List of Sailor Moon characters
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (November 2014)|
The Sailor Moon manga series features an extensive cast of characters created by Naoko Takeuchi. The series takes place in Tokyo, Japan, where the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士 Sērā Senshi?), a group of ten magical girls, are reincarnated to combat an assortment of antagonists attempting to take over Tokyo, the Earth and eventually, the Milky Way galaxy. Each Soldier has a transformation sequence which grants her a uniform in her own theme-colors and her own kind of elemental power; these powers come from an object called a "Sailor Crystal" said to be within each of them. The ten Soldiers are named after planets of the Solar System, with the exception of Earth. While many of the characters are humans with superhuman strength and/or magical abilities, the cast also includes anthropomorphic animals and later, extraterrestrial lifeforms.
The series follows the adventures of the titular protagonist, Sailor Moon, her lover Tuxedo Mask, and her guardians: Sailors Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Venus. They are later joined by Sailor Chibi Moon (Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask's daughter from the future) and four more Soldiers: Sailors Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and Saturn, who defend the Solar System from external threats. The series' antagonists include the Dark Kingdom, the Black Moon Clan, the Death Busters, the Dead Moon Circus, and Shadow Galactica.
Takeuchi's initial vision was a story called Codename: Sailor V, in which Sailor Venus discovers her magical powers and protects the people of Earth. After Codename: Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation, Takeuchi changed the concept to include five female superheroes who defend the galaxy. The manga's anime and live-action adaptations feature some original characters not created by Takeuchi, but by the animation staff.
- 1 Creation and conception
- 2 Protagonists
- 3 Antagonists
- 4 Supporting characters
- 4.1 Luna, Artemis, and Diana
- 4.2 Sailor Starlights
- 4.3 Other humans
- 4.3.1 Ikuko Tsukino
- 4.3.2 Kenji Tsukino
- 4.3.3 Shingo Tsukino
- 4.3.4 Naru Osaka
- 4.3.5 Gurio Umino
- 4.3.6 Haruna Sakurada
- 4.3.7 Motoki Furuhata
- 4.3.8 Reika Nishimura
- 4.3.9 Rei's grandfather
- 4.3.10 Yūichirō Kumada
- 4.3.11 Unazuki Furuhata
- 4.3.12 Ittou Asanuma
- 4.3.13 Momoko Momohara
- 4.3.14 Kyūsuke Sarashina
- 4.4 Other nonhumans
- 5 Merchandise
- 6 Reception
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Creation and conception
Naoko Takeuchi initially wrote Codename: Sailor V, a one-shot manga which focused on Sailor Venus. When Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation by Toei Animation, Takeuchi changed the concept to include Sailor Venus as a part of a "sentai" (team of five) and created the characters of Sailors Moon, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter. The name "Sailor Senshi", or "Sailor Soldier", comes from sailor fuku, a type of Japanese school uniform that the main characters' fighting uniforms are based on, and the Japanese word senshi, which can mean "soldier", "warrior", "guardian", or "fighter". Takeuchi named the term by fusing English and Japanese elements. The DIC Entertainment/Cloverway English adaptation of the anime changed it to "Sailor Scout" for most of its run. According to Takeuchi, only females can be Sailor Soldiers, although the series features at least one male character with a Sailor Crystal (Tuxedo Mask). In the anime's fifth season, the Sailor Starlights are depicted as men transforming into women when changing from their civilian forms into Sailor Soldiers (rather than just being women merely disguising as men as they appear in the manga), which strongly displeased Takeuchi as she felt this undermined her rule that only girls could be Sailor Soldiers.
Takeuchi desired to create a series about girls in outer space; her editor, Fumio Osano, suggested that Takeuchi add the "sailor suit" motif in the uniform worn by the Sailor Soldiers. Originally, each of the Soldiers were intended to have their own unique outfit; however, it was later determined that they would wear uniforms based on a single theme, and Sailor Moon's costume concept was the closest to that which would eventually be used for all the girls. The first uniform of the Soldiers allowed some differences (shoe style, sleeves, gloves), while in later stages of character design Takeuchi settled on a more unified appearance. Within the Sailor Team, only the outfit worn by Sailor Venus during her time as Sailor V varies significantly from the others; however, Sailor Moon, whatever form she takes, always has a more elaborate costume than any of the others. She also gains individual power-ups more frequently than any other character. Sailor Soldiers originating from outside the Solar System generally have very different and widely varying outfits; however, one single feature — the sailor collar — connects them all.
Most of the villains in the series have names that are related to minerals and gemstones, including Queen Beryl and her Four Kings of Heaven, the Black Moon Clan, Kaolinite and the Witches 5, Zirconia, her pet Zircon, the Amazon Trio, and Xenotime and Zeolite. Members of the Amazoness Quartet are named after the first four asteroids to be discovered. The Sailor Animamates have the prefix "Sailor" (despite not being true Sailor Soldiers in the manga), followed by the name of a metal and the name of an animal.
Usagi Tsukino (月野 うさぎ Tsukino Usagi?, called Serena Tsukino in the original English dub) is the main protagonist of the series and leader of the Sailor Soldiers. Usagi is a careless young girl with an enormous capacity for love, compassion, and understanding. Usagi transforms into the heroine called Sailor Moon, Soldier of Love and Justice. At the beginning of the series, she is fourteen years old and portrayed as an immature crybaby who resents fighting evil and wants nothing more than to be a normal girl. As she progresses, however, she embraces the chance to use her power to protect those she cares about.
Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛 Chiba Mamoru?, called Darien Shields in the original English dub) is a student somewhat older than Usagi. As a young child he was in a car accident that killed his parents and erased his own memories. During the series it is revealed he has a special psychic rapport with Usagi and can sense when she is in danger, which inspires him to take on the guise of Tuxedo Mask and fight alongside the Sailor Soldiers when needed. After an initially confrontational relationship, he and Usagi remember their past lives together and fall in love again.
Ami Mizuno (水野 亜美 Mizuno Ami?, called Amy Mizuno in the original English dub) is a quiet but intelligent fourteen-year-old bookworm in Usagi's class with a rumored IQ of 300, she can transform into Sailor Mercury, Soldier of Water and Wisdom. Ami's shy exterior masks a passion for knowledge and taking care of the people around her. She hopes to become a doctor one day, like her mother, and tends to be the practical one in the group. Secretly, she is also a fan of pop culture and romance novels, and becomes embarrassed whenever this is pointed out. Ami would also be considered the "tech girl" and the "brain" of the group by using her mini data computer, which is capable of scanning and detecting virtually anything she needs.
Rei Hino (火野 レイ Hino Rei?, called Raye Hino in the original English dub) is an elegant, fourteen-year-old miko (shrine maiden). Because of her work as a Shinto priestess, Rei has limited precognition and can dispel/nullify evil using special Shinto scrolls, even in her civilian form. She transforms into Sailor Mars, Soldier of Fire and Passion. She is very serious and focused, and easily gets annoyed by Usagi's laziness, although she cares about her very much. In the anime adaptation, Rei portrayed as boy-crazy  and short-tempered throughout, while in the manga and live-action TV series she is depicted as uninterested in romance and more self-controlled. She attends a private Catholic school separate from the other girls.
Makoto Kino (木野 まこと Kino Makoto?, called Lita Kino in the original English dub) is a fourteen-year-old girl who is a student in Usagi Tsukino's class and has immense physical strength and in fact was rumoured to have been kicked out of her previous school for fighting. Unusually tall and strong for a Japanese schoolgirl, she transforms into Sailor Jupiter, Soldier of Thunder and Strength. Both Makoto's parents died in a plane crash years ago, so she lives alone and takes care of herself. She cultivates her physical strength as well as more domestic interests, including housekeeping, cooking, and gardening. Makoto is also good at hand-to-hand combat. Her dream is to marry young and to own a flower-and-cake shop.
Minako Aino (愛野 美奈子 Aino Minako?, called Mina Aino in the original English dub) is a fourteen-year-old perky dreamer. Minako first appears as the main protagonist of Codename: Sailor V. She has a companion cat called Artemis who works alongside Luna in guiding the Sailor Soldiers. Minako transforms into Sailor Venus, Soldier of Love and Beauty, and leads Sailor Moon's four inner soldiers, while acting as Sailor Moon's closest bodyguard-decoy because of their near-identical looks. She also dreams of becoming a famous singer and idol; she attends auditions whenever she can. In contrast, in the live-action series, she is a successful J-Pop singer (of whom Usagi, Ami, and Makoto are fans) and has a poor health condition (due to anemia), choosing to separate herself from the other Guardians as a result.
