|Sailor Moon character|
Rei in her Super Sailor Mars form as seen in the anime.
|First appearance||(See below)|
|Created by||Naoko Takeuchi|
|Played by||(See below)|
Mars Reiko (PGSM)
Shadow Galactica (manga)
|Powers and abilities||Generation and manipulation of fire, psychic and spiritual powers|
Sailor Mars (セーラーマーズ Sērā Māzu?) is a fictional lead character in the Sailor Moon media franchise. The alternate identity of Rei Hino (火野 レイ Hino Rei?, or Raye Hino in the English adaptations), a teenage Japanese schoolgirl and Shinto priestess, she belongs to the "Sailor Senshi", female supernatural fighters who the franchise's main girl characters transform into to fulfill their duty of protecting the Solar System and the franchise's eponymous protagonist from evil.
Sailor Mars is the second Sailor Senshi to be discovered by Sailor Moon and the secondary leader of the Guardian (or "Inner") Senshi after Sailor Venus. She possesses powers associated with fire, as well as psychic and spiritual ones.
Aside from the main body of the Sailor Moon series, Rei features in two different manga short stories. The first, Casablanca Memories, is entirely about her and her past; the second, Rei and Minako's Girls School Battle, is shared with Minako Aino. A number of image songs mentioning her character have been released as well, including the contents of three different CD singles.
Rei's history is largely the same across the different versions of the story. She works as a miko or shrine maiden at the Hikawa Shrine (火川神社 Hikawa Jinja?, or Cherry Hill Temple in the English dub), and is shown to have an affinity with two crows who live there. It is revealed in the manga that as a child, they "told" her that their names are Phobos and Deimos (the same as Mars' two moons). In the manga, she is portrayed as calm, serious, and practical, distrusting most men and discouraging her friends from developing romantic relationships. In the other adaptations, though, her personality is quite different.
In the anime, Rei is fiery, boy-crazy, practical and ambitious, longing to one day become a singer, model, and voice actress envisioning herself as ultimately getting married. She is also greatly interested in pop culture and shows musical talent of her own, including playing the piano and guitar, singing, and composing all the songs for a school festival. Rei and Usagi have a very tempestuous relationship, and argue frequently. Though these arguments are usually petty, early in the series Rei tries to take Usagi's role as Senshi Leader. Her loyalty to Usagi becomes much stronger later in the series, and affection replaces the earlier resentment. Although Rei becomes calmer as the series progresses, she remains somewhat more of a typical teenager than her manga counterpart. Anime Rei also tends to engage in long periods of sticking her tongue out at Usagi (who returns the favor), as a kind of running gag in their arguments.
Rei goes to a different school from the other girls, namely T*A (possibly referring to Thomas Aquinas) Private Girls School, a Catholic institution run by nuns. She herself is a practitioner of Shinto, living and working at Hikawa Shrine with her grandfather, its head priest. Her mother died when Rei was very young; her father is a famous politician who cares more about his job than about her (though in the live-action version he still tries to be involved in her life), and who only visits Rei on her birthday. She carries a certain amount of bitterness toward him, especially in the live-action series, in which the character of her grandfather does not appear.
Other characters frequently comment on Rei's beauty and elegance—in her first appearance, these traits even lead Luna to suspect that she could be the Princess they have been searching for. However, her strange psychic talents have caused some to be afraid of her, and her distant nature makes her unreceptive to close friendship. Rei does treasure the friends she has, which consist entirely of the other Senshi, and although she sometimes adopts an aloof, big-sisterly attitude around them, this façade is frequently broken by her own enthusiasm, her genuine affection for all of them, and her sharp tongue.
