List of Sailor Moon characters
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Sailor Moon manga series features an extensive cast of characters created by Naoko Takeuchi. The series takes place in Tokyo, Japan, where the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士 Sērā Senshi), a group of ten magical girls, are formed to combat an assortment of antagonists attempting to take over the Earth, the Solar System, and the Milky Way galaxy. Each Soldier undergoes a transformation which grants her a uniform in her own theme colors and her own unique elemental power. The ten Sailor Soldiers are named after the planets of the Solar System, with the exception of Earth but with the inclusion of its moon. While many of the characters are humans with superhuman strength and magical abilities, the cast also includes anthropomorphic animals and extraterrestrial lifeforms.
The series follows the adventures of the titular protagonist, Sailor Moon, her lover Tuxedo Mask, and her guardians: Sailors Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Venus. They are later joined by Chibiusa (Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask's daughter from the future) and four more guardians: Sailors Pluto, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn. The series' antagonists include the Dark Kingdom, the Black Moon Clan, the Death Busters, the Dead Moon Circus, and Shadow Galactica.
Takeuchi's initial concept was a story called Codename: Sailor V, in which Sailor V discovers her magical powers and protects the people of Earth. After the Codename: Sailor V manga was proposed for an anime adaptation, Takeuchi changed her concept to include ten superheroines who defend the galaxy. The manga's anime and live-action adaptations feature some original characters created by the production staff and not by Takeuchi.
- 1 Creation and conception
- 2 Protagonists
- 3 Antagonists
- 4 Supporting characters
- 4.1 Luna, Artemis, and Diana
- 4.2 Sailor Starlights
- 4.3 Other humans
- 4.3.1 Ikuko Tsukino
- 4.3.2 Kenji Tsukino
- 4.3.3 Shingo Tsukino
- 4.3.4 Naru Osaka
- 4.3.5 Gurio Umino
- 4.3.6 Haruna Sakurada
- 4.3.7 Motoki Furuhata
- 4.3.8 Reika Nishimura
- 4.3.9 Rei's grandfather
- 4.3.10 Yūichirō Kumada
- 4.3.11 Unazuki Furuhata
- 4.3.12 Ittou Asanuma
- 4.3.13 Kotono Sarashina
- 4.3.14 Momoko Momohara
- 4.3.15 Kyūsuke Sarashina
- 4.4 Other nonhumans
- 5 Merchandise
- 6 Reception
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Creation and conception
Naoko Takeuchi initially wrote Codename: Sailor V, a one-shot manga which focused on Sailor Venus. When Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation by Toei Animation, Takeuchi changed the concept to include Sailor Venus as a part of a "sentai" (team of five) and created the characters of Sailors Moon, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter.
The name "Sailor Senshi", or "Sailor Soldier", comes from sailor fuku, a type of Japanese school uniform that the main characters' fighting uniforms are based on, and the Japanese word senshi, which can mean "soldier", "warrior", "guardian", or "fighter". Takeuchi created the term by fusing English and Japanese elements. The DIC Entertainment/Cloverway English adaptation of the anime changed it to "Sailor Scout" for most of its run. According to Takeuchi, only females can be Sailor Soldiers. In the anime's fifth season, the Sailor Starlights are depicted as men transforming into women when changing from their normal forms into Sailor Soldiers (rather than just being women disguising as men as they appear in the manga), which strongly displeased Takeuchi as she felt this undermined her rule that only girls could be Sailor Soldiers.
Takeuchi desired to create a series about girls in outer space; her editor, Fumio Osano, suggested that Takeuchi add the "sailor suit" motif in the uniform worn by the Sailor Soldiers.[page needed] Originally, each of the Soldiers were intended to have their own unique outfit; however, it was later determined that they would wear uniforms based on a single theme, and Sailor Moon's costume concept was the closest to that which would eventually be used for all the girls. While the Soldiers first uniforms had slight differences, Takeuchi settled on a more unified appearance in later stages of character design. Within the Sailor Soldiers, only the outfit worn by Sailor Venus during her time as Sailor V varies significantly from the others; however, Sailor Moon, whatever form she takes, always has a more elaborate costume than any of the others. She also gains individual power-ups more frequently than any other character. Sailor Soldiers originating from outside the Solar System have different and varying outfits; however, one single feature – the sailor collar – connects them all.
Most of the antagonists in the series have names that are related to minerals and gemstones, including Queen Beryl and the Four Kings of Heaven, the Black Moon Clan, Kaolinite and the Witches 5, and most of the members of the Dead Moon Circus. Members of the Amazoness Quartet are named after the first four asteroids to be discovered. The Sailor Animamates have the prefix "Sailor" (despite not being true Sailor Soldiers in the manga),:Act 45 followed by the name of a metal and the name of an animal.
Usagi Tsukino (月野 うさぎ Tsukino Usagi, called Serena Tsukino in the original English dub) is the main protagonist of the series and leader of the Sailor Soldiers. Usagi is a careless fourteen-year-old girl with an enormous capacity for love, compassion, and understanding. Usagi transforms into the heroine called Sailor Moon, Soldier of Love and Justice. At the beginning of the series, she is portrayed as an immature crybaby who resents fighting evil and wants nothing more than to be a normal girl. As she progresses, however, she embraces the chance to use her power to protect those she cares about.:283–284:209
Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛 Chiba Mamoru, called Darien Shields in the original English dub) is a student somewhat older than Usagi. As a young child he was in a car accident that killed his parents and erased his memories. He possesses a special psychic rapport with Usagi and can sense when she is in danger. This inspires him to take on the guise of Tuxedo Mask and fight alongside the Sailor Soldiers when needed. After an initially confrontational relationship, he and Usagi remember their past lives together and fall in love again.
Ami Mizuno (水野 亜美 Mizuno Ami, called Amy Anderson in the original English dub) is a quiet but intelligent fourteen-year-old bookworm in Usagi's class with a rumored IQ of 300.:Act 2 She can transform into Sailor Mercury, Soldier of Water and Wisdom. Ami's shy exterior masks a passion for knowledge and taking care of the people around her. She hopes to become a doctor one day, like her mother, and tends to be the practical one in the group. She is secretly a fan of pop culture and romance novels, and becomes embarrassed whenever this is pointed out. Ami also uses her handheld computer, which is capable of scanning and detecting virtually anything she needs.
Rei Hino (火野 レイ Hino Rei, called Raye Hino in the original English dub) is an elegant fourteen-year-old miko (English: shrine maiden). Because of her work as a Shinto priestess, Rei has limited precognition and can dispel or nullify evil using special ofuda scrolls, even in her civilian form.:165–166 She transforms into Sailor Mars, Soldier of Fire and Passion. She is very serious and focused, and easily gets annoyed by Usagi's laziness, although she cares about her very much. In the anime adaptation, Rei is portrayed as boy-crazy:165–166 and short-tempered, while in the manga and live-action series she is depicted as uninterested in romance and more self-controlled.:Act 36 She attends a private Catholic school separate from the other girls.
Makoto Kino (木野 まこと Kino Makoto, called Lita Kino in the original English dub) is a fourteen-year-old girl who is a student in Usagi Tsukino's class and has immense physical strength and was rumoured to have been expelled from her previous school for fighting. Unusually tall and strong for a Japanese schoolgirl,:12 she transforms into Sailor Jupiter, Soldier of Thunder and Courage. Both of Makoto's parents died in a plane crash years ago, so she lives alone and takes care of herself. In the original anime, she confesses to Seijuro that she has a younger sister who no longer wishes to speak to her. She cultivates her physical strength and domestic interests, including housekeeping, cooking, and gardening. Makoto is also good at hand-to-hand combat. Her dream is to marry a young, handsome man and to own a flower-and-cake shop.
Minako Aino (愛野 美奈子 Aino Minako, called Mina Aino in the original English dub) is a fourteen-year-old perky dreamer. Minako first appears as the main protagonist of Codename: Sailor V.:Act 9 She has a companion cat called Artemis who works alongside Luna in guiding the Sailor Soldiers. Minako transforms into Sailor Venus, Soldier of Love and Beauty, and leads Sailor Moon's four inner soldiers, while acting as Sailor Moon's bodyguard and decoy because of their near identical looks. She dreams of becoming a famous singer and idol, and attends auditions whenever she can. In contrast, in the live-action series, she is a successful J-Pop singer (of whom Usagi, Ami, and Makoto are fans) and has poor health due to anemia, choosing to separate herself from the other Guardians as a result.