Sailor Chibi Moon
Chibiusa (ちびうさ Chibiusa?, called Rini in the original English dub) is the future daughter of Neo-Queen Serenity and King Endymion in the 30th century, she later trains with Sailor Moon to become a Sailor Soldier in her own right, and learns to transform into Sailor Chibi Moon (or "Sailor Mini Moon" in the English series). At times she has an adversarial relationship with her mother in the 20th century, as she is more mature than Usagi, but as the series progresses they develop a deep bond. Chibiusa wants to grow up to become a lady like her mother.
Setsuna Meioh (冥王 せつな Meiō Setsuna?, called Trista Meioh in the original English dub) is a mysterious woman who appears first as Sailor Pluto, Soldier of Time and Space. She has the duty of guarding the Space-Time Door from unauthorized travelers. Only later does she appear on Earth, living as a college student. She has a distant personality and can be very stern, but can also be quite friendly and helps the Sailor Soldiers when she can. After so long guarding the Space-Time Door she carries a deep sense of loneliness, although she is close friends with Chibiusa. Sailor Pluto's talisman is her Garnet Rod, which aids her with her power to freeze time and attacks.
Haruka Tenoh (天王 はるか Ten'ō Haruka?, called Amara Tenoh in the original English dub) is a good-natured, masculine-acting girl who is a year older than most of the other Sailor Soldiers. She is able to transform into Sailor Uranus, Soldier of Sky and Flight. Before becoming a Sailor Soldier, she dreamt of becoming a racer, and she has excellent driving skills. She tends to dress and, in the anime, speak like a man. When it comes to fighting the enemy she distrusts outside help and prefers to work solely with her girlfriend Sailor Neptune and, later, Pluto and Saturn. Sailor Uranus's talisman, known as the Space Sword, aids her with her fighting and attacks.
Michiru Kaioh (海王 みちる Kaiō Michiru?, called Michelle Kaioh in the original English dub) is an elegant and talented violinist and painter with family money of an age with her partner and lover, Haruka Tenoh. She is able to transform into Sailor Neptune, Soldier of Ocean and Embrace. She worked alone for some time before finding her partner, Sailor Uranus. Neptune has ultimately given up her own dreams for the life of a Soldier. She is fully devoted to this duty and willing to make any sacrifice for it. Sailor Neptune's talisman is her Deep Aqua Mirror, which aids her with her intuition and revealing cloaked evil.
Hotaru Tomoe (土萠 ほたる Tomoe Hotaru?) is a sweet, lonely young girl. A terrible laboratory accident in her youth significantly compromised her health in the anime adaptation and destroyed a large portion of her body (which was later rebuilt with electronic components by her father) in the manga. After overcoming the darkness that has surrounded her family, Hotaru is able to become the Soldier of Death and Rebirth, Sailor Saturn. She is often pensive, and as a human has the inexplicable power to heal others. Sailor Saturn's weapon is her Silence Glaive, which aids her with her power to generate barriers and the power to destroy a planet. However, when she uses that power, she kills herself but is reborn afterwards.
The Dark Kingdom (ダーク・キングダム Dāku Kingudamu?, called Negaverse in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the first arc of the manga and anime, as well as the entirety of the live-action series. Serving under its ruler Queen Beryl, members of the Dark Kingdom attempt to both gather human energy and find the Silver Crystal in order to reawaken Queen Metaria, the evil entity responsible for the destruction of the Silver Millennium.
Black Moon Clan
The Black Moon Clan (ブラック・ムーン一族 Burakku Mūn Ichizoku?, called Negamoon Family in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Black Moon arc of the manga and in the majority of Sailor Moon R. Members of the Black Moon Clan come from Planet Nemesis, a fictional tenth planet of the Solar System, and have the distinction of having black, upside-down crescents on their foreheads. They are led by Prince Diamond, who has been manipulated by the Wiseman so that he and the Black Moon Clan members gather power for him.
The Death Busters (デス・バスターズ Desu Basutāzu?, called Heart Snatchers in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Infinity arc of the manga and in Sailor Moon S. Led by Professor Tomoe, the Death Busters have as main goal the resurrection of Mistress 9, who in turn would bring the alien creature Pharaoh 90 to Earth to destroy it in an event known as "Silence".
Dead Moon Circus
The Dead Moon Circus (デッド・ムーン・サーカス Deddo Mūn Sākasu?, called Dark Moon Circus in the original English dub) are the main antagonists in the Dream arc of the manga and in Sailor Moon SuperS. Led by Zirconia, members of the Dead Moon Circus are looking for the Golden Crystal, which will allow their Queen Nehelenia to break free of her entrapment within a mirror and take over the Earth.
Shadow Galactica (シャドウ・ギャラクティカ Shadō Gyarakutika?) are the main antagonists in the Stars arc of the manga and most of Sailor Stars. Shadow Galactica is an organization of corrupted Sailor Soldiers led by Sailor Galaxia, who devote themselves to stealing Star Seeds, the essence of sentient life, from all in the Milky Way. Their final goal is that of reorganizing the universe in the image that Chaos, the primary antagonist of the series, desires.
Hell Tree aliens
The Hell Tree aliens are a minor group of antagonists featured only in the first thirteen episodes of Sailor Moon R. In these episodes, two new transfer students, Seijuro Ginga and Natsumi Ginga, join Usagi's class at Juuban Junior high school. Around the same time, two new enemies appear, calling themselves Ail and Ann. They had wandered around space alone for many years before reaching Earth, where they finally find energy to collect for the eponymous Hell Tree so that they can revive it and, in turn, it can give them energy to survive. Unlike other antagonists of the series, their mission was primarily that of survival, not conquest or destruction.
Ail and Ann use monsters of the day named Cardians (カーディアン Kādian?) to obtain energy to revive the Hell Tree. The Cardians are kept in cards until they are summoned by Ail. To summon them, Ail would hold up several cards, and Ann would pick one. The card would then rise into the air and Ail would play a tune on his flute which causes the Cardian to come alive. When a Cardian is destroyed, it changes back into its card form and the picture of the cardian on the card turns black after a few seconds.
Ail and Ann
Ail (エイル Eiru?) and Ann (アン An?) are two aliens who pose respectively as Seijūrō Ginga (銀河 星十郎 Ginga Seijūrō?, called Alan Granger in the original English dub) and Natsumi Ginga (銀河 夏美 Ginga Natsumi?, called Ann Granger in the original English dub), two transfer students that live in the Jūban Odyssey apartments. While trying to blend in with the humans at Usagi's school, Ail assumes the role of brother to Ann. He develops a crush on Usagi, and constantly tries to win her over, much to the dismay of Ann and Mamoru. He constantly denies these feelings to Ann, knowing her to have fits of jealous rage. On the other hand, Ann develops a crush on Mamoru, and constantly tries to win him over, much to the dismay of Ail and Usagi. Ail and Ann are the only two of their kind, and could be considered as siblings as well as romantic partners since they were both born from the Hell Tree so it would not be lonely on their planet with just the ocean anymore.
Hikaru Midorikawa voiced Ail in the original series, and Yumi Tōma voiced Ann. In the DIC English version, Alan is voiced by Vince Corazza and Ann by Sabrina Grdevich. In the Viz Media English version, Ail is voiced Brian Beacock and Ann by Johanna Luis.
The Hell Tree
The Hell Tree (魔界樹 Makai Ju?, called the Doom Tree in the original English dub) itself is an alien tree that nourishes Ail and Ann, but it becomes weak and requires energy to stay alive. For some time they supply it with human energy to revive but eventually it stops working. In the final episode of the story arc, the aliens try to give Usagi to it as an offering, because Usagi's energy that the Hell Tree stole caused a sapling to grow on the Tree. The Tree becomes angered and starts to injure those around it, killing Ann in the process. It stops to tell its story to Sailor Moon: the Tree once lived alone on a faraway planet on an island in a vast ocean for countless years until it began to create life (the English dub changed the story to suggest it was once called "The Tree of Life"). It gave energy to its children, but eventually they became greedy and began to fight over the power. When the fighting destroyed the planet, the Tree fled into space with several survivors, but they struggled to survive and in the end, there were only two small children left, Ail and Ann. It was now weak and needed the energy of love to survive. Sailor Moon uses her power to purify the Tree, and it disappears. Ann is resurrected and when she reunites with Ail, a small sapling appears to them; the Tree has been reborn and they are given a chance to start over, and they leave Earth to live a better life with the Tree.
