Saint Helena Airport

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Saint Helena Airport
St Helena Airport Terminal (16331626258).jpg
Under construction in September 2014
Airport type Public
Owner Saint Helena Government
Operator Lanseria Airport
Location Saint Helena Saint Helena
Elevation AMSL 993 ft / 303 m
Coordinates 15°57′29″S 005°38′42″W / 15.95806°S 5.64500°W / -15.95806; -5.64500Coordinates: 15°57′29″S 005°38′42″W / 15.95806°S 5.64500°W / -15.95806; -5.64500
St Helena Airport is located in South Atlantic
St Helena Airport
St Helena Airport
Location of St Helena Airport
Direction Length Surface
m ft
02/20 1,850 6,070 Concrete
Sources: St Helena Government[1]
Location of St Helena Airport
Cercle rouge 50%.svg
Location of St Helena Airport

Saint Helena Airport is an airport under construction since early 2012 in the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, a remote island in the south Atlantic Ocean. Scheduled air services from Johannesburg are scheduled to commence in May 2016.[2] After the airport opens, the RMS St Helena, the only transport that regularly serves the island, is due to retire.[3][4]


Saint Helena is located more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the nearest major landmass, and it can currently only be reached by ship. This takes five days from Cape Town, with departure once per three weeks, making Saint Helena one of the most remote populated places on earth, measured as travel time from major cities.


The first considerations for an airport on St Helena were made in 1943 by the South African Air Force which undertook a survey on Prosperous Bay Plain from October 1943 until January 1944 but concluded that while technically feasible, an airport was not a practical proposition.[5] From the 1960s, there was an idea to build an airport on the St Helena Island. In 1999, this was taken up by the island government.

After a long period of rumour and consultation, the British government announced plans to construct an airport in Saint Helena in March 2005 and the airport was originally expected to be completed by 2010. However constant delays by the British government[5] not least due to inaction by Prime Minister Gordon Brown who insisted on reviewing the paperwork himself[6] meant an approved bidder, the Italian firm Impregilo, was not chosen until 2008. Then the project was put on hold in November 2008, allegedly due to new financial pressures brought on by the credit-crunch.

By January 2009, construction had not commenced and no final contracts had been signed, and the then Island Governor Andrew Gurr departed for London in an attempt to speed up the process and solve the problems. On 22 July 2010, the new British government agreed to help pay for the new airstrip using taxpayer money.[7] It was only on 3 November 2011 that the new Governor Mark Andrew Capes announced construction contracts were signed.[8]

The airport is expected to open in 2016, by which time the RMS Saint Helena, the only regular ship to call at St Helena, will be retired. Its advocates hope the airport will bring growth to the isolated island economy through the tourism sector which, in the long term, is expected to lead to financial self-sustainability and an end to UK budgetary aid.[8]

The first aircraft, a Beechcraft King Air 200, landed on September 15, 2015 in order to perform calibration tests.[9]


Approximately £202 million has been funded for design and construction which will be carried out by South African engineering group Basil Read (Pty) Ltd. The UK Government has also granted additional funds of up to £10 million in shared risk contingency, and £35.1 million for ten years of operation by South-African airport operator Lanseria Airport. This represents over 20% in savings in real terms from the 2008 price, taking into account inflation and the value of the pound, the St Helena government has said. The airport will be the largest single investment ever made in the island.[8]

Location and dimensions[edit]

The airport is being built on Prosperous Bay Plain, on the east side of Saint Helena entailing a concrete runway of 1,850 metres (6,070 ft)[1] with taxiway and apron, approximately 8,000,000 cubic metres (280,000,000 cu ft) rockfill embankment through which a 750-metre (2,460 ft) long reinforced concrete culvert will run, an airport terminal building of 3,500 square metres (38,000 sq ft) and support infrastructure, air traffic control and safety, bulk fuel installation for 6 million litres of diesel and aviation fuel, a 14-kilometre (9 mi) airport access road from Rupert's Bay to the airport, and all related logistics.[10]


Aircraft compatibility[edit]

Given its dimensions the airport will be capable of accommodating up to two[11] twinjet passenger aircraft up to the size of the Airbus A319, Boeing 737 and also the Boeing 757-200. Following the decision for a shorter runway of 1,550 metres the previously planned use of Boeing 737-800 aircraft had been ruled out in the first instance. Instead the airport was to be designed to receive Boeing 737-700 aircraft.[12] However, on 17 July 2012 the St Helena Government and Basil Read agreed to a change to the runway design which includes widening the embankment over an additional 40 metres (130 ft) at the southern end, paving an additional 100 metres (330 ft) of the runway with concrete, providing larger turning circles at the runway ends, and increasing the size of the apron.[13] In contrast to the 2011 Reference Design for the airport it will now have a full 240-metre (790 ft) Runway End Safety Area (RESA) at the southern end of the runway instead of the originally planned Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS). The intention is to add an EMAS designed for Boeing 737-800 at a later date butting onto the southern end of the paved runway to increase the declarable Landing Distance Available (LDA) to 1,650 metres (5,410 ft),[14] which will then allow receiving larger aircraft such as the Boeing 737-800 and Airbus A320.[13][15]