Sailor Chibi Moon
Chibiusa (ちびうさ Chibiusa, called Rini in the original English dub) is the future daughter of Neo-Queen Serenity and King Endymion in the 30th century. She later trains with Sailor Moon to become a Sailor Soldier in her own right,:123–211 and learns to transform into Sailor Chibi Moon (or "Sailor Mini Moon" in the English series). At times she has an adversarial relationship with her mother in the 20th century,:284 as she is more mature than Usagi, but as the series progresses they develop a deep bond. Chibiusa wants to grow up to become like her mother.:35
Setsuna Meioh (冥王 せつな Meiō Setsuna, called Trista Meioh in the original English dub) is a mysterious woman who appears first as Sailor Pluto, Soldier of Spacetime and Change. She has the duty of guarding the Space-Time Door from unauthorized travelers. Only later does she appear on Earth, living as a college student. She has a distant personality and can be very stern, but can also be quite friendly and helps the Sailor Soldiers when she can.:212 After her long vigil guarding the Space-Time Door she carries a deep sense of loneliness, although she is close friends with Chibiusa. Chibiusa calls her by her nickname "Puu". Sailor Pluto's talisman is her Garnet Rod, which aids her power to freeze time and attacks.
Haruka Tenoh (天王 はるか Ten'ō Haruka, called Amara Tenoh in the original English dub) is a good-natured masculine-acting girl who is a year older than most of the other Sailor Soldiers. She is able to transform into Sailor Uranus, Soldier of Sky and Flight. Before becoming a Sailor Soldier, she dreamt of becoming a racer, and she has excellent driving skills. She tends to dress and, in the anime, speak like a man. When fighting the enemy she distrusts outside help and prefers to work solely with her girlfriend, Sailor Neptune, and later Sailor Pluto and Saturn. Sailor Uranus's talisman, known as the Space Sword, aids her fighting and attacks.
Michiru Kaioh (海王 みちる Kaiō Michiru, called Michelle Kaioh in the original English dub) is an elegant and talented violinist and painter with family money of an age with her partner and lover, Haruka Tenoh. She is able to transform into Sailor Neptune, Soldier of Ocean and Embrace. She worked alone for some time before finding her partner, Sailor Uranus. Neptune has ultimately given up her own dreams for the life of a Soldier. She is fully devoted to this duty and willing to make any sacrifice for it. Sailor Neptune's talisman is her Deep Aqua Mirror, which aids her intuition and reveals cloaked evil.
Hotaru Tomoe (土萠 ほたる Tomoe Hotaru) is a sweet and lonely young girl. A terrible laboratory accident in her youth significantly compromised her health In the manga, this accident destroyed a large portion of her body which was later rebuilt with electronic components by her father. After overcoming the darkness that has surrounded her family, Hotaru is able to become Sailor Saturn, Soldier of Silence, Destruction, and Rebirth.:123–211 She is often pensive, and as a human has the inexplicable power to heal others. Sailor Saturn's weapon is her Silence Glaive, which gives her the power to generate barriers and destroy a planet. However, when she uses that power, she kills herself but is reborn afterwards by Sailor Moon.
The Dark Kingdom (ダーク・キングダム Dāku Kingudamu, called Negaverse in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the first arc of the manga and anime, and the entirety of the live-action series. Serving under its ruler, Queen Beryl, members of the Dark Kingdom attempt to gather human energy and find the Silver Crystal in order to reawaken Queen Metaria, the evil entity responsible for the destruction of the Silver Millennium.
Hell Tree aliens
The Hell Tree aliens are a minor group of antagonists composed of Ail, Ann, and the eponymous Hell Tree, who appear only in the first thirteen episodes of Sailor Moon R. Ail and Ann have wandered around space alone for many years before reaching Earth, where they finally find energy to collect for the Hell Tree so that they can revive it and, in turn, it can give them energy to survive. Unlike other antagonists of the series, their mission was primarily that of survival, not conquest or destruction. In some English adaptations of the anime, their name is changed to "Doom Tree aliens".
Ail and Ann
Ail (エイル Eiru) and Ann (アン An) are two humanoid aliens who pose respectively as Seijūrō Ginga (銀河 星十郎 Ginga Seijūrō, called Alan Granger in the original English dub) and Natsumi Ginga (銀河 夏美 Ginga Natsumi, called Ann Granger in the original English dub), two transfer sibling students who live in the Jūban Odyssey apartments. While trying to blend in with the humans at Usagi's school, Ail assumes the role of brother to Ann. He develops a crush on Usagi, and constantly tries to win her over, much to the dismay of Ann. He constantly denies these feelings to Ann, knowing her to have fits of jealous rage. On the other hand, Ann develops a crush on Mamoru, and constantly tries to win him over, much to the dismay of Ail and Usagi. Ail and Ann are the only two of their kind, and could be considered as both siblings and romantic partners since they were both born from the Hell Tree.
Hikaru Midorikawa voiced Ail in the original series, and Yumi Tōma voiced Ann. In the DIC English version, Alan is voiced by Vince Corazza and Ann by Sabrina Grdevich. In the Viz Media English version, Ail is voiced by Brian Beacock and Ann by Johanna Luis.
The Hell Tree
The Hell Tree (魔界樹 Makai Ju, called the Doom Tree in the original English dub) is an alien tree that nourishes Ail and Ann, but it becomes weak and requires energy to stay alive. For some time they supply it with human energy to revive but eventually this stops working. In the final episode of the story arc, the aliens try to give Usagi to it as an offering, because Usagi's energy caused a sapling to grow on the Tree. The Tree becomes angered and starts to injure those around it, killing Ann in the process. It stops to tell its story to Sailor Moon: the Tree once lived alone on a faraway planet on an island in a vast ocean for countless years until it began to create life (the English dub changed the story to suggest it was once called "The Tree of Life"). It gave energy to its children, but eventually they became greedy and began to fight each other until the planet was destroyed and there were only two small children left, Ail and Ann. It was now weak and needed the energy of love to survive. Sailor Moon uses her power to purify the Tree, and it disappears. Ann is resurrected and when she reunites with Ail, a small sapling appears before them; the Tree has been reborn and they are given a chance to start over, and they leave Earth to live a better life with the Tree.
The Hell Tree was voiced in Japanese by Taeko Nakanishi. In the DIC English adaptation, the Doom Tree was voiced by Elizabeth Hanna. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Erin Fitzgerald.
The Cardians (カーディアン Kādian) are monsters of the day used by Ail and Ann to obtain energy to revive the Hell Tree. The Cardians are kept in cards until they are summoned by Ail. To summon them, Ail would hold up several cards, and Ann would pick one. The card would then rise into the air and Ail would play a tune on his flute which causes the Cardian to come alive. When a Cardian is destroyed, it changes back into its card form and the picture of the Cardian on the card turns black after a few seconds.
Black Moon Clan
The Black Moon Clan (ブラック・ムーン一族 Burakku Mūn Ichizoku, called Negamoon Family in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Black Moon arc of the manga and in the majority of Sailor Moon R. Members of the Black Moon Clan come from Planet Nemesis, a fictional tenth planet of the Solar System, and have black upside-down crescents on their foreheads. They are led by Prince Demand, who has been manipulated so that he and the Black Moon Clan members gather power for the Wiseman.
The Death Busters (デス・バスターズ Desu Basutāzu, called Heart Snatchers in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Infinity arc of the manga and in Sailor Moon S. Led by Professor Souichi Tomoe, the main goal of the Death Busters is the resurrection of Mistress 9, who in turn would bring the alien creature Pharaoh 90 to destroy Earth in an event known as "Silence".
Dead Moon Circus
The Dead Moon Circus (デッド・ムーン・サーカス Deddo Mūn Sākasu, called Dark Moon Circus in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Dream arc of the manga and in Sailor Moon Super S. Led by Zirconia, members of the Dead Moon Circus are searching for the Golden Crystal, which will allow their Queen Nehelenia to break free of her entrapment within a mirror and take over the Earth.
Shadow Galactica (シャドウ・ギャラクティカ Shadō Gyarakutika) are the main antagonists in the Stars arc of the manga and most of Sailor Stars. Shadow Galactica is an organization of corrupted Sailor Soldiers led by Sailor Galaxia, who devote themselves to stealing Star Seeds, the essence of sentient life, from inhabitants of the Milky Way. Their ultimate goal is to reorganize the universe as desired by Chaos, the ultimate antagonist of the series.