The Hell Tree was voiced in Japanese by Taeko Nakanishi. In the DIC English adaptation, the Doom Tree was voiced by Elizabeth Hanna. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Erin Fitzgerald.
Luna, Artemis, and Diana
The series includes three different cat characters who act as advisors to their respective owners. Each has the power of speech, and bears a crescent moon symbol on his or her forehead. The two older cats, Luna and Artemis, lived in the Moon Kingdom millennia before the main plot and acted as advisors to Queen Serenity—the third, Diana, is much younger and was born on Earth. Because of this close association with the Moon, they are each named after Greek and Roman goddesses. The cats serve as mentors and confidantes, as well as a source of information and new tools and special items. They are shown to have additional physical forms, a deeper backstory, and even an unrequited love or two. Although Luna takes the largest role of the three, technically Artemis was the first of the cats to appear; he figures prominently in Codename: Sailor V, the manga series which preceded Sailor Moon.
In the anime, it is never suggested that the cats are anything but cats, and only Luna ever transforms into a human. In Act 41 of the manga, however, Sailor Moon's power causes the cats to take on human forms. Luna's shape is the same as she had acquired previously, Artemis gets reverted to the form he had taken earlier in the arc to save Minako, while Diana is shown this way for the first time. The reason for their transformation is not discussed until Act 46 of the manga, in which the three are attacked by Sailor Tin Nyanko, a false Soldier from their original planet, Mau (named after the real cat species the Egyptian Mau). Artemis terms it a peace-loving world, but Tin Nyanko informs him that after he and Luna "abandoned" it, its people were wiped out by Sailor Galaxia. Tin Nyanko hits all three of them with blasts from her bracelets on their crescent moon symbols, and they shift to ordinary cats, unable to speak. Later, as they care for the badly injured cats, Princess Kakyuu tells Usagi that the three of them have powerful starseeds, as brilliant as Sailor Crystals. In Act 48, they are brought to the River Lethe and killed by Sailor Lethe. They are reincarnated at the end of the series with everyone else.
Luna (ルナ Runa?) is a black cat who is a devoted servant to Princess Serenity and advisor to her mother, Queen Serenity. When the kingdom falls, she and Artemis are put into a long sleep and sent down to Earth to look after the Sailor Soldiers, who are to be reborn there. Part of Luna's memory becomes suppressed, so that she must find the Sailor Soldiers. She first encounters Usagi Tsukino and teaches her to become Sailor Moon, unaware that it is actually the reincarnated Princess Serenity. Luna also provides the Soldiers with many of their special items. Over the course of the series, Luna develops a close bond with Usagi, though early on it is on uneasy terms, as Luna often upsets Usagi by giving her unsolicited advice. She also becomes good friends with Ami Mizuno. She and Artemis have an implied romantic relationship, which is confirmed when they meet Diana, who is their daughter from the future. In the anime adaptation of Sailor Stars, Luna also develops a crush on Kou Yaten, one of the Three Lights.
In "The Lover of Princess Kaguya," a side-story of the manga, she falls in love with a human named Kakeru. This story was adapted in Sailor Moon S: The Movie, and features Luna's first transformation into a human. She gets a cold and tries to find her way home despite Artemis' plea to go with her. She ends up lying in the street until she is rescued by Kakeru from roadkill.
In Act 27 of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Luna gains the ability to turn into a young human girl, going by the name Luna Tsukino while able to become a Sailor Soldier known as "Sailor Luna". She is shown living mainly as a human with Usagi's family, with whom she gets along quite well, though she still takes on her cat form when necessary. Her personality as a human girl is essentially identical to her normal self and is easily overwhelmed by her feline nature, but she is also shown to have taken on some of the personality traits of Usagi and her mother, such as acting in the same melodramatic manner when waking up in the morning. Takeuchi designed the character of Sailor Luna. Luna's human form is portrayed by Rina Koike, who thought that she was going to play Chibiusa until she went in for a costume fitting.
In the first official Sailor Moon character popularity poll, Luna was the eighth most popular character out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, Luna was the twenty-second most popular character.
Luna is voiced by Keiko Han in the anime television series and Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, and by Ryō Hirohashi in all media following Sailor Moon Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Jill Frappier, who portrayed the character with an English accent, described as "fairly old, not to mention cranky and British". Her role in the series has been compared to Rupert Giles' in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Michelle Ruff.
Artemis (アルテミス Arutemisu?) is the white cat companion to Minako Aino, the leader of the Sailor Soldiers—he trains her to become Sailor V, and remains by her side when she takes on her proper role as Sailor Venus. He first guides Usagi Tsukino through the Sailor V video game at the Crown Game Center arcade, but not revealing his true identity. When a technical problem reveals him, Luna is greatly annoyed to learn that he has been the one guiding her all along. Later, he fills in the details of her true mission. In the Sailor V manga and Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Artemis gives special items to the Soldiers, although unlike Luna he does not seem to produce them himself. He never does this in the Sailor Moon manga or the anime. He also does not seem to mind the fact that he is named after a female goddess, even when teased about it by Minako. Artemis is more easygoing than Luna, and has a "big brother" relationship with Minako, although his attraction to her is sometimes implied. He also cares very deeply about Luna, often comforting her when she is distressed and stating his admiration of her. In addition, he is a good father to Diana as evidenced by her affection for him.
In the first official Sailor Moon character popularity poll, Artemis was the seventeenth most popular character out of thirty eight choices. One year later, now with fifty choices, Artemis was the twenty-sixth most popular character.
In the original Japanese series, Artemis is voiced by Yasuhiro Takato in Sailor Moon and by Yōhei Ōbayashi in Crystal and all media since. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, he is voiced by Kappei Yamaguchi. He appears in the first Sailor Moon musical, played by a cat-suited Keiji Himeno. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Ron Rubin. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Johnny Yong Bosch.
Diana (ダイアナ Daiana?) is the future daughter of Luna and Artemis. She first appears when the Sailor Soldiers travel to the 30th century in the Black Moon arc. After defeating Death Phantom, the Sailor Soldiers return to the 20th century and Diana joins them. In the anime only, she appears until Sailor Moon SuperS calling Artemis her father, to Luna's initial dismay. Only later it is revealed that Diana has come from the future and that her mother is Luna. Just as Luna and Artemis guide Usagi and Minako, Diana acts as a guardian to Chibiusa. She is very curious, eager to help, and deeply polite, always addressing Usagi and Mamoru with the Japanese honorific "-sama" and calling Chibiusa by her formal title, Small Lady. She is also able to help the Sailor Soldiers on occasion, despite her youth, and often because of the knowledge she has gained in the future.
In the second official Sailor Moon character popularity poll, Diana was the sixteenth most popular character out of fifty choices.
Diana is voiced by Kumiko Nishihara in the first series, and by Shoko Nakagawa in Crystal and all media since. In the Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Loretta Jafelice in the series, and by Naomi Emmerson in Sailor Moon Super S: The Movie.
The Sailor Starlights (セーラースターライツ Sērā Sutāraitsu?) are a group composed of Sailor Star Fighter, Sailor Star Maker, and Sailor Star Healer; when in civilian form they go by the pseudonyms Kou Seiya, Kou Taiki, and Kou Yaten respectively. They come from the fictional planet Kinmoku, which has been destroyed, and disguise themselves as male pop stars, The Three Lights (スリーライツ Surī Raitsu?), in order to hide their true identities as they search for their lost princess, Kakyuu.
In their past, Princess Kakyuu leaves Kinmoku to escape Sailor Galaxia's assault, Sailor Star Fighter, Star Healer, and Star Maker abandoned the planet to find her. They are able to track Kakyuu to Earth and then Japan. The Starlights took male civilian forms to attract as much attention as possible. Their music is embedded with a telepathic broadcast that the Princess (and later Usagi and Michiru) can feel, serving as a beacon to guide Kakyuu to them. Later, the Three Lights all attend Jūban High School. As Starlights, they distance themselves from the other Sailor Soldiers, deeming Earth as not being their responsibility. They come into conflict with Sailors Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto on multiple occasions, as they view the Starlights as invaders. Eventually, they are killed off by Sailor Chi and Sailor Phi, Galaxia's closest servants. In the anime only, the trio appears as males in their civilian forms, becoming women when transforming into Sailor Soldiers. The Starlights survive several direct battles with Galaxia herself, and help Usagi defeat Chaos to save Galaxia.