Because of the lack of respectable males in her life, the manga and live-action Rei harbors a generally low opinion of all men. She considers them emotionally weak and untrustworthy and seems genuinely uninterested in romance. The one exception is in a manga side-story centering around her, Casablanca Memories, which tells of Rei's friendship with her father's young secretary, Kaidou. He had been kind to her for her entire life and, in the story, she fancies herself in love with him. She is shocked when he suddenly announces his engagement to another girl and his decision to become a politician, despite having once said that he didn't like what had happened to Rei's family as a result of her father's work. Proof of her feelings are further cemented when she moves to kiss Kaidou, asking why, if he wanted to marry into the profession, didn't he choose to marry her due to her father's political influence. In the manga, this is the only potential romance in her life; in the live-action series, nothing of the sort is ever shown, as Rei is pointedly uninterested in boys. In the anime, however, she "dates" Mamoru Chiba in the first season (though he thinks they're just friends), and occasionally seems open to a relationship with Yūichirō, her grandfather's pupil. In one episode, on the brink of death, she states that she wishes she had kissed Yūichirō before leaving.
Late in the manga, members of the Dead Moon Circus harass Rei with a reflection of her young self, which mocks her for her friendships and her dream of being a priestess. The reflection tells her that the only way for her to be happy is to try her luck with numerous men until she ends up married to someone rich. Rei is able to defeat this illusion, and in the process gains her Sailor Crystal along with the memory that, long ago, she had in fact made a vow of chastity to Princess Serenity. After this realization, she is never again shown having any doubts about her lack of interest in romance. This is never mentioned in the other series, although in the equivalent anime episode she expresses an intention to remain single forever.
Rei's lifelong dream is to become the head priestess at Hikawa Shrine, and much of her life is influenced by spirituality, particularly in the manga. Meditation is given as her strong point, and she enjoys fortune-telling as a hobby. The elegance of her character is further underscored by the contrast between her favorite subject, ancient writing, and her least favorite, modern society. She also belongs to the Archery club at school, which later provides the context for her most powerful weapon, the Mars Arrow. Rei is also skilled in martial arts and a talented skier in the anime. As for more general tastes Rei's favorite foods are given as fugu, a type of blowfish which is both highly toxic and considered a delicacy in Japan, and Thai food. Other favorite things include the colors red and black, the flower white Casablancas, the gemstone ruby, little lizards, and pandas and dislikes include canned asparagus, men in general, and television. The manga states that she once enjoyed Devilman, which the English manga changes to Buffy.
Just as Rei is more fiery in the anime than in the manga, she is changed again in the dubbed series. Although shots of her actually slapping Usagi are removed, remarks about her childishness and unreliability are more frequent and often harsher—there appears to be no loyalty, at first. In episode 43 of the original, Sailor Mars is briefly entrusted with the Moon Stick, which she explains to the others as proof that she and Sailor Moon don't hate each other. In the dubbed equivalent, she says that Sailor Moon left it at her house by accident, and that she took it because she believes she would make a better leader. Other episodes add dialogue in which "Raye" tells people off or is rude to them, where in the original she is only mildly frustrated.
Though Rei and Usagi's arguments are a constant in the anime series, it is shown several times that they are extremely close friends and care deeply for each other. When Sailor Jupiter is introduced, she asks if the two are sisters, because she can tell they are close. Rei is the last Senshi to die in the battle against the DD Girls in the first season's finale, giving her life for Usagi. In Sailor Moon R: The Movie, Rei is hysterical when Usagi gives her own life for her friends. She is the only member of the Guardian Senshi to not use honorifics when shouting Usagi's name, something that is reserved for people who are extremely close, during the use of the Silver Crystal in the same movie. When Sailor Galaxia kills all the Guardian Senshi in Sailor Stars, it is Sailor Mars to whom Sailor Moon immediately rushes to (although she is devastated over the others being struck down as well). In the manga, Rei is Usagi's confidante and the first one she goes to with problems, and vice versa.