This section may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience.Learn how and when to remove this template message)(April 2018) (
Luna, Artemis, and Diana
The series includes three different cat characters who act as advisors to their respective owners. Each has the power of speech, and bears a crescent moon symbol on his or her forehead. The two older cats, Luna and Artemis, lived in the Moon Kingdom, millennia before the main plot, and acted as advisors to Queen Serenity; the third, Diana, is much younger and was born on Earth. The cats serve as mentors and confidantes, and a source of information and new tools and special items. They are shown to have additional physical forms, a deeper backstory, and an unrequited love or two. Although Luna takes the largest role of the three, Artemis was the first of the cats to appear; he figures prominently in Codename: Sailor V, the manga series which preceded Sailor Moon.
In Act 46 of the manga, the three are attacked by Sailor Tin Nyanko, a false Soldier from their home planet Mau (named after the Chinese word "貓", meaning "cat"). Artemis terms it a peace-loving world, but Tin Nyanko informs him that its people were wiped out by Sailor Galaxia after he and Luna left it. Tin Nyanko blasts all three of them on their crescent moon symbols, and they turn into ordinary cats, unable to speak. Later, as they care for the badly injured cats, Princess Kakyuu tells Usagi that the three of them have powerful Star Seeds, as brilliant as Sailor Crystals. In Act 48, they are brought to the River Lethe and killed by Sailor Lethe. They are reincarnated at the end of the series along with everyone else.[note 1]
Luna (ルナ Runa) is a black cat who is a devoted servant to Princess Serenity and advisor to her mother, Queen Serenity. When the kingdom falls, she and Artemis are put into a long sleep and sent to Earth to look after the Sailor Soldiers, who are reborn there. Parts of Luna's memory are suppressed so that she must find the Sailor Soldiers.:Act 9 She first encounters Usagi Tsukino and teaches her to become Sailor Moon, unaware that she is actually the reincarnated Princess Serenity. Luna also provides the Soldiers with many of their special items. Over the course of the series, Luna develops a close bond with Usagi, though it is initially on uneasy terms, as Luna often upsets Usagi by giving her unsolicited advice. She also becomes good friends with Ami Mizuno. She and Artemis have an implied romantic relationship, which is confirmed when they meet Diana, who is their daughter from the future. In Sailor Moon Sailor Stars, Luna also develops a crush on Kou Yaten, one of the Three Lights.
In "The Lover of Princess Kaguya", a side-story of the manga, she falls in love with a human named Kakeru. This story was adapted in Sailor Moon S: The Movie, and features Luna's first transformation into a human. She gets a cold and tries to find her way home despite Artemis' plea to go with her. She ends up lying in the street until Kakeru saves her from becoming roadkill.
In Act 27 of the live-action series, Luna gains the ability to turn into a young human girl, going by the name Luna Tsukino while able to become a Sailor Soldier known as "Sailor Luna". She is shown living as a human with Usagi's family, with whom she gets along quite well, but still takes on her cat form when necessary. Her personality as a human girl is identical to her normal self and is easily overwhelmed by her feline nature, but she is also shown to have taken on some of the personality traits of Usagi and her mother, such as acting in the same melodramatic manner when waking up in the morning. Takeuchi designed the character of Sailor Luna. Luna's human form is portrayed by Rina Koike, who thought that she was going to play Chibiusa until she went in for a costume fitting.
Luna is voiced by Keiko Han in the anime television series and the live-action series, and by Ryō Hirohashi in all media following Sailor Moon Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Jill Frappier, who portrayed the character with an English accent, described as "fairly old, not to mention cranky and British". Her role in the series has been compared to Rupert Giles' in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Michelle Ruff.
Artemis (アルテミス Arutemisu) is the white cat companion to Minako Aino. Artemis trains her to become Sailor V, and remains by her side when she takes on her proper role as Sailor Venus. He first guides Usagi Tsukino through the Sailor V video game at the Crown Game Center arcade without revealing his true identity. In the anime, when a technical problem reveals him, Luna is greatly annoyed to learn that he has been the one guiding her all along. Later, he fills Luna in on the details of her true mission.:Act 9 In the Sailor V manga and the live-action series, Artemis gives special items to the Soldiers, although unlike Luna he does not seem to produce them himself. He does not seem to mind the fact that he is named after a female goddess, even when teased about it by Minako. Artemis is more easy-going than Luna, and has a "big brother" relationship with Minako, although an attraction to her is sometimes implied. He also cares very deeply about Luna, often comforting her when she is distressed and stating his admiration of her. In addition, he is a good father to Diana, as evidenced by her affection for him.
In the original Japanese series, Artemis is voiced by Yasuhiro Takato in Sailor Moon and by Yōhei Ōbayashi in Crystal. In the live-action series, he is voiced by Kappei Yamaguchi. He appears in the first Sailor Moon musical, played by a cat-suited Keiji Himeno. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Ron Rubin. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Johnny Yong Bosch.
Diana (ダイアナ Daiana) is the future daughter of Luna and Artemis. She first appears when the Sailor Soldiers travel to the 30th century in the Black Moon arc. After defeating Death Phantom, the Sailor Soldiers return to the 20th century and Diana joins them. In the anime, she first appears in Sailor Moon SuperS, calling Artemis her father, to Luna's initial dismay. Only later it is revealed that Diana has come from the future and that her mother is Luna. Just as Luna and Artemis guide Usagi and Minako, Diana acts as a guardian to Chibiusa. She is very curious, eager to help, and deeply polite, always addressing Usagi and Mamoru with the Japanese honorific "-sama" and calling Chibiusa by her formal title, Small Lady. She is able to help the Sailor Soldiers on occasion, despite her youth, and often because of the knowledge she had gained in the future.
Diana is voiced by Kumiko Nishihara in the first series, and by Shoko Nakagawa in Crystal. In the Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Loretta Jafelice in the series, and by Naomi Emmerson in Sailor Moon Super S: The Movie. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Debi Derryberry.
The Sailor Starlights (セーラースターライツ Sērā Sutāraitsu) are a group of Sailor Soldiers composed of Sailor Star Fighter, Sailor Star Maker, and Sailor Star Healer; in civilian form they go by the pseudonyms Kou Seiya, Kou Taiki, and Kou Yaten, respectively. They come from the fictional planet Kinmoku, whose princess, Princess Kakyuu, left the planet to escape Sailor Galaxia's assault and to heal her wounds. The Starlights abandon Kinmoku and track Kakyuu to Earth and then Japan, where the Starlights disguise themselves as a male pop star group called The Three Lights (スリーライツ Surī Raitsu) and embed their music with a telepathic broadcast in order to attract Kakyuu's attention. The Three Lights all attend Jūban High School along with Usagi and her friends. Eventually, on their way to the Galaxy Cauldron, they are killed by Galaxia's servants Sailor Chi and Sailor Phi.
In the anime, the Starlights were given a major role. The trio are biologically males in their civilian forms, becoming women when transforming into Sailor Soldiers, as opposed to their manga counterparts that are females who disguise themselves as males in their civilian forms. As Starlights, they distance themselves from the other Sailor Soldiers, deeming that Earth is not their responsibility. The Starlights survive several direct battles with Galaxia herself, and help Sailor Moon defeat Chaos to save Galaxia. Takeuchi expressed surprise at Toei Animation's decision to make the Starlights lead characters in the anime adaptation, but was even more shocked by their treatment of the Starlights' sex. The change was directly overseen by director Takuya Igarashi. In the Italian dub, instead of changing sex, there were six people – the Three Lights were always men, and simply summoned their twin sisters instead of transforming, as the original depiction was very controversial in Italy.
The Starlights are featured in several of the Sailor Moon musicals (Sailor Stars, Eien Densetsu, and their revised editions, plus Ryuusei Densetsu and Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin). While played by women, it is meant to be ambiguous as to whether or not they take on male forms (like in the anime) or are cross-dressers (like in the manga), though their personalities are clearly from the anime. Their story also combines elements from both the manga and the anime; for instance, they travel to the Galaxy Cauldron as they do in the manga, but survive the battles against Galaxia as they do in the anime. The pairings with the Sailor Soldiers from the anime are also featured in some musicals.
Their exact relationship to each other is unknown; according to the manga they are not siblings.:Act 44 Their surname "Kou" (光) translates to "light", among other things, making the name "Three Lights" a pun. In the original English manga, "Kou" was translated to "Lights" and was used as their shared family name.
When Takeuchi originally designed the Sailor Starlights, she did so without their ponytails, but Bandai explained to her that short-haired dolls were difficult to make. Describing herself as having a "soft spot for dolls", Takeuchi eventually added the ponytails.
Sailor Star Fighter
Kou Seiya (星野 光 Seiya Kō) is the leader of the Starlights as Sailor Star Fighter (セーラースターファイター Sērā Sutā Faitā) and the lead vocalist for the Three Lights. In general, Seiya acts arrogant and tends to be, at least on the surface, confident in his/her own abilities.