Their exact relationship to each other is unknown; according to the manga they are not siblings. The three share one name, Kou, which is always second when their full names are given. Because this is the location of the given name in Japanese order, it is usually assumed that they have different family names but one given name. "Kou" (光) translates to "light," among other things, making the name "Three Lights" a pun. In the English manga, "Kou" was translated to "Lights" and was used as their shared family name.
Takeuchi has expressed surprise at Toei Animation's decision to make the Starlights lead characters in the anime adaptation, but she was even more shocked by their treatment of the Starlights' gender. The change was directly overseen by director Takuya Igarashi. In the Italian dub, instead of changing sex, there were six people - the Three Lights were always men, and simply summoned their twin sisters instead of transforming, as the original depiction was very controversial in Italy.
The Starlights are featured in several of the Sailor Moon musicals (Sailor Stars, Eien Densetsu, and their revised editions, plus Ryuusei Densetsu, and Kakyuu-Ouhi Kourin). While played by women, it is meant to be ambiguous as to whether or not they take on male forms (like in the anime) or are cross-dressers (like in the manga), though their personalities are clearly from the anime. Their story also combines elements from both the manga and the anime; for instance, they travel to the Galaxy Cauldron as they do in the manga, but survive the battles against Galaxia as they do in the anime. The pairings with the Sailor Soldiers from the anime are also featured in some musicals.
Sailor Star Fighter
Kou Seiya (星野 光 Seiya Kō?) is the leader of the Starlights as Sailor Star Fighter (セーラースターファイター Sērā Sutā Faitā?) and the lead vocals for the Three Lights. In general, Seiya acts arrogant and tends to be, at least on the surface, confident in his/her own abilities.
Seiya becomes the star player of the local high school American football team, and becomes the school's star athlete, upsetting Haruka Tenoh, as she was the previous star athlete of the school (on the track & field team, however). Eventually, she raises the suspicions of the Sailor Soldiers as to her identity. In the anime only, Taiki and Yaten consider him prone to bouts of childishness (such as when he shows off his basketball skills in front of the school), but generally follow his lead.
Eventually, Seiya develops strong feelings for Usagi and his attempts to forge a bond with her provides the primary romantic tension of the season. From their first meeting on, Seiya calls Usagi odango, like Mamoru does. The two even go on a date at an amusement park, which prematurely ends when Sailor Iron Mouse attacks. Seiya makes his interest in her clear when they spend time together practicing softball, telling her, "I like your light." However, Seiya's feelings are not fully reciprocated and acknowledges the one-sided romance, finally kissing her cheek and saying "I wish I had met you sooner." After Galaxia's defeat, before leaving earth, Seiya tells Usagi he will never forget her while Usagi, oblivious to what he really meant, tells him that they will always be the greatest friends.
The relationship between Sailor Star Fighter and Princess Kakyuu is slightly ambiguous. In the manga, the princess had a lover who was killed by Galaxia. In the anime, when he daydreams of his home planet, he thinks lovingly of an image of his princess, which is suddenly superimposed by an image of Usagi (much as Usagi had seen Seiya's image overlaid by Mamoru in previous episodes). In the image poem released for his CD single, however, he suggests that his feelings for her are because he is "carrying the heart of a boy" and because he was attracted to her light.
Seiya's responsibilities in the band are lead vocals, guitar, and lyrics. S/he was seen in the anime playing the drums very angrily in their hideout because they think their princess has not heard them yet. After this, Seiya is not seen on the drums again. S/he also enjoys American football and belongs to the club at school. According to Naoko Takeuchi's words, when she created this character it was meant to be a combination between Haruka and Mamoru, and was modeled after Jenny Shimizu.
Sailor Star Maker
Kou Taiki (大気 光 Taiki Kō?), better known as Sailor Star Maker (セーラースターメイカー Sērā Sutā Meikā?), is the most intellectual of the trio. His/Her abilities rival that of Ami Mizuno, though s/he considers her romantic notions foolish. In the anime, Ami's appeal for him to see the good in dreaming does begin to have an effect, however. In combat with a phage, Star Maker is the first of the Starlights to willingly allow Sailor Moon to heal the monster rather than trying to kill it herself. She spares the monster only because it had been a teacher who Ami respected. Later in the series, as he is beginning to lose hope in finding Princess Kakyuu, he visits a sick girl named Misa in the hospital. She shows him a drawing of the Princess that she sees when she listens to the Three Lights' song. With renewed hope, Taiki returns to the Three Lights. In the anime, he sometimes wears glasses.
Like Yaten, Taiki believes that Seiya should stay away from Usagi after learning she is Sailor Moon, despite their wish, shared by Princess Kakyuu and the Sailor Soldiers, for them all to work together. However, his views on Usagi change for the better near the end of Sailor Stars. He seems to be the most cool headed of the trio.
Taiki's responsibilities in the band are background vocals, keyboards/synthesizer, and composition. S/he also enjoys poetry and belongs to the literature club at school. Taiki is meant to be a more distant Setsuna Meioh.
Sailor Star Healer
Kou Yaten (夜天 光 Yaten Kō?), better known as Sailor Star Healer (セーラースターヒーラー Sērā Sutā Hīrā?), is a lonely person who does not like to socialize or do sports. His/Her remarks are often sharp-edged and blunt, which further separates her from the world. At one point, the other Starlights even chastise Yaten for behaving in a way that might reduce the number of fans. Yaten does not interact with the people around her much. She wants to focus on the mission most of all. She is egotistical and nurses grudges, and she hates injury. However, she and Luna get along well.
In the anime adaptation, he has the most spiritual awareness of the Starlights, and is able to tell when Starseeds are taken by Sailor Galaxia. He views humans as untrustworthy and wants to find Princess Kakyuu so they can leave Earth as quickly as possible. This comes further to light when they discover that Usagi is Sailor Moon. Yaten believes that Seiya should stay away from Usagi, despite their wish, shared by Princess Kakyuu and the Sailor Soldiers, for them all to work together. His view is shared by Taiki as well as Sailors Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. However, also like Taiki, his views on Usagi change for the better near the end of Sailor Stars. In Yaten's civilian form in the anime, "he" is shown to be physically stronger than Makoto Kino, the strongest of the Guardian Soldiers, in her civilian form.
Ikuko Tsukino (月野 育子 Tsukino Ikuko?) is the Earth mother of Usagi (Sailor Moon). She is often seen cooking and lecturing Usagi for her grades in school; still, they are shown to be pretty close, since she gives Usagi advice on relationships of all kinds from time to time, and eagerly accepts her relationship with Mamoru. She cares for Chibiusa when she is present, whom she believes to be her niece, but who in truth is her future granddaughter. She also cares for Chibichibi, whom she believes to be her second daughter. Ikuko's name and design are modeled after Takeuchi's mother.
In the live-action series, Ikuko is portrayed as an extremely outgoing, quirky, and determined person. She changes her hairstyle almost every day, is constantly trying out new (and questionable) omelette recipes, and loves nothing more than being in the spotlight. She is even high school friends with Minako's manager, and it is said the two of them were big participants in their school's theater program.
In the original Japanese series, Ikuko is voiced by Sanae Takagi in the first anime and by Yuko Mizutani in Crystal. In the DIC and Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Barbara Radecki. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Tara Platt. Kaori Moriwaka portrays Ikuko in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.
Kenji Tsukino (月野 謙之 Tsukino Kenji?) is Usagi's Earth father. Kenji, like his wife Ikuko, is totally clueless about Usagi's real identity. A stereotypical well-meaning Japanese salaryman, he works as a magazine reporter and later as an editor-in-chief. Kenji is quite affectionate with his wife. Early on, he becomes jealous when he sees Usagi with Mamoru Chiba, thinking that Umino is a better candidate. Kenji is the only member of his family who notices the similarities between Sailor Moon and Usagi. He senses a maturity in his daughter that comes when she is finally aware of her status as Princess Serenity, and notes that at times her beauty seems serene. Kenji appears less frequently after the anime adaptation's second season.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, he never appears in the main body of the series, which is explained by his always being away on business trips. He does appear briefly in the direct-to-DVD Special Act however, crying at Usagi's wedding.
In the anime series, Kenji is voiced by Yuji Machi in the first series and by Mitsuaki Madono in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by David Huband. In the Viz Media English adaptation, he is voiced by Keith Silverstein. In the Special Act of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, he is portrayed by series director Ryuta Tasaki.