In the live-action series, Rei's personality is based more on the manga than on the anime. She has a difficult time trusting people, even her fellow Senshi, and has a tendency to rely too much on herself. She claims to hate karaoke (which the other girls love, especially Usagi), but is later coerced by Minako into posing as an idol—exactly what her anime counterpart wishes. Under the name "Mars Reiko," she appears on three occasions: performing for hospitalized children, working alongside Minako, and staging a contest with Minako in order to stop her from quitting the idol business. She has a complex relationship with Minako; though they often disagree and compete with each other, they also share great respect. Minako even sometimes lets her guard down around Rei, and eventually confides to her about what she feels is her destiny as a Senshi. Rei is told that she is to be the secondary leader of the Senshi (as in the manga), and alternately admires and resents Minako's teachings about what that means.
Aspects and forms
|Rei Hino||Act 3||Ep. 10||Act 2|
|Sailor Mars||Act 3||Ep. 10||Act 3|
|Super Sailor Mars||Act 36||Ep. 143||--|
|Princess Mars||Act 41||--||--|
|Third Senshi form||Act 42||--||--|
As a character with different incarnations, special powers, transformations and a long lifetime virtually spanned between the Silver Millennium era and the 30th century, Rei gains multiple aspects and aliases as the series progresses.
Rei's Senshi identity is Sailor Mars. She wears a uniform colored in red and purple, along with red high heels, and in the manga and live-action series has a small red jewel at the waist, though this vanishes upon upgrades. (Concept art shows this was supposed to appear as a necklace when not transformed but never does) She is given specific titles throughout the various series, including Soldier of War and Soldier of Flame and Passion. Her personality is no different from when she is a civilian, although certain powers are unavailable to her in that form.
In Japanese, the name for the planet Mars is Kasei (火星?), the first kanji meaning 'fire' and the second indicating a celestial object. Although the Roman planet-name is used, Sailor Mars' abilities are fire-based due to this aspect of Japanese mythology. Most are offensive attacks, although as a priestess, she also possesses a certain amount of psychic ability, and is able to do fire-readings, sense danger, and subdue evil spirits. In the manga, she is listed as the secondary leader of the Guardian Senshi, after Sailor Venus. This fact is especially significant in the live-action series.
As she grows stronger, Sailor Mars gains additional powers, and at key points her uniform changes to reflect this. The first change takes place in Act 36 of the manga, when she obtains the Mars Crystal and her outfit becomes similar to that of Super Sailor Moon. She is not given a new title. A similar event is divided between episodes 143 and 152 of the anime, and she is given the name Super Sailor Mars. A third, manga-only form appears in Act 42, also unnamed but analogous to Eternal Sailor Moon (sans wings).
During the Silver Millennium, Sailor Mars was also the Princess of her home planet. She was among those given the duty of protecting Princess Serenity of the Moon Kingdom. As Princess Mars, she lived in Phobos-Deimos Castle and wore a red gown—she appears in this form in the original manga, as well as in supplementary art. Naoko Takeuchi once drew her in the arms of Jadeite. In the manga, he expresses at least a physical attraction to her, and in the stage musicals, it is stated that the two of them were in love at the time of the Moon Kingdom.
It is revealed later in the manga that Phobos and Deimos are actually maidens from Planet Coronis sent to protect Princess Mars. They take the form of crows during the present time and were near Rei when she first came to the shrine as a child, supposedly "telling" her their names. Phobos and Deimos reveal their true forms when delivering the Mars Crystal to her and refer to her using her princess title.
Special powers and items
Rei is one of few Sailor Moon characters who is able to use special powers in her civilian form. These are mainly the result of her role as a miko, which gives her heightened spirituality as well as certain resources. In addition to some psychic talent, including occasional unprompted premonitions, Rei is able to do fire readings and to dispel evil spirits. She does the latter by performing Kuji-Goshin-Ho, a ritual which consists of chanting nine words of power (rin, pyou, tou, sha, kai, jin, retsu, zai, zen) while making relevant hand signs. She then shouts "Akuryō Taisan!" (悪霊退散?), meaning "Evil spirits, begone!" and throws one or multiple ofuda scrolls. She commonly uses this attack while in her Sailor Mars form as well as when she is in her civilian form.