Seiya becomes the star player of their local high-school American football team and the school's star athlete, upsetting Haruka Tenoh, who was the school's previous star athlete on the track and field team. Eventually, she raises the suspicions of the Sailor Soldiers as to her identity. In the anime, Taiki and Yaten consider him prone to bouts of childishness (such as when he shows off his basketball skills in front of the school), but generally follow his lead.
Eventually, Seiya develops strong feelings for Usagi and his attempts to forge a bond with her provide the primary romantic tension of the season. Seiya calls Usagi odango, like Mamoru does. The two even go on a date at an amusement park, which prematurely ends when Sailor Iron Mouse attacks. Seiya makes his interest in her clear when they spend time together practicing softball, telling her, "I like your light." However, Seiya's feelings are not fully reciprocated and he/she acknowledges the one-sided romance.
The relationship between Sailor Star Fighter and Princess Kakyuu is slightly ambiguous. In the anime, when he daydreams of his home planet, he thinks lovingly of an image of his princess, which is suddenly superimposed by an image of Usagi, much as Usagi had seen Seiya's image overlaid by Mamoru in previous episodes. In the image poem released for his CD single, however, he suggests that his feelings for her are because he is "carrying the heart of a boy" and because he was attracted to her light.
Seiya's responsibilities in the band are lead vocals, guitar, and lyrics. He was seen in the anime playing the drums very angrily in their hideout because they think their princess has not heard them yet. After this, Seiya is not seen on the drums again. According to Naoko Takeuchi's words, when she created this character it was meant to be a combination between Haruka and Mamoru, and was modeled after Jenny Shimizu.
In the original Japanese version of the anime series, he/she was voiced by Shiho Niiyama in one of her final roles before her death. In the musicals, Seiya has been portrayed by Sayuri Katayama, Chinatsu Akiyama and Meiku Harukawa.
Sailor Star Maker
Kou Taiki (大気 光 Taiki Kō), better known as Sailor Star Maker (セーラースターメイカー Sērā Sutā Meikā), is the most intellectual of the trio. His/Her abilities rival that of Ami Mizuno, though he/she considers her romantic notions foolish. In the anime, Ami's appeal for him to see the good in dreaming does begin to have an effect, however. In combat with a phage, Star Maker is the first of the Starlights to willingly allow Sailor Moon to heal the monster rather than trying to kill it herself, because it had been a teacher who Ami respected. Later in the series, as he is beginning to lose hope in finding Princess Kakyuu, he visits a sick girl named Misa in the hospital. She shows him a drawing of the Princess that she sees when she listens to the Three Lights' song. With renewed hope, Taiki returns to the Three Lights. In the anime, he sometimes wears glasses.
Like Yaten, Taiki believes that Seiya should stay away from Usagi after learning she is Sailor Moon, despite their wish, shared by Princess Kakyuu and the Sailor Soldiers, for them all to work together. However, his views on Usagi change for the better near the end of Sailor Stars. He/she is the most cool-headed of the trio.
Taiki's responsibilities in the band are background vocals, keyboards, and composition. He/she also enjoys poetry and belongs to the literature club at school. Taiki is meant to be a more-distant Setsuna Meioh.
In the original Japanese version of the anime series, he/she was voiced by Narumi Tsunoda. In the musicals, Taiki has been portrayed by Hikari Ono, Akiko Nakayama, and Riona Tatemichi.
Sailor Star Healer
Kou Yaten (夜天 光 Yaten Kō), better known as Sailor Star Healer (セーラースターヒーラー Sērā Sutā Hīrā), is a lonely person who does not like to socialize or play sports. His/her remarks are often sharp-edged and blunt, which further separates him/her from the world. At one point, the other Starlights even chastise Yaten for behaving in a way that might reduce the number of fans. Yaten does not interact with the people around him/her much, wanting to focus on the mission. Yaten is egotistical and nurses grudges, and hates injury. However, he/she and Luna get along well.
In the anime, he has the most spiritual awareness of the Starlights, and is able to tell when Star Seeds are taken by Sailor Galaxia. He views humans as untrustworthy and wants to find Princess Kakyuu so they can leave Earth as quickly as possible. This comes further to light when they discover that Usagi is Sailor Moon. Yaten believes that Seiya should stay away from Usagi, despite their wish, shared by Princess Kakyuu and the Sailor Soldiers, for them all to work together. His view is shared by Taiki as well as Sailors Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. However, also like Taiki, his views on Usagi change for the better near the end of Sailor Stars. In the anime, Yaten is shown to be physically stronger in his civilian form than Makoto Kino, the strongest of the Sailor Soldiers, in her civilian form.
In the original Japanese version of the anime series, he/she was voiced by Chika Sakamoto. In the musicals, Yaten has been portrayed by Momoko Okuyama, Mikako Tabe, and Saki Matsuda.
Ikuko Tsukino (月野 育子 Tsukino Ikuko) is the mother of Usagi (Sailor Moon). She is often seen cooking and lecturing Usagi for her grades in school; still, they are shown to be pretty close, since she gives Usagi advice on relationships of all kinds from time to time, and eagerly accepts her relationship with Mamoru. She cares for Chibiusa when she is present, whom she believes to be her niece, but who in truth is her future granddaughter. She also cares for Chibichibi, whom she believes to be her second daughter. Ikuko's name and design are modeled after Takeuchi's mother.
In the live-action series, Ikuko is portrayed as an extremely outgoing, quirky, and determined person. She changes her hairstyle almost every day, is constantly trying out new (and questionable) omelette recipes, and loves nothing more than being in the spotlight. She is a high-school friend with Minako's manager, and it is said the two of them were big participants in their school's theater program.
In the original Japanese series, Ikuko is voiced by Sanae Takagi in the first anime and by Yuko Mizutani in Crystal until her death in 2016. In the DIC and Cloverway English dubs, she is voiced by Barbara Radecki. In the Viz Media English dub, her voice is supplied by Tara Platt. Kaori Moriwaka portrays Ikuko in the live-action series.
Kenji Tsukino (月野 謙之 Tsukino Kenji) is Usagi's father, a stereotypical well-meaning Japanese salaryman, who works as a magazine reporter:Act 4 and later as an editor-in-chief. Kenji is quite affectionate with his wife. Early on, he becomes jealous when he sees Usagi with Mamoru Chiba, thinking that Umino is a better candidate. Like his wife, Kenji is entirely unaware of Usagi's real identity, though he is the only member of the family who notices the similarities between Sailor Moon and Usagi. He senses a maturity in his daughter when she is finally aware of her status as Princess Serenity, and notes that at times her beauty seems serene. Kenji appears less frequently after the anime adaptation's second season.
In the live-action series, he never appears in the main body of the series, which is explained by his always being away on business trips. He appears briefly in the direct-to-DVD Special Act, crying at Usagi's wedding.
In the anime series, Kenji is voiced by Yuji Machi in the first series and by Mitsuaki Madono in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by David Huband. In the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Keith Silverstein. In the Special Act of the live-action series, he is portrayed by series director Ryuta Tasaki.
Shingo Tsukino (月野 進悟 Tsukino Shingo, called Sammy Tsukino in the original English dub) is the younger brother of Usagi, making her the only Sailor Soldier with a known sibling. His influence in her life is alternately helpful and mocking; he considers her well-meaning, but also considers her an accident-prone crybaby. Though unaware of his sister's true identity, Shingo is impressed by the media-hyped urban legends of Sailor Moon and Sailor V. He is a particularly enthusiastic fan of Sailor Moon because she rescued him from Dark Kingdom forces early in her career. He enjoys video games and is a diligent student. Shingo's favorite book is Shonen J*mp (a reference to the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump), and he likes to play games on the Famicom. In the anime, Shingo appears in several episodes of the first season, but is less frequently seen afterwards.
In the live-action series, Shingo dislikes much of what his sister and mother do, and does not care about much of life in general. In the video game Another Story, Shingo is temporarily granted a large role, as he is kidnapped for ransom by the villains in an attempt to force Usagi to hand over the Silver Crystal.
In the original Japanese series, Shingo was voiced by Chiyoko Kawashima until her retirement in 2001, with Seria Ryū taking over the role afterward in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Julie Lemieux. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Nicolas Roye. In the live-action series, he is portrayed by Naoki Takeshi.