Shingo Tsukino (月野 進悟 Tsukino Shingo?, called Sammy Tsukino in the original English dub) is the younger brother of Usagi, making her the only Sailor Soldiers with any known siblings. His influence in her life is alternately helpful and mocking; he considers her well-meaning, but a crybaby and accident-prone. Though unaware of his sister's true identity, Shingo is impressed by the media-hyped urban legends of Sailor Moon and Sailor V. He is a particularly enthusiastic fan of Sailor Moon, because she rescued him from Dark Kingdom forces fairly early on in her career. He enjoys video games, and is a studious student. Shingo's favorite book is listed as Shonen J*mp (a reference to the manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump), and he likes to play games on the Famicom. In the anime, Shingo appears in several episodes of the first season, but is less frequently seen afterwards.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Shingo dislikes much of what his sister and mother do, and seems to not care about much of life in general. In the video game Another Story, Shingo is temporarily granted a large role, as he is kidnapped by the villains as ransom in an attempt to force his big sister Usagi to hand over the Silver Crystal.
In the original Japanese series, Shingo is voiced by Chiyoko Kawashima until her retirement, with Seria Ryū taking over the role afterward in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Julie Lemieux. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Nicolas Roye. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, he is portrayed by Naoki Takeshi.
Naru Osaka (大阪 なる Ōsaka Naru?, called Molly Baker in the original English dub) is Usagi's best friend and schoolmate at the start of the series. Naru and her mother are the very first victims of a monster attack, and Naru hero-worships Sailor Moon for saving them. Throughout the series she continues to be a frequent target of villains and monsters. In a "memorable subplot" of the anime adaptation, Naru falls in love with Nephrite, who eventually returns her feelings and attempts to atone for his misdeeds. His death while protecting Naru devastates her throughout the first season. Kotono Mitsuishi was particularly touched by this sequence. In the anime only, Naru ends up dating Gurio Umino.
Naru plays a much more important role in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, even learning most of the truth about the Sailor Soldiers. She is an also more confident and outgoing person. For a short while, she and Ami share a conflicted relationship as both seem to be jealous of the other's closeness with Usagi. However, they later resolve their differences and become good friends themselves.
Naru's younger sister, Naruru, features in a short side story in the Stars manga, although it is stated in the anime that she is an only child. Naruru at first makes an official cameo with Haruka, Michiru, and Usagi at the high school and is shown getting along with them. She only has lines in the Stars manga short side story.
In the official Sailor Moon character popularity polls, she was ranked 19th in the third volume of Sailor Moon, and 23rd in the seventh volume. Patrick Drazen describes her characterization as "self-sacrificing" and "compassionate".
She is voiced by Shino Kakinuma in the original series and by Satomi Satō in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced Mary Long. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Danielle Judovits. Chieko Kawabe portrays her in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.
Gurio Umino (海野 ぐりお Umino Gurio?, called Melvin Butlers in the original English dub) is a student in Usagi's class at school. He is usually called simply Umino, and begins with a severe infatuation with Usagi. His defining characteristic is his glasses, which have odd swirls in them, denoting their thickness. Umino is commonly portrayed as "nerdy", "weird" and "know-it-all", and he keeps Usagi informed on current events, new students, gossip, and any other information she might appreciate. In the anime, he eventually ends up dating Naru, and like her, his importance gradually decreases after the first anime series. In the manga, Umino is implied (and later confirmed by Takeuchi) to be incredibly handsome when he takes his glasses off, a joke riffing on his ordinarily nerdy appearance.
The kanji in Umino's surname represent a pun meaning either "ocean field" or "of ocean"; as such, it is constructed in the same way as Usagi's and those of all four Guardian Soldiers. His first name, Gurio, is given in hiragana and so its meaning is unclear.
In the Japanese series, his voice actor is Keiichi Nanba in Sailor Moon and Daiki Yamashita in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Roland Parliament. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Ben Diskin.
Haruna Sakurada (桜田 春菜 Sakurada Haruna?, called Patricia Haruna in the original English dub) is a junior high school teacher who often lectures Usagi for her laziness. Haruna also intends to find a husband, which makes her an easy target for the Dark Kingdom during the first arc. She often engages in seemingly childish things in this regard as well. She appears less frequently as the series progresses, and is never seen after Usagi and her friends start a new school year. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Haruna assigns pop quizzes and clean-up duty when needed. She has an extremely eccentric personality, and is very friendly and motherly towards her students, even Usagi.
The kanji in her name mean "cherry blossom" (sakura), "rice field" (da), "spring" (haru), and "vegetables" (na). The "spring" part of her name becomes a pun in the context of other works by Takeuchi: Haruna appears very briefly in one earlier series, The Cherry Project, which features her sister Fuyuna in one of its side stories. Two other characters with similar names appear in Takeuchi works: Natsuna in Codename: Sailor V and Akina in PQ Angels. The Japanese words fuyu, natsu, and aki mean "winter," "summer," and "autumn" respectively.
In the Japanese series, Haruna is originally voiced by Chiyoko Kawashima in Sailor Moon until her retirement in 2001. Akemi Kanda voices her from Crystal onwards. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Nadine Rabinovitch. In the Viz Media English adaptation, her voice is supplied by Julie Ann Taylor. She is played by Tomoko Otakara in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon In the musicals, Haruna is portrayed at various points by Kasumi Hyuuga and Kiho Seishi.
Motoki Furuhata (古幡 元基 Furuhata Motoki?, called Andrew Furuhata in the original English dub) works at the Crown Game Center, a video arcade Usagi frequently visits. In A Scout is Born, an adaptation of the first anime three episodes by Stuart J. Levy, he is called Andrew Foreman. Motoki also holds a job at the Crown Fruit Parlor and is a KO University student along with Mamoru Chiba. After he recognizes the Sailor Soldiers and learns their true identities, Motoki vows not to tell anyone. In the anime adaptation, Usagi calls him "Big Brother" Motoki (元基お兄さん Motoki-oniisan?) and has a crush on him in the beginning of the series. Motoki and Mamoru also attend the Azabu Institute of Technology. He is pretty naive, and says that he views the girls as younger sisters, oblivious to the fact that they have crushes on him. He has a little sister, Unazuki Furuhata, who is also friends with Usagi and the others. His girlfriend is Reika Nishimura, a wonderful science student. Later throughout the series, it is revealed that he and Reika knew Setsuna while she was studying at their university.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, the Crown Center is a karaoke parlor. There is an initial recurring flirtatious relationship between Motoki and Makoto until it becomes a bit more serious, and in the special act, which takes place four years after the series finale, Motoki proposes to Makoto, who accepts.
In the Japanese series, Motoki is voiced by Hiroyuki Satō in Sailor Moon and by Hiroshi Okamoto in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptations, he is voiced by Colin O'Meara, then Steven Bednarski. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Lucien Dodge. Motoki is portrayed by Masaya Kikawada in Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.
Reika Nishimura (西村 レイカ Nishimura Reika?, called Rita Blake in the original English dub) is Motoki Furuhata's girlfriend and fellow student at KO University. She later befriends Setsuna Meioh there. In the anime only, she the reincarnation of the Great Youma Rikokeidā. After leaving Japan twice to study abroad, she eventually leaves the country for 10 years, but Motoki is still willing to wait for her. She is voiced by Rica Fukami in the original series and by Mai Nakahara in Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, Reika was voiced by Katherine Trowell, Wendy Lyon, and Daniela Olivieri in her three appearances in that order respectively. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Erica Mendez.
Rei's grandfather (レイのおじいさん Rei no ojiisan?) is the perverted grandfather of Rei Hino and a Shinto priest that lives at the Hikawa Shrine. In the anime, he has a different physical appearance and he plays a more prominent role appearing as one of the holders of the Rainbow Crystals that make up the Silver Crystal. He often hits on anyone regardless of gender. In the original Japanese series, his voice actor is Tomomichi Nishimura in the first anime. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by David Fraser, except in Sailor Moon S episode 99 where he was voiced by John Stocker as a stand-in. In the Viz Media English adaptation, his voice is supplied by Michael Sorich.
Yūichirō Kumada (熊田 雄一郎 Kumada Yūichirō?, called Chad Kumada in the original English dub) is an anime-only character appearing as a ragged-looking young man who helps out at the Hikawa Shrine. His family is very rich and even has a lodge in the mountains. He takes Rei Hino and her friends to his parents' lodge, where they go skiing. After falling in love with Rei, Yūichirō decides to stay at the Hikawa Shrine so he could always be near her. Even though she does not reciprocate his love, he remains faithful and tries to protect her. She warms up to his personality considerably over time. In the first Japanese anime series, Yūichirō is voiced by Bin Shimada. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Steven Bednarski. In the Viz Media English adaption, he is voiced by Wally Wingert.