Rei must transform into a Sailor Senshi, however, before she can access her celestial powers. She makes this change by raising a special device (pen, bracelet, wand, or crystal) into the air and shouting a special phrase, originally "Mars Power, Make-up!" As she becomes more powerful and obtains new transformation devices, this phrase changes to evoke Mars Star, Planet, or Crystal Power.
Sailor Mars has the power to create and control fire. Her named powers are somewhat inconsistent across the various series—in the first arc of the manga, she says "Akuryō Taisan," the same phrase she uses as a civilian while using an ofuda, for her fire attacks. In the anime, she shoots a fireball from her index fingers and shouts the words "Fire Soul" and in the live-action series she shouts "Youma Taisan" ("Monster, Begone"). This basic power is improved to "Fire Soul Bird" in the second arc of the anime only; the manga also has an animal-based attack, "Mars Snake Fire," but it does not appear until the third story arc. Her first attack to be the same across all versions is "Burning Mandala," which incorporates Buddhist symbolism in the fiery rings Sailor Mars summons. She is not immune to her own powers, as she is able to use them for a suicide move in the anime.
Sailor Mars' final and greatest power comes in the fourth story arc, when she takes on her second Senshi form (Super Sailor Mars in the anime). At this point in the series, she acquires a special weapon, the Mars Arrow, and with it "Mars Flame Sniper," which is her primary attack for the duration of the series. In the manga, the Mars Crystal and Mars Arrow are among her most significant mystical possessions. The former is her Sailor Crystal and the source of all of her power. The latter is associated with her skill as an archer, and although she does not receive a physical bow, she recalls some advice given to her by Michiru Kaioh—"[If] you think you're being taken advantage of by the enemies, stretch a line taut in your soul. Then, with your whole body and spirit, shoot the arrow of your finishing blow!" In the live-action series, she is given a tambourine-like weapon, called the Sailor Star Tambo, by Artemis. During the final battle, her Tambo transforms into a dagger, which she uses alongside Venus's similar dagger. In the "Special Act", Venus wields both weapons.
Rei is not named in the original proposal for a hypothetical Codename: Sailor V anime, but an identical character in miko clothing is present, named Miyabi Yoruno. Creator Naoko Takeuchi revealed that this character eventually became Rei, and wrote that her role as a shrine maiden was inspired by Takeuchi's own experience working as a miko for Shiba Daijingu Shrine while in college. She also stated that she was frequently "hit on" by the shrine's patrons, a source of annoyance that carries over into the character's life.
Hikawa Shrine, where Rei lives and works, is based on the real-life Hikawa Shrines, one of which is in Azabu Jūban, where the story is set. The kanji for "ice" in the original name (氷川神社) is replaced with the kanji for "fire"—a reflection of Rei's fire-related powers.
Sailor Mars' original costume design, like the others', was fully unique. It featured an alternate bow, double shoulder-guards, plate-armor, elaborate jewelry, and a gold-rimmed mask. Her trademark high-heeled shoes were already present, as well. Later, Takeuchi was surprised by these sketches and stated that she did not remember drawing them. In an intermediate design, the pendant that sat at her waist in the early manga was also intended to be worn as a necklace in her civilian form. Hitoshi Doi states that Kunihiko Ikuhara was responsible for much of Rei's changed personality in the anime.
The kanji of Rei's surname translate as "fire" (火 hi?) and "field" or "civilian" (野 no?). Her given name is in katakana rei (レイ?); possible meanings include "spirit" (霊?), "companion" (儷?), "cool" (冷?), and "zero" (零?). Because katakana is the alphabet usually used for foreign loanwords, it may also be intended as a Western name, such as Raye or Rae. In the Chinese versions of the series (anime and manga), Rei's name is written with the character "麗", which carries the same phonetic as "Rei", but means "beauty." Regardless, the entire name is structured as a pun, as the syllable "no" indicates a possessive, so that her name can also be understood as "Rei of Fire." Her prototypical name, Miyabi Yoruno (夜野 みやび Yoruno Miyabi?), means "Elegance of Night." Rei's name (レイ 火野 Rei Hino) translated could act as a pun as "Ray of Fire".