Naru Osaka (大阪 なる Ōsaka Naru, called Molly Baker in the original English dub) is Usagi's best friend and schoolmate at the start of the series. Naru and her mother are the very first victims of a monster attack, and Naru hero-worships Sailor Moon for saving them. Throughout the series she continues to be a frequent target of villains and monsters. In a "memorable subplot" of the anime adaptation,:284–285 Naru falls in love with Nephrite, who eventually returns her feelings and attempts to atone for his misdeeds. His death while protecting Naru devastates her throughout the first season. Kotono Mitsuishi was particularly touched by this sequence. In the anime, Naru ends up dating Gurio Umino.
Naru plays a much more important role in the live-action series, learning most of the truth about the Sailor Soldiers. She is also a more confident and outgoing person. For a short while, she and Ami share a conflicted relationship as both seem to be jealous of the other's closeness with Usagi. However, they resolve their differences and become good friends.
Naru's younger sister, Naruru, features in a short side-story in the Stars manga.:Chibiusa's Picture Diary #4 In the anime it is stated that she is an only child. Naruru at first appears with Haruka, Michiru, and Usagi at the high school and is shown getting along with them.
Naru is voiced by Shino Kakinuma in the original series and by Satomi Satō in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English versions, she is voiced by Mary Long in a heavy Brooklyn accent. In the Viz Media English version, she is voiced by Danielle Judovits. Chieko Kawabe portrays her in the live-action series.
Gurio Umino (海野 ぐりお Umino Gurio, called Melvin Butlers in the original English dub) is a student in Usagi's class at school. He is usually called simply Umino, and begins with a severe infatuation with Usagi. His defining characteristic is his glasses, which have odd swirls in them, denoting their thickness. Umino is commonly portrayed as a "nerdy", "weird", and "know-it-all" otaku, regularly keeping Usagi informed on current events, new students, gossip, and any other information she might appreciate. Despite his ordinarily nerdy appearance, Umino is implied (and later confirmed by Takeuchi) to be incredibly handsome when he takes his glasses off. In the first anime, he eventually ends up dating Naru, and like her, his importance gradually decreases after the first anime series.
The kanji in Umino's surname represent a pun meaning either "ocean field" or "of ocean"; as such, it is constructed in the same way as Usagi's and those of other Sailor Soldiers. His first name, Gurio, is given in hiragana and so its meaning is unclear.[original research?]
In the Japanese series, his voice actor is Keiichi Nanba in Sailor Moon and Daiki Yamashita in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Roland Parliament. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Ben Diskin.
Haruna Sakurada (桜田 春菜 Sakurada Haruna, called Patricia Haruna in the original English dub) is a junior high school teacher who often lectures Usagi for her laziness. Haruna intends to find a husband, which makes her an easy target for the Dark Kingdom during the first arc, and she often engages in seemingly childish things in this regard. She appears less frequently as the series progresses, and is never seen after Usagi and her friends start high school. In the live-action series, Haruna assigns pop quizzes and clean-up duty when needed. She has an extremely eccentric personality, and is very friendly and motherly towards her students, even Usagi.
The kanji in her name mean "cherry blossom" (sakura), "rice field" (da), "spring" (haru), and "vegetables" (na). The "spring" part of her name becomes a pun in the context of other works by Takeuchi: Haruna appears very briefly in one earlier series, The Cherry Project, which features her sister Fuyuna in one of its side stories. Two other characters with similar names appear in Takeuchi works: Natsuna in Codename: Sailor V and Akina in PQ Angels. The Japanese words fuyu, natsu, and aki mean "winter", "summer", and "autumn", respectively.
In the Japanese series, Haruna was originally voiced by Chiyoko Kawashima in Sailor Moon until her retirement in 2001. Akemi Kanda voices her from Crystal onwards. In the DIC English adaptation, she is voiced by Nadine Rabinovitch. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Julie Ann Taylor. She is played by Tomoko Otakara in the live-action series. In the musicals, Haruna is portrayed at various points by Kasumi Hyuga and Kiho Seishi.
Motoki Furuhata (古幡 元基 Furuhata Motoki, called Andrew Hansford in the original English dub) works at the Crown Game Center, a video arcade Usagi frequently visits. In A Scout is Born, an adaptation of the anime's first three episodes by Stuart J. Levy, he is called Andrew Foreman. Motoki also holds a job at the Crown Fruit Parlor and is a KO University student along with Mamoru Chiba. After he recognizes the Sailor Soldiers and learns their true identities, Motoki vows not to tell anyone. In the anime adaptation, Usagi calls him "Big Brother" Motoki (元基お兄さん Motoki-oniisan) and has a crush on him in the beginning of the series. Motoki and Mamoru also attend the Azabu Institute of Technology. He is pretty naive, and says that he views the girls as younger sisters, oblivious to the fact that they have crushes on him. He has a little sister, Unazuki Furuhata, who is friends with Usagi and the others. His girlfriend is Reika Nishimura, a science student. Later throughout the series, it is revealed that he and Reika knew Setsuna while she was studying at their university. In the continuity of Sailor Moon Crystal, Motoki's background is the same, but he does not know Mamoru, who is still a high school student.
In the live-action series, the Crown Center is a karaoke parlor. There is an initial recurring flirtatious relationship between Motoki and Makoto until it becomes a bit more serious, and in the Special Act, which takes place four years after the series finale, Motoki proposes to Makoto, who accepts.
In the Japanese series, Motoki is voiced by Hiroyuki Satō in Sailor Moon and by Hiroshi Okamoto in Crystal. In the DIC English adaptation, he is voiced by Colin O'Meara, in the Cloverway one by Joel Feeney. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Lucien Dodge. Motoki is portrayed by Masaya Kikawada in the live-action series.
Reika Nishimura (西村 レイカ Nishimura Reika, called Rita Blake in the original English dub) is Motoki Furuhata's girlfriend and fellow student at KO University. She later befriends Setsuna Meioh there. In the anime, she is the reincarnation of the Great Youma Rikokeidā. After leaving Japan twice to study abroad, she eventually leaves the country for 10 years, but Motoki is still willing to wait for her. She is voiced by Rica Fukami in the original series and by Mai Nakahara in Crystal. In the DIC English adaptation, Reika was voiced by Wendy Lyon and Kathleen Laskey, while Daniela Olivieri voiced her in the Cloverway dub. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Erica Mendez. In the English dub, she is called "Reika" in Super S.
Rei's grandfather (レイのおじいさん Rei no ojiisan) is the grandfather of Rei Hino and a Shinto priest that lives at the Hikawa Shrine. In the anime, he has a different physical appearance and plays a more-prominent role as one of the holders of the Rainbow Crystals that make up the Silver Crystal. He often flirts with anyone regardless of gender. In the original Japanese series, his voice actor is Tomomichi Nishimura in the first anime. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by David Fraser, except in Sailor Moon S episode 99 where he was voiced by John Stocker as a stand-in. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Michael Sorich.
Yūichirō Kumada (熊田 雄一郎 Kumada Yūichirō, called Chad Kumada in the original English dub) is an anime-only character appearing as a ragged-looking young man who helps out at the Hikawa Shrine. His family is very rich and has a lodge in the mountains, where he takes Rei Hino and her friends to go skiing. After falling in love with Rei, Yūichirō decides to stay at Hikawa Shrine in order to be near to her. Even though she does not reciprocate his love, he remains faithful and tries to protect her. She warms up to his personality considerably over time. In the first Japanese anime series, Yūichirō is voiced by Bin Shimada. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Steven Bednarski, Damon D'Oliveira (Sailor Moon S), and Jason Barr (Sailor Moon Super S). In the Viz Media English adaption, he is voiced by Wally Wingert.
Unazuki Furuhata (古幡 宇奈月 Furuhata Unazuki, called Elizabeth "Lizzie" Furuhata in the original English dub) is the younger sister of Motoki Furuhata, who works as a waitress at the Crown Fruit Parlor, where the Sailor Soldiers spend much of their free time in the latter parts of the anime. Unazuki attends T·A Private Girls School with Rei Hino. She first appears sporadically, with her first appearance in Sailor Moon R as a mistaken love rival for Mamoru Chiba. She dreams of her first kiss in Sailor Moon S, which results in being targeted by the Death Busters. Unazuki appears more frequently in Super S as a major supporting character and is usually among Usagi's group. She is voiced by Miyako Endou in the first series, with Eriko Hara as a stand-in. In the DIC English adaptation, she is voiced by Sabrina Grdevich and in the Cloverway dub by Catherine Disher in Sailor Moon S and Susan Aceron in Super S. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Veronica Taylor.