Unazuki Furuhata (古幡 宇奈月 Furuhata Unazuki?, called Elizabeth "Lizzie" Furuhata in the original English dub) is the younger sister of Motoki Furuhata who works as a waitress at the Crown Fruit Parlor, where the Sailor Soldiers spend much of their free time in the latter parts of the anime. Unazuki attends T*A Private Girls School with Rei Hino. She first appears sporadically, with her first appearance in Sailor Moon R as a mistaken love rival for Mamoru Chiba, as well as dreaming of her first kiss in Sailor Moon S, which results in being targeted by the Death Busters. Unazuki appears more frequently in SuperS as a major supporting character and is usually among Usagi's group.
She is voiced by Miyako Endou in the first series, with Eriko Hara as a stand in. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is first voiced by Sabrina Grdevich and later by Catherine Disher. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Veronica Taylor.
In the second Sailor Moon popularity poll, Unazuki was ranked the twenty-ninth most popular character, out of fifty choices.
Ittou Asanuma (浅沼 一等 Asanuma Ittō?) is introduced in the Black Moon arc of the manga as Makoto's friend. He is interested in science fiction, UFOs and the paranormal activity that occurs in the area. He greatly respects Mamoru, who is an upperclassman at his school. Asanuma initially thinks that the Sailor Soldiers are aliens. However, after he sees Luna talk, Makoto confesses the Soldiers' identities to him. Asanuma is later attacked by Ayakashi sister Calaveras until he is rescued by Sailor Moon. At the beginning of the Infinity arc he appears with Mamoru and Chibiusa in an amusement park, and in the Stars arc he gives Mamoru's phone number to Usagi when she is unable to locate him. Asanuma makes a cameo in the anime, looking for Mamoru when the latter has been controlled by Queen Nehelenia. He is voiced by Kazuya Nakai in the original series and by Daisuke Sakaguchi in Crystal.
Momoko Momohara (桃原 桃子 Momohara Momoko?) appears as an elementary school student who befriends Chibiusa. In the anime, she is first caught up in a fight with Chiral and Achiral, two Black Moon members, and badly injured as a result causing Chibiusa to go into a fit and unleash her latent powers at the monsters. Later, Momoko becomes the first target of the Amazoness Quartet, but is saved by Sailor Chibi Moon and Sailor Moon.
In the second Sailor Moon popularity poll, she was ranked the twenty-fifth most popular character, out of fifty choices.
Kyūsuke Sarashina (更科 九助 Sarashina Kyūsuke?, called Kelly Sarashina in the English dub) attends elementary school with Chibiusa and Momoko. He is known to be very athletic, but also sarcastic. Kyūsuke makes recurring appearances in Sailor Moon SuperS, and is targeted by Amazoness JunJun in Episode 155. He appears in a later episode, when Chibiusa befriends a boy named Hiroki, who is trying to build a flying machine. While Kyūsuke initially seems resentful of Hiroki and how impressed Chibiusa is with Hiroki's dream, Kyūsuke ends up being the one to encourage Hiroki continue building the flying machine after multiple failed attempts. He is voiced by Kazumi Okushima in his initial appearance, and by Daisuke Sakaguchi in all subsequent appearances.
Queen Serenity (クィーン・セレニティ Kuīn Sereniti?) is the mother of Princess Serenity. As the Queen of the Moon, she reigns during the Silver Millennium. She states that the ancients have known her as the goddess Selene, and because of this her name is sometimes romanized as "Queen Selenity". She is portrayed as having been a "good ruler". When the Dark Kingdom attacks the Silver Millennium, she sacrifices herself by using the Silver Crystal to seal Queen Metaria and to make her daughter, Endymion and the Sailor Soldiers be reborn on Earth. Queen Serenity first appears as a hologram, and specifically mentions having saved her spirit within the computer in order to preserve her will. She tells the Sailor Soldiers of their past lives, which they begin to remember as she describes them, and tells them that they must find Metaria, who has escaped the seal placed on her and gone into hiding on Earth. She only appears in flashbacks after this. In the anime adaptation's second season, Queen Serenity allows Usagi to gain her latest transformation. She also appears in the "Special Act" of Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon.
She is voiced by Mika Doi in the first anime series, with Mami Koyama taking over the role for Crystal. In the DIC/Cloverway English adaptation, she is voiced by Barbara Radecki and Wendy Lyon. In the Viz Media English adaptation, she is voiced by Wendee Lee. In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Miyuu Sawai portrays Queen Serenity, with her voice dubbed over by Yoko Soumi.
Phobos and Deimos
Phobos (フォボス Fobosu?) and Deimos (ディモス Dimosu?) are Rei's pet crows that live at the shrine, which she named after the two moons of Mars. They have the ability to sense evil, and sometimes even attack enemies. It is revealed that when Rei was a child, they "told" her their names. Eventually, they reveal themselves as the Power Guardians—small, humanoid sprites, in charge of guarding Sailor Mars. They save Sailor Mars from being killed by Tiger's Eye and give her new Sailor Crystal to her. They are later revealed to be from the planet Coronis when they encounter Sailor Lead Crow, who also happens to be from Coronis. Sailor Lead Crow steals Phobos and Deimos' star seeds, killing them. The two of them have star-seeds on a level near or equal to a Sailor Crystal.
In Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Rei's crows appear only in the third episode. In the Another Story video game, they go with her on the search for Jadeite's stone. A fake Deimos and Phobos appear in crow form in the musical Sailor Moon S - Usagi - Ai no Senshi e no Michi. They were portrayed by male actors. Like Luna and Artemis before them, they are portrayed as adult actors in animal costumes.
Helios (祭司エリオス Saiji Eriosu?) is the priest and guardian of Elysion, which is the sacred land that protects the planet Earth from within and the place where the Golden Kingdom used to be in the times of the Silver Millennium. Helios and Endymion never met, though they were aware of each other and the fact that they shared the same wish of protecting Earth. When Elysion is invaded by the Dead Moon Circus, Helios is sealed in the body of an alicorn, Pegasus (一角天馬 Pegasasu?), and placed inside a cage. Remembering a woman he had seen in a vision, he sends out his spirit in the form of Pegasus to seek her help. He asks Sailor Moon and Sailor Chibi Moon for aid, giving them information and new weapons. He and Chibiusa become close, and he eventually discovers that her adult version is the woman he had seen. In the end, when the enemy is defeated and he has departed on the back of the "real" Pegasus, Chibiusa thinks to herself that when she has grown up, he will become her "prince."
Helios is assisted by the Maenads (メナード Menado?), two priestesses who guard a shrine in Elysion. They escaped the Dead Moon Circus curse by falling asleep. The Maenads eventually wake up and guide Chibiusa to Helios, and later witness Nehelenia's defeat along with the main characters.
In the anime adaptation, Helios guards the Golden Crystal that protects the dreams of Earth's people. He is directly attacked by the Dead Moon Circus for this reason, and leaves his own body to flee with the crystal. Taking the form of Pegasus, he places the crystal on his forehead as a horn and goes into hiding in the dreams of Chibiusa. There, he not only asks for her help but also grants power to her and to her allies using several special items. Though he does not trust Chibiusa at first, they gradually develop a connection, and in the end he tells her his secrets. In the anime series, he is voiced by Taiki Matsuno in Sailor Moon. In the Cloverway English adaptation, he is voiced by Robert Bockstael. In the musicals, Pegasus is voiced by Yuuta Enomoto.
Takeuchi stated that she was dissatisfied with Helios' clothing design, having created his outfit in a hurry because it was easy to draw and she was pressed for time. She describes the result as "ugly" and "a disaster," also commenting that the character inherited his "irresponsible ways" from herself.
Princess Kakyuu (火球皇女 Kakyū Purinsesu?), commonly subtitled as Fireball Princess (プリンセス火球 Purinsesu Kakkyū?) is the princess of Kinmoku, a fictional planet outside of the solar system that is also the home of the Sailor Starlights, who are Kakyuu's protectors and spend much of the story searching for her. Kinmoku is attacked and destroyed by Sailor Galaxia, while Kakyuu is injured during the battle. She cannot reveal herself until her wounds are healed, and the Starlights lose contact with her. She travels to Earth because she senses the birth of the Silver Moon Crystal, and hides in a censer that is guarded by Chibichibi. She has her own soldier form, Sailor Kakyuu, and later reveals to Sailor Moon that her own lover had died in the war against Galaxia. Kakyuu eventually reunites with the Starlights and accompanies Sailor Moon to Zero Star Sagittarius to confront Galaxia, but is mortally wounded by Sailor Chi. She dies in Sailor Moon's arms, saying that she wants to be reborn, maybe in a world without war, but at the very least to be with everyone again.