It has been noted that her outfit as Sailor Mars echoes the colors of her miko robes, and she is the character that is most tied into tradition.
In the English dub, Raye is voiced by Katie Griffin, in her first voice acting role, for most of the franchise, however, Emilie Barlow filled in for the last 17 episodes of the second season while Griffin was away filming a movie. Raye was also Barlow's first voice acting role, and the actress has stated that during recording, it was difficult to take care of her voice, as Raye "had a lot of yelling". She also listened carefully to Griffin's recordings to help with the voice matching. She later went on to become the permanent replacement for Sailor Venus after Griffin returned to voice Sailor Mars. Sandy Howell also provides English vocals for songs sung by Raye in the English dub.
In the musical version, Rei has been portrayed by nine actresses: Hiroko Nakayama, Misako Kotani, Asuka Umemiya, Hiromi Sakai, Eri Kanda, Megumi Yoshida, Aiko Kawasaki, Risa Honma and Kanon Nanaki.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Rei is played by Keiko Kitagawa. She was so fond of the role that in a DVD extra about her feelings on the end of the show, she asked that anyone who ran into her on the street call her "Rei-chan." In addition, child actresses Haruhi Mizukuro and Akira Tanaka portray Rei in flashbacks and childhood photos.
Reception and influence
The official Sailor Moon character popularity polls listed Rei Hino and Sailor Mars as separate entities. In 1992, readers ranked them at thirteenth and fourteenth respectively, out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, Mars remained at fourteenth most popular while Rei dropped to fifteenth. In 1994, with fifty one choices, Rei was the twentieth most popular character, whereas Sailor Mars was the twenty-second, with a gap between the two characters of over three thousand votes. In early 1996, with fifty one choices, Sailor Mars was the thirty first most popular character and Rei was the thirty second. In Animage's 1993 poll, she came sixth. In 1994, she came tenth.
A five-book series was published, one book on each of the Guardian Senshi and Sailor Moon. Rei's was released in 1996. This book was later translated into English by Mixx. The episode where Sailor Mars gained her powers was novelised by Mixx. Other merchandise has been released based on her character, including t-shirts, fashion dolls, trading card stickers, gashapon and UFO dolls.
Rei Ayanami of Neon Genesis Evangelion is named after Rei Hino. She has also been referenced in non-Japanese media: DC Comics character Martian Manhunter briefly assumes the form of a female Japanese journalist named Rei Hino and is told by Batman that the name is a "giveaway."
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 166. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- "The Culture Fest is for Me?! Queen Rei Sings with Passion". Sailor Moon. Series 2. Episode 54. May 8, 1993. Toei. Asahi.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992, September 5, 1996). "Act 3". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 6. When questioned by Usagi about whether she likes boys, Rei answers, "No. Didn't I say I was that type?"
- "Usagi's Everlasting Wish! A New Reincarnation". Sailor Moon. Series 1. Episode 46. February 27, 1993. Toei. Asahi.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1995). "Act 36". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 12. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178814-0.
- "Burning Passion! Mars' Furious Deadly Attack". Sailor Moon. Series 4. Episode 152. November 11, 1995. Toei. Asahi.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 6, 1995). "Back of volume". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 10. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178806-X.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1995). "Act 34". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 12. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178814-0.
- From the back of the Irwin Toy Boxes
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- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Act 23.
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- Episodes 23, 37, and 40 respectively.