Ittou Asanuma (浅沼 一等 Asanuma Ittō) is introduced in the Black Moon arc of the manga as Makoto's friend. He is interested in science fiction, UFOs and the paranormal activity that occurs in the area. He greatly respects Mamoru, who is an upperclassman at his school. Asanuma initially thinks that the Sailor Soldiers are aliens. However, after he sees Luna talk, Makoto confesses the Soldiers' identities to him. Asanuma is later attacked by Ayakashi sister Calaveras until he is rescued by Sailor Moon. At the beginning of the Infinity arc he appears with Mamoru and Chibiusa in an amusement park, and in the Stars arc he gives Mamoru's phone number to Usagi when she is unable to locate him. Asanuma makes a cameo in the anime, looking for Mamoru when the latter has been controlled by Queen Nehelenia.[note 2] He is voiced by Kazuya Nakai in the original series and by Daisuke Sakaguchi in Crystal. In the Viz Media English dub, he is voiced by Greg Felden.
Kotono Sarashina (更科 琴乃 Sarashina Kotono) is a student at T·A Academy for Girls, and the president of the school's Supernatural Research Club. Like many of the students at T·A, she seemed to have an admiration for Rei Hino. She first appeared in Act 15, when the disguised Koan created a rival club with a fortune-telling booth at the school festival. Kotono is also Kyousuke Sarashina's elder sister, and she made a Sailor V button for her brother. Chibiusa liked it but Kyousuke refused to get her one, but after the two of them helped defeat the vampire Lilica Hubert, he had Kotono make a Sailor Moon button for her as well. She is voiced by Akemi Kanda in Sailor Moon Crystal and in the Viz Media English dub, she is voiced by Tara Sands.
Momoko Momohara (桃原 桃子 Momohara Momoko) appears as an elementary-school student who befriends Chibiusa. In the anime, she is badly injured in a fight with Chiral and Achiral, two Black Moon members, causing Chibiusa to go into a fit and unleash her latent powers at the monsters. Later, Momoko becomes the first target of the Amazoness Quartet, but is saved by Sailor Chibi Moon and Sailor Moon. She is voiced by Taeko Kawata. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, her name is changed to Melissa and later Melanie, and her voice is supplied by Mary Long and Tanya Donato at various points. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Debi Derryberry.
Kyūsuke Sarashina (更科 九助 Sarashina Kyūsuke, called Kelly Sarashina in the English dub) attends elementary school with Chibiusa and Momoko. He is the younger brother of Kotono, who goes to school with Rei. He is known to be very athletic and sarcastic. Kyūsuke makes recurring appearances in Sailor Moon Super S, and is targeted by Amazoness JunJun in episode 155. He appears in a later episode, when Chibiusa befriends a boy named Hiroki, who is trying to build a flying machine. While Kyūsuke is initially resentful of Hiroki and how impressed Chibiusa is with Hiroki's dream, Kyūsuke encourages Hiroki continue building the flying machine after multiple failed attempts. He is voiced by Kazumi Okushima in his initial appearance, and by Daisuke Sakaguchi in all subsequent appearances.
Queen Serenity (クィーン・セレニティ Kuīn Sereniti) is the mother of Sailor Moon (reborn as human Usagi/Serena) in her past life as Princess Serenity (Serena). As the Queen of the Moon, she reigned during the first Silver Millennium era. She states that the ancients have known her as the goddess Selene.:Act 10 When the Dark Kingdom attacks the Moon Kingdom, she sacrifices herself by using the Silver Crystal to seal Queen Metaria and to have her daughter, Endymion and the Sailor Soldiers be reborn on Earth. Queen Serenity first appears as a hologram, having saved her spirit within a computer in order to preserve her will.:Act 10 She tells the Sailor Soldiers of their past lives, which they begin to remember as she describes them, and tells them that they must find Metaria, who has escaped the seal placed on her and gone into hiding on Earth. She only appears in flashbacks after this.:Act 41:Act 52 In the anime adaptation's second season, Queen Serenity allows Usagi to gain her latest transformation. She also appears in the "Special Act" of the live-action series.
She is voiced by Mika Doi in the first anime series, with Mami Koyama taking over the role for Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Barbara Radecki in the first episode and later by Wendy Lyon. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Wendee Lee. In the live-action series, Miyuu Sawai portrays Queen Serenity, with her voice dubbed over by Yōko Sōmi.
Phobos and Deimos
Phobos (フォボス Fobosu) and Deimos (ディモス Dimosu) are Rei's pet crows that live at the shrine, which she named after the two moons of Mars. They have the ability to sense evil, and sometimes attack enemies. It is revealed that when Rei was a child, they "told" her their names. Eventually, they reveal themselves as the Power Guardians – small humanoid sprites charged with guarding Sailor Mars. They save Sailor Mars from being killed by the Tiger's Eye and give a Sailor Crystal to her. They are later revealed to be from the planet Coronis when they encounter Sailor Lead Crow, who is also from Coronis. Sailor Lead Crow steals Phobos and Deimos' Star Seeds, killing them. The two of them have Star Seeds on a level near or equal to a Sailor Crystal.
In the live-action series, Rei's crows appear only in the third episode. In the Another Story video game, they go with her on the search for Jadeite's stone. A fake Deimos and Phobos appear in crow form in the musical Sailor Moon S - Usagi - Ai no Senshi e no Michi. They were portrayed by male actors. Like Luna and Artemis before them, they are portrayed as adult actors in animal costumes.[full citation needed]
Helios (祭司エリオス Saiji Eriosu) is the priest and guardian of Elysion, which is the sacred land that protects the planet Earth from within and the place where the Golden Kingdom used to be in the time of the Silver Millennium. Helios and Endymion never met, though they were aware of each other and the fact that they shared the same wish of protecting Earth. When Elysion is invaded by the Dead Moon Circus, Helios is sealed in the body of an alicorn, Pegasus (
Helios is assisted by the Maenads (メナード Menado), two priestesses who guard a shrine in Elysion. They escaped the Dead Moon Circus' curse by falling asleep. The Maenads eventually awaken and guide Chibiusa to Helios, and later appear along with the main characters after Nehelenia's defeat.
In the original anime adaptation's fourth season, Sailor Moon SuperS, Helios guards the Golden Crystal that protects the sweet and beautiful dreams of Earth's people, as well as drawing more power and strength from those dreams. Because of this, he was attacked by the Dead Moon Circus' jealous queen Nehelenia, who wants him for herself, and leaves his own body to flee with the Crystal. Taking on the form of the mythical Pegasus, he places the Crystal on his forehead as a horn and hides in Chibiusa's dreams. There, he asks for her help and grants power to her and to her allies using several special items. Though he does not trust Chibiusa at first, they gradually develop a connection, and in the end he tells her his secrets by revealing his world of Elysion as well as his true form and name.
In the anime series, he is voiced by Taiki Matsuno in Sailor Moon. In the Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Robert Bockstael and in the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Chris Niosi. In the musicals, Pegasus is voiced by Yuuta Enomoto.[full citation needed]
Takeuchi stated that she was dissatisfied with Helios' clothing design, having created his outfit in a hurry because it was easy to draw and she was pressed for time. She describes the result as "ugly" and "a disaster", commenting that the character inherited his "irresponsible ways" from herself.
Princess Kakyuu (火球
In the anime adaptation, Kakyuu goes to Earth to locate the "Light of Hope" and to hide from Galaxia. During her time under Chibichibi's care, she is aware of the Starlights searching for her, but cannot reveal herself too soon. She eventually saves Sailor Moon and the others from a black hole and resumes leadership of the Starlights. However, after Kakyuu is found, Galaxia steals her Star Seed, killing her. After Sailor Moon defeats Chaos, Kakyuu is revived. She and the Starlights return to Kinmoku to rebuild and start over. Her Sailor Soldier form is never shown in this adaptation.
In the original Japanese series, her voice actress is Sakiko Tamagawa. In the musical version, Princess Kakyuu is portrayed by Sakoto Yoshioka, Ai Toyama, and Asami Okamura.
Chibichibi (ちびちび) first appears in Act 44 of the manga and episode 182 of the anime. She appears to be a very young child and imitates the ends of others' sentences, mostly saying "chibi". Her red-pink hair is always up in two heart shaped odango with little ringlets sticking out the sides, echoing Usagi's hairstyle. Chibichibi's name is a doubling of the Japanese term meaning "small person" or "small child" and is used both for that reason and because of Chibichibi's similarity to Chibiusa. It is also a pun, as the word chibichibi means "making something last".