In the anime adaptation, Kakyuu goes to Earth for the "Light of Hope" and hide from Galaxia. During her time under Chibichibi's care, she is aware of the Starlights searching for her, but cannot reveal herself too soon. She eventually saves Sailor Moon and the others from a black hole and resumes leadership of the Starlights. However, after Kakyuu is found, Galaxia steals her star seed, killing her. After Sailor Moon defeats Chaos, Kakyuu is revived. She and her Starlights return to Kinmoku to rebuild and start over. Her Sailor Soldier form is never shown in this adaptation.
Chibichibi (ちびちび?) first appears in Act 44 of the manga and Episode 182 of the anime. She appears to be about two years old, and cannot really talk yet: she imitates the ends of others' sentences, and mostly says "chibi". Her red-pink hair is always up in two heart shaped odango with little ringlets sticking out the sides, echoing Usagi's hairstyle. Chibichibi's name is a doubling of the Japanese term meaning "small person" or "small child" and is used both for that reason and because of Chibichibi's similarity to Chibiusa. It is also a pun, as the word Chibichibi also means "making something last".
Chibichibi's first appearance echoes that of Chibiusa. She is first is shown floating down to Earth with an umbrella in her hand, and then simply shows up at the door of the Tsukino house. In the anime only, she meets Usagi in the park one afternoon and starts to follow her around, saying only "chibi chibi" (without having been prompted). Chibichibi immediately attaches herself to Usagi's family, whose memories are modified so that they believe her to be the youngest child—almost exactly what Chibiusa had done on her first appearance. Chibichibi is the caretaker of a small, ornate censer in which Princess Kakyuu is revealed to have been resting, hidden from the evil Sailor Galaxia. Chibichibi eventually transforms, under her own power, into a Sailor Soldier called Sailor Chibichibi. Although the reprint of the manga continues to omit the word 'moon', it is added to her name on a sticker included with Volume 12. In the manga, Chibichibi transforms into a Sailor Soldier by shouting the words "Chibichibi Crystal Power! Make Up!" This transition is never shown on screen in the anime. In this Sailor Soldier form, she carries a heart scepter with what looks like a planetary ring and uses it to defend herself and Sailor Moon. She is not shown using any attacks of her own, but she does increase Sailor Moon's power.
Chibichibi's childlike form is really a disguise for Sailor Cosmos, an ultimately-powerful Sailor Soldier from the future. In the anime only, Chibichibi is the starseed of Sailor Galaxia, who had once been a great force for good. When Galaxia fought Chaos, she could see no way to defeat it except to seal it away inside her own body. In order to protect her starseed from being corrupted, she sent it away to Earth, where it finally becomes Chibichibi. Chibichibi is also referred to as the "light of hope" (kibō no hikari) by the Starlights; their one chance for defeating Galaxia. In the end, transforms herself into a Sword of Sealing (fuuin no ken), the weapon Galaxia had used to seal away Chaos, and Chibichibi begs Sailor Moon to use it to defeat them. During the battle, Galaxia shatters the sword, killing Chibichibi. However, Chibichibi is revived along with all the other fallen Sailor Soldiers after Sailor Moon cleanses Galaxia of Chaos.
In the anime series, Chibichibi is voiced by Kotono Mitsuishi as well as Sailor Moon in a dual role. In the stage musicals, Chibichibi has been played by 4 actresses: Mao Kawasaki, Mikiko Asuke, Yuka Gouchou, and Mina Horita. Takeuchi praised Kawasaki's cuteness as Chibichibi. When she appears in the stage musicals, Chibichibi's backstory always follows the anime version. She is given her own song, "Mou ii no" (It's All Right), which she sings to announce that she has come to rejoin Galaxia.
Sailor Cosmos (セーラーコスモス Sērā Kosumosu?) is the ultimate form of Sailor Moon. She comes from a future which has been destroyed by the battle with Sailor Chaos; after ages of fighting, she despairs and flees to the past as the infant Chibichibi, to encourage Eternal Sailor Moon to defeat Chaos in the final battle of the series. At first, she wants Sailor Moon to destroy the Galaxy Cauldron altogether, ensuring Chaos' destruction, but Sailor Moon protests, realizing that if the Cauldron is destroyed no more stars will be born, leaving the Galaxy without a future. She chooses to sacrifice herself to the Cauldron and seal Chaos away, which Cosmos finally realizes to have been the right decision. Reminded of the strength and courage she herself needs to have, she returns to the future with new hope. After the end of the anime adaptation, Takeuchi commented that she wished Sailor Cosmos had been in Sailor Moon Sailor Stars.
Differences in character between the Sailor Soldiers mirror differences in their hairstyles, fashion, and magical items, which has translated well into doll lines. Sales of the Sailor Soldiers fashion dolls overtook those of Licca-chan in the 1990s. Mattel attributed this to the "fashion-action" blend of the Sailor Moon storyline; doll accessories included both fashion items and the Soldier's weapons. The first line of dolls included Queen Beryl, the first major antagonist of the series, a decision that was described as a "radical idea". The first dolls based on Chibiusa surprised Takeuchi because, at that time, the author had not even finalized the character's hairstyle, and explains that a watching the doll's head from various angles in a three-dimensional space was wonderful. Bandai introduced a line of little dolls that included the Amazoness Quartet and, according to Takeuchi, these were their favorite because "with their costumes and faithfulness to the originals, the dolls really excelled." When Takeuchi originally designed the Sailor Starlights, she did so without their ponytails, but Bandai explained to her that short-haired dolls were difficult to make. Describing herself as having a "soft spot for dolls", Takeuchi eventually added the ponytails. Several characters, including Sailor Soldiers, villains, supporting characters, and even monsters of the day are featured in a collectible card game was released in 2000 by Dart Flipcards.
Sailor Moon is described largely in terms of its characters—a sustained, 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines who are simultaneously heroic and introspective, active and emotional, dutiful and ambitious. The combination proved extremely successful, and Sailor Moon became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.
The function of the Sailor Soldiers themselves has been analyzed by critics, often in terms of feminist theory. Susan J. Napier describes the Sailor Soldiers as "powerful, yet childlike," suggesting that this is because Sailor Moon is aimed towards an audience of young girls. She states that the Sailor Soldiers readily accept their powers and destinies and do not agonize over them, which can be read as an expression of power and success. The Sailor Soldiers have also been described as merging male and female traits, being both desirable and powerful. As sexualized teen heroines, they are significantly different from the sexless representation of 1980s teen heroines such as Nausicaä. Anne Allison notes that the use of the sailor fuku as a costume makes it easy for girls to identify with the Sailor Soldiers, but also for older males to see them as sex symbols. Unlike the female Power Rangers, who as the series go on become more unisex in both costume and poses, the Sailor Soldiers' costumes become frillier and more "feminine".
Mary Grigsby considers that the Sailor Soldiers blend ancient characteristics and symbols of femininity with modern ideas, reminding the audience of a pre-modern time when females were equal to males, but other critics draw parallels with the modern character type of the aggressive cyborg woman, pointing out that the Sailor Soldiers are augmented by their magical equipment. Much of the Sailor Soldiers' strength stems from their reliance and friendship with other girls rather than from men.
Kazuko Minomiya has described the daily lives of the girls within the series as risoukyou, or "utopic". They are shown as enjoying many leisure activities such as shopping, visiting amusement parks, and hanging out at the Crown Arcade. According to Allison, Minomiya points out that the depiction of life is harder and more serious for male superheroes. The characters "double" as ordinary girls and as "celestially-empowered superheroes". The "highly stylized" transformation that the Sailor Soldiers go through has been said to "symbolically separate" the negative aspects of the characters (laziness, for example) and the positive aspects of the superheroine, and gives each girl her unique uniform and "a set of individual powers". Some commentators have read the transformation of the Sailor Soldiers as symbolic of puberty, as cosmetics appear on the Soldiers and their uniforms highlight cleavages, slim waists, and long legs, which "outright force the pun on heavenly bodies".