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- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1994). "Act 23". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 3
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 286. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 41". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
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- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1994). Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon Volume I Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324507-1., Naoko Takeuchi quote about it from the artbook: "This is the title page for the conclusion of the first series of Sailor Moon. It had a great deal of impact on the first series. Probably because the four couplings on the right side were very unexpected. I was thinking of love stories of the previous lives of these couples. I'd like to be able to draw that someday..."
- Described by Luna and Artemis in Gaiden Dark Kingdom Fukkatsu Hen, the first musical.
- In anime episode 90 and others, Rei has dreams about the impending Silence.
- In the English-dubbed anime, these incantations are initially replaced by the phrases, "I summon the power of Mars!" and "Mars Fireballs Charge!"—despite the fact that no fire is involved. Later, the literal translation "Evil spirit, begone!" is used instead.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Allison, Anne (2000). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". Japanese Studies (Routledge) 20 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1080/10371390050009075.
- First used in each of Sailor Mars' first appearances, except the manga, where it is delayed to Act 10. In the English versions, Rei does not say 'Make up' when transforming.
- "Star Power" starting in manga Act 14, anime Episode 63, when she acquires the Star Power Stick. "Planet Power" starting in Act 24 of the manga only. "Crystal Power" starting in Act 36, when she acquires the Mars Crystal and her second uniform, and in Episode 152, when she acquires the Crystal Change Rod and becomes Super Sailor Mars.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 22, 2003). "Act 3". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Shinsouban Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334776-1.
- First used in episode 10. This attack is given a multitude of names in the English-dubbed anime, including "Mars Fire Ignite," "Mars Fireballs Flash," "Mega Mars Fire," "Mega Mars Fire Flash," "Mars Fire Blast," and simply "Flash."
- Takeuchi, Naoko. "Act 25". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 8. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178790-X.
- First used in Act 14 of the manga, episode 63 of the anime, and Act 48 of the live-action series. The English anime calls this attack "Mars Celestial Fire Surround," "Celestial Fire Surround," and '"Mars Fire Surround."
- "The Sailor Warriors Die! The Tragic Final Battle". Sailor Moon. Series 1. Episode 45. February 27, 1992. Toei. Asahi.
- This attack is usually called Mars Flame Shooter in the English anime.
- Act 36, translated by Alex Glover.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon Act 26
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 49.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, "Special Act - We're Getting Married!"
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 1997). Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon Original Picture Collection Volume Infinity.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 23, 2003). "Rei-chan & Mako-chan Punch!". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon shinsouban Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334783-4.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1992, April 6, 1996). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- Ikuhara Kunihiko
- Dictionary entries for yoru and miyabi.
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- Up close with a familiar voice; From Sailor Mars to Timmy's ads, Emilie-Claire Barlow is someone you've definitely heard
- Takeuchi, Naoko; Bandai (2009-07-03). "Sailor Moon Musical News". Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (April 6, 1993). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1994). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 6, 1995). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 10. Kodansha. pp. 138–139. ISBN 4-06-178806-X.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- "第15回アニメグランプリ ［1993年5月号］" (in Japanese). Animage.jp. Retrieved 2009-03-03.[dead link]
- "第16回アニメグランプリ ［1994年5月号］" (in Japanese). Animage.jp. Retrieved 2009-03-03.[dead link]
- Hino Rei Official Fan Book
- Amazon.com: Meet Sailor Mars: Fire: Books: Naoko Takeuchi,Mixxent,Kondo Kunishiro,Ben Ettinger,K. J. Keiji Karvonen
- Amazon.com: Sailor Moon the Novels: Mars Attacks (Sailor Moon Number 4): Books: Naoko Takeuchi
- 'Creating My Own Cultural and Spiritual Bubble': Case of Cultural Consumption by Spiritual Seeker Anime Fans
- REI - SAILOR MOON ANIME PRISM TRADING CARD STICKER #12 RARE
- "Evangelion character names". Translation of essay by Hideaki Anno about character name origins; includes a link to the original essay in Japanese. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- JLA issue 27, 1999