Chibichibi is first shown floating down to Earth with an umbrella in her hand and shows up at the Tsukino house.:Act 44 In the anime, she first meets Usagi in the park one afternoon and starts to follow her around, saying only "chibi chibi" without having been prompted. Chibichibi attaches herself to Usagi's family, whose memories are modified so that they believe her to be the youngest child of the family – almost exactly what Chibiusa had done on her first appearance.[note 3] Chibichibi is the caretaker of a small ornate censer in which Princess Kakyuu is resting, hidden from the evil Sailor Galaxia.:Act 45 Chibichibi eventually transforms, under her own power, into a Sailor Soldier called Sailor Chibichibi.:Act 46 In her Sailor Soldier form, she carries a heart scepter and uses it to defend herself and Sailor Moon, but is not shown using any attack of her own.:Act 48 Chibichibi's childlike form is a disguise for Sailor Cosmos, a powerful Sailor Soldier who is the future version of Sailor Moon.:Act 51
In the anime, Chibichibi is the Star Seed of Sailor Galaxia, who had once been a great force for good. When Galaxia fought Chaos, she could see no way to defeat it except to seal it away inside her own body. In order to protect her Star Seed from being corrupted, she sent it away to Earth, where it became Chibichibi. Chibichibi is referred to as the "light of hope" (kibō no hikari) by the Starlights; their one chance for defeating Galaxia. In the end, Chibichibi transforms herself into the Sword of Sealing (fuuin no ken), the weapon Galaxia had used to seal away Chaos, and Chibichibi begs Sailor Moon to use it to defeat them. During the battle, Galaxia shatters the sword, killing Chibichibi. However, Chibichibi is revived along with all the other fallen Sailor Soldiers after Sailor Moon cleanses Galaxia of Chaos.
In the anime series, Chibichibi and Sailor Moon are voiced by Kotono Mitsuishi in a dual role. In the stage musicals, Chibichibi has been played by Mao Kawasaki, Mikiko Asuke, Yuka Gouchou, and Mina Horita. Takeuchi praised Kawasaki's cuteness as Chibichibi.[page needed] When she appears in the stage musicals, Chibichibi's backstory always follows the anime version. She is given her own song, "Mou ii no" (English: It's All Right), which she sings to announce that she has come to rejoin Galaxia.
Sailor Cosmos (セーラーコスモス Sērā Kosumosu) is the ultimate future form of Sailor Moon. She comes from a future which has been destroyed by the battle with Sailor Chaos; after ages of fighting, she despairs and flees to the past as the infant Chibichibi, to encourage Eternal Sailor Moon to defeat Chaos in the final battle of the series. At first, she wants Sailor Moon to destroy the Galaxy Cauldron altogether, ensuring Chaos' destruction, but Sailor Moon protests, realizing that if the Cauldron is destroyed no more stars will be born, leaving the Galaxy without a future. She chooses to sacrifice herself to the Cauldron and seal Chaos away, which Cosmos finally realizes to have been the right decision. Reminded of the strength and courage she herself needs to have, she returns to the future with new hope.:Act 52 After the end of the anime adaptation, Takeuchi commented that she wished Sailor Cosmos had been used in Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. In the musicals, Sailor Cosmos is played by Satomi Okubo, who played Usagi Tsukino/Sailor Moon between 2013 and 2015.
Differences in character between the Sailor Soldiers mirror differences in their hairstyles, fashion, and magical items, which has translated well into doll lines. Sales of the Sailor Soldiers fashion dolls overtook those of Licca-chan in the 1990s. Mattel attributed this to the "fashion-action" blend of the Sailor Moon storyline; doll accessories included both fashion items and the Soldier's weapons. The first line of dolls included Queen Beryl, the first major antagonist of the series, a decision that was described as a "radical idea". The first dolls based on Chibiusa surprised Takeuchi because, at that time, the author had not even finalized the character's hairstyle, and explains that viewing the doll's head from various angles was wonderful. Bandai introduced a line of little dolls that included the Amazoness Quartet and, according to Takeuchi, these were their favorite because "with their costumes and faithfulness to the originals, the dolls really excelled." Bandai has released several S.H. Figuarts based on the characters' appearances from both the first anime adaptation and Sailor Moon Crystal. Among those figures are the Sailor Soldiers, Tuxedo Mask, Black Lady, and Zoisite disguised as Sailor Moon. In early 2014, Megahouse released a set of trading figures consisting of twelve figurines, two for each Sailor Soldier and two for Tuxedo Mask.
Several characters, including Sailor Soldiers, villains, supporting characters, and monsters of the day are featured in a collectible card game which was released in 2000 by Dart Flipcards. A collaboration between Sailor Moon and Capcom took place in March 2018 as part of the 25th anniversary celebration of the Sailor Moon franchise. In this collaboration, the Felyne cat companion resembles Luna and wields Usagi's Cutie Moon Rod weapon in the Monster Hunter XX expansion of Monster Hunter Generations.
Sailor Moon has been described largely in terms of its characters; a sustained 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines who are simultaneously heroic and introspective, active and emotional, dutiful and ambitious. The combination proved extremely successful, and Sailor Moon became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.
The function of the Sailor Soldiers themselves has been analyzed by critics, often in terms of feminist theory. Susan J. Napier described the Sailor Soldiers as "powerful, yet childlike", and suggested that this is because Sailor Moon is aimed towards an audience of young girls. She stated that the Sailor Soldiers readily accept their powers and destinies and do not agonize over them, which can be read as an expression of power and success. The Sailor Soldiers have been described as merging male and female traits, being both desirable and powerful. As sexualized teen heroines, they are significantly different from the sexless representation of 1980s teen heroines such as Nausicaä. Anne Allison noted that the use of the sailor fuku as a costume makes it easy for girls to identify with the Sailor Soldiers, but also for older males to see them as sex symbols. Unlike the female Power Rangers, who as the series go on become more unisex in both costume and poses, the Sailor Soldiers' costumes become frillier and more "feminine".
Mary Grigsby considered that the Sailor Soldiers blend ancient characteristics and symbols of femininity with modern ideas, reminding the audience of a pre-modern time when females were equal to males, but other critics drew parallels with the modern character type of the aggressive cyborg woman, pointing out that the Sailor Soldiers are augmented by their magical equipment. Much of the Sailor Soldiers' strength stems from their reliance and friendship with other girls rather than from men.
Kazuko Minomiya has described the daily lives of the girls within the series as risoukyou, or "utopic". They are shown as enjoying many leisure activities such as shopping, visiting amusement parks, and hanging out at the Crown Arcade. According to Allison, Minomiya points out that the depiction of life is harder and more serious for male superheroes. The characters "double" as ordinary girls and as "celestially-empowered superheroes". The "highly stylized" transformation that the Sailor Soldiers go through has been said to "symbolically separate" the negative aspects of the characters (laziness, for example) and the positive aspects of the superheroine, and gives each girl her unique uniform and "a set of individual powers". Some commentators have read the transformation of the Sailor Soldiers as symbolic of puberty, as cosmetics appear on the Soldiers and their uniforms highlight cleavages, slim waists, and long legs, which "outright force the pun on heavenly bodies".
Jason Thompson found the Sailor Moon anime reinvigorated the magical girl genre by adding dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots. Following its success, similar series, such Magic Knight Rayearth, Wedding Peach, Nurse Angel Ririka SOS, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Fushigi Yuugi and Pretty Cure, emerged.:199
- Luna and Artemis return and give birth to Diana in the future.
- His name is seen in the credits of Episode 169.
- The only difference is that Chibiusa made them think she was Usagi's cousin instead of her younger sister.
- McCarter, Charles. "Public Interview with Takeuchi Naoko". EX: CLUSIVE. www.ex.org. Archived from the original (Q & A Interview) on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- Naoko, Takeuchi (2003). Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon: Volume 2 (Shinsōban ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 406334777X.
- Silverman, Rebecca (2011-09-21). "Sailor Moon GN 1 - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1997). Prety Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 18. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061788582.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1880656728. OCLC 50898281.
- Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. New York: Del Rey Books. ISBN 9780345485908.
- Kunihiko Ikuhara (Director) (December 5, 1993). 劇場版 美少女戦士セーラームーンＲ [Sailor Moon R: The Movie] (Motion picture). Japan: Toei Company.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1993). "Act 14". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 4. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061787535.
- "Huge Shock for Usagi! Mamoru Declares a Break Up". Sailor Moon. Series 2. Episode 61 (in Japanese). July 3, 1993. TV Asahi.
- Grigsby, Mary (1998). "Sailormoon: Manga (Comics) and Anime (Cartoon) Superheroine Meets Barbie: Global Entertainment Commodity Comes to the United States" (PDF). The Journal of Popular Culture (32). pp. 59–80. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_59.x. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1992). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 1. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061787217.
- Allison, Anne (2000). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". Japanese Studies. Routledge. 20 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1080/10371390050009075.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 12. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061788140.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1999). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Materials Collection. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4063245217.
