6, 12, and 14.
Sailfish is able to run most applications that were originally developed for Android, in addition to native Sailfish applications. This was done in collaboration with the creators of Alien Dalvik, Myriad Group. As Sailfish OS is a GNU/Linux-based operating system, it is also possible to install other GNU/Linux applications on it.
A number of projects successful on other platforms are migrating to become native Sailfish OS applications. This gives abandoned Harmattan or Symbian projects a new life. Porting Qt-written projects may take only a few hours. This process is supported; for this purpose sailfish.org collects and publishes an online compendium of knowledge, links and instructions on:
- software porting and migration to Sailfish OS
- similarities and differences between Harmattan and Sailfish
- guides how to port MeeGo 1.2 Harmattan applications for the Nokia N9 to the Sailfish OS devices
- porting framework (Qt 4 to Qt 5, SDL 1.2 is SDL 2.0, Debian packaging is RPM packaging)
- application porting tutorials and examples (QtQuick QML applications, the Flickr application Qt 5, SDL / OpenGL ES applications)
- Qt Quick Components map to Sailfish Silica.
It gathers and links development resources of different kinds and origins.
Advantages of the Mer standard
Sailfish OS can be used on any hardware with a Linux kernel supported by the Mer core distribution. A list of devices running Sailfish has been created by enthusiasts. Rather than designate a specific reference hardware platform, a VirtualBox implementation with the Sailfish OS SDK is available for development on popular operating systems Linux, OS X and Windows. This VM contains the whole Sailfish OS isolated from local resources to enable comfortable work. This allows evaluating coded or ported software behaviour and performance in future on any real device and safe experimenting de facto on Sailfish OS itself.
Devices running Sailfish OS
- Acer Iconia Tab W500
- Google Nexus One
- Google Nexus 4 
- Google Nexus 5 
- Google Nexus 7 
- HP Mini
- HTC Desire HD 
- HTC Desire Z
- Nokia N950 and Nokia N9 - during several presentations given by Jolla
- O2 Joggler
- OnePlus One
- PackardBell Butterfly Touch
- Raspberry Pi2 - because it uses the ARM Cortex-A7 CPU. (Raspberry Pi1's ARMv6 CPU has a different architecture, and Sailfish requires ARMv7.)
- Samsung Galaxy S3 
- Samsung Galaxy Nexus 
- Sony Ericsson Xperia Pro codename Iyokan
- Sony Xperia SP 
- Xiaomi Mi2
Sailfish runs on the following devices as the OS licensed by its manufacturers including:
- Aqua Fish
OS development status
Sailfish OS is promoted and supported by the open Sailfish Alliance established in 2011, a group established to unite OEM and ODM manufacturers, chipset providers, operators, application developers and retailers. On 16 August 2012, the user interface was reported to be ready for release. Jolla's CEO Jussi Hurmola stated in a ZDNet interview, " ... Our UI is ready now, we haven't released it yet, we will save it for the product launch and the platform is getting up now so the project looks pretty nice".
The next day, Jolla's CEO Marc Dillon said on social networking website Twitter that the company had reached the first development target. Sailfish was debuted by the Jolla team, including a worldwide internet stream, as a demo of the OS, and the UI and SDK during the Slush event in Helsinki, Finland, on 21–22 November 2012. The alpha stage of Sailfish OS SDK was published at the end of February 2013 and was made available for free download.
On 16 September 2013, Jolla announced that its OS had been made compatible with Android applications and hardware. The first telephone to use it was launched on 27 November 2013 at a pop-up DNA Kauppa shop in Helsinki. The first 450 telephones were sold at this event, while the rest of the preordered devices were shipped shortly after.
On 18 May 2015, it was announced that the Russian government intends to make it official for use in its country.
- Jolla Tablet
- Saera (intelligent personal assistant) for Sailfish OS
- Sailfish Alliance
- Nokia N9
- Comparison of mobile operating systems
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- Official website
- Jolla website
- Programming for Sailfish OS with the Sailfish OS SDK - by Leszek Lesner
- FlyingSheep on Sailfish - good reading for developers and porting from MeeGo Harmattan to Sailfish OS