Jason Thompson sees the Sailor Moon anime as reinvigorating the magical girl genre by adding dynamic heroines and action-oriented plots. After its success, many 'magical girl' series, like Magic Knight Rayearth, Wedding Peach, Nurse Angel Ririka SOS, Revolutionary Girl Utena, Fushigi Yuugi and Pretty Cure, emerged.
Sailor Moon manga
- Takeuchi, Naoko. 美少女戦士セーラームーン [Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon] (in Japanese). 18 vols. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1992–1997.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon. 12 vols. New York City: Kodansha Comics USA, 2011–2013.
- Allison, Anne (2000). "A Challenge to Hollywood? Japanese Character Goods Hit the US". Japanese Studies (Routledge) 20 (1): 67–88. doi:10.1080/10371390050009075.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3. "All of the sailor soldiers have Sailor Crystals, with the power of their planets hidden inside themselves."
- McCarter, Charles. "Public Interview with Takeuchi Naoko" (Q & A Interview). EX: CLUSIVE. www.ex.org. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- "BLACK MOON - Sailor Moon, created by Naoko Takeuchi". Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 2003). Sailor Moon Shinzoubon Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-334777-X.
- Materials Collection - First Series
- "Sailor Moon GN 1 - Review". Anime News Network. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- 1996 Nakayosi December front matter.
- Supplement to the September 1992 Nakayoshi.
- Act 45.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 283–284. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. New York: Ballantine Books & Del Rey Books. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-345-48590-8.
- Sailor Moon R: The Movie
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1993). "Act 14". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 4. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178753-5.
- "Huge Shock for Usagi! Mamoru Declares a Break Up". Sailor Moon. Series 2. Episode 61 (in Japanese). July 3, 1993. TV Asahi.
- Grigsby, Mary (1998). "Sailormoon: Manga (Comics) and Anime (Cartoon) Superheroine Meets Barbie: Global Entertainment Commodity Comes to the United States." (PDF). The Journal of Popular Culture (32). pp. 59–80. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_59.x. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992 – September 5, 1996). "Act 2". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1995). "Act 36". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 12. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178814-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. p. 12. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. "Act 37". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (December 18, 1993). Codename wa Sailor V Book 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-322801-0.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992). "Act 1". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- "Crazy for Celebrities! Mimet, in Doubt". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 114. November 19, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Mays, Jonathon (April 6, 2004). "Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon - Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-07-20.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 211–123. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 284. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1995-09-06). "Act 35". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 12. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178814-0.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! Of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 212. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (June 6, 1995). "Back of volume". Bishōjo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 10. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178806-X.
- "The Bond of Destiny! The Distant Days of Uranus". Sailor Moon. Series 3. Episode 106. September 3, 1994. Toei. Asahi.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1992). "Act 9". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 2. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178731-4.
- Pretty Guardian Sailor Moon, Act 27.
- DVD Extra: Pretty Guardian Sailormoon Oshiokiyo 25-28
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1993-04-06). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 3. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178744-6.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1994-07-06). Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 7. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178781-0.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Episode 37
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1993). "Volume 2". Codename wa Sailor V Book 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-322801-0.
- As when he spies on her in the shower, with "a lover's eyes." Takeuchi, Naoko (1995). "Act 38". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 13. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178820-5.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1999). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 6, 1996). "Act 44". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- Emily Ravenwood, http://www.alltrees.org/anime/willowandoak/sm.stars.php
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). Bishoujo Senshi Sailormoon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324522-5. Available online at Manga Style!
- Marco Pellitteri, preface by Kiyomitsu Yui; with an essay by Jean-Marie Bouissou; contributions by Gianluca Di Fratta, Cristiano Martorella, Bounthavy Suvilay (2010). The Dragon and the Dazzle: Models, Strategies, and Identities of Japanese Imagination—A European Perspective. Latina, Italy: Tunué. p. 424. ISBN 978-88-89613-89-4.
- Episode 174. Doi, Hitoshi. "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 174". Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Episode 181.
- Episode 187.
- Episodes 194 and 195.
- Episode 200.
- Act 46.
- Episode 195.
- SAILORMUSIC.NET > Lyrics >> Prologue & Poem Sailor Starfighter
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 177". Archived from the original on 14 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 185". Archived from the original on 13 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Sailor Stars episode 178". Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
- "Sailor Moon Crystal Cast Adds Misa Watabane, Daisuke Kisho, Kousuke Toriumi and More". Anime News Network. 2014-06-30.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 6, 1992). "Act 4". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 1. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178721-7.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (February 6, 1995). "Act 29". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 9. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178797-7.
- Episode 5.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 284–285. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- "Sailor Moon Omake Making Of". Sailor Moon. Season 2. 1993-05-08. Toei.
- Levy, Stuart J. A Scout is Born. ISBN 1-892213-11-7.
- Stated by Rei in episode 10
- His name is seen in the credits of Episode 169.
- Naoko Takeuchi. Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon manga, Act 10. "The Manga of Takeuchi Naoko". Retrieved 2006-09-09.
- Emily Ravenwood, More About Gender Dynamics, Etc.
- Act 22.
- Act 41.
- Act 52.
- Episode 30.
- Sailor Moon S musical
- Takeuchi, Naoko (July 5, 1996). "Act 42". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 15. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178835-3.
- 1996 Sailor Moon Musical Sailor Moon Supers (Kaiteiban) Yume Senshi - Ai - Eien ni... Saturn Fukkatsu Hen!
- Takeuchi, Naoko (September 1996). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume IV Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324519-5. ISBN.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (October 1999). Materials Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324521-7.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- ""Chibichibi" translates to "making something last"". Jeffrey's Japanese - English Dictionary Server. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
- The only difference is that Chibiusa made them think she was Usagi's cousin instead of her younger sister.
- Sailor Stars. Episode 193.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1996-09-06). "Act 45". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 16. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178841-8.
- Doi, Hitoshi. "Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon". Archived from the original on 2006-09-02. Retrieved 2006-10-06.
- "eternal.legend". Retrieved 2007-02-08.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (August 1997). Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon Volume V Original Picture Collection. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-324522-5.
- "Naoko Takeuchi at the San Diego Comic Con!". Smile magazine. December 1998. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
In the very last manga, the last book, she [ChibiChibi] is the future Sailor Moon.
- Takeuchi, Naoko (1997-04-04). "Act 52". Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Volume 18. Kodansha. ISBN 4-06-178858-2.
- Takeuchi, Naoko. BSSM Original Picture Collection Vol. V. "Manga Style!". Retrieved 2006-11-10.
- Napier, Susan J. (1998). "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". In Martinez, Dolores P. The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 91–109. ISBN 0-521-63128-9.
- Klugman, Karen (1999) "A Bad Hair Day for G.I. Joe" in Beverly Lyon Clark, Margaret R. Higonnet ed. Girls, Boys, Books, Toys: Gender in Children's Literature and Culture page 173
- The April issue of Nakayoshi 1993, cover.
- Bishoujo Senshi Sailor Moon Original Picture Collection Vol. IV
- Picture Collection 5
- Winge, Theresa (2006). "Project MUSE - Costuming the Imagination: Origins of Anime and Manga Cosplay". Mechademia 1 (1). Muse.jhu.edu. pp. 65–76. doi:10.1353/mec.0.0084. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Allison, Anne 2000. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 259-278. ISBN 978-0-7656-0561-0.
- Schodt, Frederik L. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. page 92 ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.
- Browning, Sheila Rose.; Takeuchi, Naoko (2004) Pretty little girl warriors : a study of images of femininity in Japanese Sailor Moon comics Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--University of Missouri-Columbia. page 2
- Yoshida, Kaori (2002). "Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime". Western Washington University. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Allison, Anne; Gary Cross (2006). Millennial Monsters: Japanese Toys and the Global Imagination. University of California Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-520-24565-5.
- A. Allison. "Playing with Power: Morphing Toys and Transforming Heroes in Kids' Mass Culture." Power and the Self. Edited by Jeannette Marie Mageo. (2002.): 71-92.
- A. Allison. "Cyborg Violence: Bursting and Borders with Queer Machines." Cultural Anthropology vol. 16 no. 2 ( 2001.): 237-265.
- FEMALE PROTAGONISTS IN SHŌJO MANGA – FROM THE RESCUERS TO THE RESCUED
- Koenigsburg, David (2006). Mainon, Dominique; Ursini, James, ed. The Modern Amazons: Warrior Women On-Screen. Hal Leonard/Limelight Editions. pp. 291–297. ISBN 0-87910-327-2.
- Milutis, Joe (2006). Ether: the nothing that connects everything. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-0-8166-4644-9.
- Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide. p. 199.