- "Is Seijuro the Moonlight Knight? Mako On Fire". Sailor Moon. Series 2. Episode 55 (in Japanese). May 22, 1993. TV Asahi.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). "Act 37". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 13. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061788205.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (2011). Codename: Sailor V (English ed.). New York: Kodansha. ISBN 1935429779.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1992). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 2. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061787314.
- "Crazy for Celebrities! Mimet, in Doubt". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 114. Tokyo. November 19, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Mays, Jonathon (April 6, 2004). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). "Back of volume". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 10. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 406178806X.
- "The Bond of Destiny! The Distant Days of Uranus". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 106. Tokyo. September 3, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Lent, John A. (1998). Assorted Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad, and Sexy. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. p. 195. ISBN 9780879727796. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Ryuta Tasaki (director); Yasuko Kobayashi (writer) (April 17, 2004). "Luna Became a Sailor Senshi!". Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. Season 1. Episode 27. Toei.
- Ryuta Tasaki (director) (September 24, 2004). Sailor Moon ni Oshiokiyo 7 [Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon 7] (DVD). Japan: Toei.
- "Animerica Feature: Separated at Birth? Buffy vs. Sailor Moon". Animerica. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 7 April 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- "Animerica Feature: The Sailor Moon Movies". Animerica. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 7 April 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Hiromichi Matano (director); Shigeru Yanagikawa (writer) (December 19, 1992). "Let's Become a Princess: Usagi's Bizarre Training". Sailor Moon. Season 1. Episode 37. Toei.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). "Act 38". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 13. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061788205.
- Pellitteri, Marco; Yui, Kiyomitsu; Bouissou, Jean-Marie; Di Fratta, Gianluca; Martorella, Cristiano; Suvilay, Bounthavy (2010). The Dragon and the Dazzle: Models, Strategies, and Identities of Japanese Imagination: a European Perspective. Latina, Italy: Tunué. p. 424. ISBN 9788889613894.
- Naoko, Takeuchi (1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 16. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061788418.
- "Google Translate". translate.google.com. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 174". Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Junichi Sato (director); Kazuhiko Kanbe (writer) (July 20, 1996). "Seiya and Usagi's Heart-Pounding Date". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 181. Toei.
- Takuya Igarashi (director); Ryōta Yamaguchi (writer) (September 14, 1996). "The Shining Power of a Star: Chibi-Chibi's Transformation". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 187. Toei.
- Noriyo Sasaki (director); Ryōta Yamaguchi (writer) (December 7, 1996). "Crusade for the Galaxy: Legend of the Sailor Wars". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 194. Toei.
- Masahiro Hosoda (director); Kazuhiko Kanbe (writer) (December 14, 1996). "Princess Kakyuu Perishes: Advent of Galaxia". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 195. Toei.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 177". Archived from the original on 14 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 185". Archived from the original on 13 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 178". Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Collins, Elle (March 15, 2016). "All Hail the Moon Princess: Celebrating Naoko Takeuchi". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Loo, Egan (June 30, 2014). "Sailor Moon Crystal Cast Adds Misa Watanabe, Daisuke Kishio, Kousuke Toriumi, More". Anime News Network. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). "Act 29". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 9. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061787977.
- Yūji Endō (director); Shigeru Yanagikawa (writer) (November 4, 1992). "Scent of a Monster: Chanela Will Steal Your Love". Sailor Moon. Season 1. Episode 5. Toei.
- "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. Tokyo. May 8, 1993. Toei.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 17. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 9784061788497.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (2004). "Chibiusa's Picture Diary #4 - The Secret Hammer Price Hall". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Shinsōban Short Stories Volume 1 (Shinsōban ed.). Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 9784063349108.
- "A New Enemy Appears: Nephrite's Evil Crest". Sailor Moon. Series 1. Episode 14. Tokyo. June 13, 1992. Toei. Asahi.: Naru tells Usagi that even though she treats her childhood friend Rui Saionji like a sister, she is in fact an only child.
- Levy, Stuart J. (1999). A Scout is Born (1st ed.). Los Angeles, California: Mixx Entertainment, Inc. ISBN 1892213117.
- "The Cursed Bus: Enter Mars, the Soldier of Fire". Sailor Moon. Series 1. Episode 10 (in Japanese). May 16, 1992. TV Asahi.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1994). "Act 22". Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 6. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061787721.
- Naoko, Takeuchi (1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon: Volume 15. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4061788353.
- Kazuhisa Takenouchi (director); Sukehiro Tomita (writer) (October 31, 1992). "Grandpa Loses Control: Rei in Danger". Sailor Moon. Season 1. Episode 30. Toei.
- Sailor Moon S musical
- 1996 Sailor Moon Musical Sailor Moon Super S (Kaiteiban) Yume Senshi - Ai - Eien ni... Saturn Fukkatsu Hen!
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume IV Original Picture Collection. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4063245195.
- Takuya Igarashi (director); Ryōta Yamaguchi (writer) (February 8, 1997). "Usagi's Love: The Moonlight Illuminates the Galaxy". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 200. Toei.
- ""Chibichibi" translates to "making something last"". Jeffrey's Japanese - English Dictionary Server. Retrieved 2007-05-18.[permanent dead link]
- Noriyo Sasaki (director); Ryōta Yamaguchi (writer) (August 3, 1996). "Invaders from Outer Space: The Coming of Siren". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 182. Toei.
- Takuya Igarashi (director); Ryōta Yamaguchi (writer) (November 30, 1996). "The Stolen Silver Crystal: Princess Kakyuu Appears". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 193. Toei.
- Masahiro Hosoda (director); Ryōta Yamaguchi (writer) (February 1, 1997). "The Light of Hope: the Final Battle for the Galaxy". Sailor Moon Sailor Stars. Season 5. Episode 199. Toei.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1997). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 4063245225.
- "Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic Con!". Smile magazine. December 1998. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
In the very last manga, the last book, she [ChibiChibi] is the future Sailor Moon.
- Nguyen, Michelle (2016-10-22). "Essential Obscure Sailor Moon Characters". Geek.com. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
- Martinez, D.P. (1998). The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture (Reprint ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 91–109. ISBN 0521631289.
- Clark, Beverly Lyon; Higonnet, Margaret R. (2000). "A Bad Hair Day for G.I. Joe". Girls, Boys, Books, Toys: Gender in Children's Literature and Culture (1st ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780801865268.
- "S.H.Figuarts Sailor Moon". Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "The S. H. Figuarts "Impostor Version" of Zoisite dressed as Sailor Moon will be a San Diego Comic-Con exclusive". Sailor Moon News. July 2, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- Green, Scott (October 10, 2013). "Sailor Moon Chibi Trading Figures Scheduled for Early 2014". Crunchyroll. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- ""Monster Hunter XX" Goes Magical Girl with "Sailor Moon" Crossover". Crunchyroll. January 25, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Winge, Theresa (2006). "Costuming the Imagination: Origins of Anime and Manga Cosplay". Mechademia. 1 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1353/mec.0.0084. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Craig, Timothy J. (2000). Japan Pop: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, New York: Sharpe. pp. 259–278. ISBN 9780765605610.
- Schodt, Frederik L. (1999). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga (2nd ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 92. ISBN 9781880656235.
- Browning, Sheila (2004). "Pretty little girl warriors: a study of images of femininity in Japanese Sailor Moon comics". University of Missouri - Columbia, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing: 2.
- Yoshida, Kaori (2002). "Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime". Western Washington University. Archived from the original on 2013-08-31. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Allison, Anne (2006). Millennial Monsters: Japanese Toys and the Global Umagination. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 149. ISBN 9780520245655.
- Mageo, Jeannette Marie (2002). Power and the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 71–92. ISBN 9780521004602. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Allison, Anne (1 January 2001). "Cyborg Violence: Bursting Borders and Bodies with Queer Machines". Cultural Anthropology. 16 (2): 237–265. JSTOR 656538.
- Brown, Jennifer L. (May 2008). "Female Protagonists in Shōjo Manga - From the Rescuers to the Rescued". ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst. University of Massachusetts - Amherst. pp. 19–21. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
- Mainon, Dominique; Ursini, James (2006). Modern Amazons: Warrior Women on Screen. New York: Limelight Ed. pp. 291–297. ISBN 0879103272.
- Milutis, Joe (2005). Ether: The Nothing That Connects Everything. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 9780816646449.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. 美少女戦士セーラームーン Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon (in Japanese). 18 vols. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1992–1997.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. 12 vols. New York City: Kodansha USA, 2011–2013.