The additional earthworks and concrete will increase duration of construction by 12 weeks so works are now expected to be completed by 25 February 2016.[13] Extending the embankment once the airport is operational would have involved prohibitive costs as heavy equipment would have needed to be brought back to the island and huge quantities of rock from another site to be moved, while now material excavated from Prosperous Bay Plain will be used to fill Dry Gut.[13]

In June 2013 the St Helena Government announced it was again assessing changes that can be made to the design of the runway to cater for operations of a wider range of aircraft, in particular the Lockheed C-130 Hercules and the Boeing 757-200, the latter enabling direct flights to Europe, which are believed to be crucial for the island's tourism plans.[16][17] These are Code D aircraft requiring the addition of shoulders along both sides of the runway, a wider taxiway and apron, and a higher fire fighting capacity (ICAO Rescue Fire Fighting Service Category 7).[18]

In October 2013 a formal agreement was signed for the proposed design changes.[19] These enhancements will also make it possible for the Lockheed C-130 Hercules to operate to and from St Helena, though the runway is unlikely to be able to accommodate larger Code D aircraft, such as the Boeing 767.[19] The upgrade will be funded from cost savings on other parts of the project,[17] particularly by a simplified runway drainage system.[18]

Potential routes[edit]

Airlines may potentially operate services to London, Cape Town and Johannesburg, although the official announcement on 16 March 2015 only envisaged services to Johannesburg.

On October 9, 2015, the Government of Saint Helena and the Ascension Island Government announced a connection between the two islands. The connection will be flown by Comair using a Boeing 737-800. The flight will take about two hours to Wideawake Airfield. Comair’s air services between St Helena Airport and OR Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg are scheduled to commence in late February 2016.[20]

This leaves Lubango Airport in Angola at a distance of 1,300 miles (2,100 km) as the next best diversion option for which every inbound aircraft must carry enough fuel reserve, limiting its load capacity. Inbound aircraft can have heavier load and more fuel if the takeoff is at a large airport like Johannesburg, compared to outbound. Outbound aircraft have the option to carry more load and less fuel and do an extra fuel stop in e.g. Namibia.


It is believed that reductions in ticket prices can be obtained by utilising spare payload capacity on flight to and from St Helena to carry air freight (e.g. agricultural products, coffee, fish).[21] At 70% passenger load factor a B737-800 operating, on an average day, into St Helena would have a spare payload capacity of some 4,000 kilograms (8,800 lb). The extra income possible per in-bound flight from cargo could be as high as the income equivalent of 19 passengers. This would give an effective load factor of 88% and could reduce ticket prices.[22]


Due to the short runway and the long distance to South Africa, a Boeing 737-700 flying to Johannesburg will not be able to use its full seat and cargo capacity. Only flights to and from Namibian and Angolan destinations would allow using a Boeing 737-700 near its full load capacity. The operator for the other planned destination, London, plans a fuel stop in the Gambia, at almost the same distance as Johannesburg.

If Wideawake Airfield on Ascension Island was open for commercial (i.e. non-military) flights, it could be listed as an alternate aerodrome; this would mean that the load capacity of an inbound Boeing 737-700 could be increased as less fuel reserves would be required.

The distance from key destinations, the length of runway available, and the type of aircraft available in the region dictate that air services to St Helena will have to operate to the requirements of Extended Twin Engine Operations (ETOPS) which implies the provision of an instrument approach system based on an off-set Instrument Landing System Localiser (ILS LLZ).[23][24]

Such is also required by the terrain of the airport which, in commercial passenger air transport terms, is safety-critical, due to its steep approaches, high elevation (1,000 ft or 300 m above sea level)[25] and rocky outcrops. Without an instrument approach the provision of a viable air service is considered impossible.[26]

There are doubts concerning local weather conditions and, in particular, there are doubts about the amount of turbulence that could be expected on the approaches from fallwinds resulting from the elevated location and the surrounding bluffs. Therefore, it has been recommended a charter aircraft to perform approaches to and departures from the intended runway, which had not taken place as of June 2015.[27]

Navigation aids[edit]

St Helena Airport will be equipped with an instrument landing system (ILS) and a Doppler VHF Omni-directional Radio Range system (DVOR) supplied by Thales Group.[28] Further to that Honeywell Aerospace will supply a SmartPath Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS), a technology that augments Global Positioning System (GPS) signals to make them suitable for precision approach and landing. It overcomes many of the limitations of Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) traditionally used by airports to guide aircraft as they approach the runway.[29]

Infrastructure and logistics[edit]

Logistics of the airport's construction are critical, because of the island's isolated location and the lack of construction equipment, which will require everything such as extremely heavy duty equipment and materials to be shipped in, thus resulting in a huge and unique logistics operation.[30]

Due to the limited landing infrastructure, with no breakwater or mooring facilities at the sea front, new harbour facilities capable of handling construction equipment and fuel supplies were constructed at Rupert's Bay.[31] Fuel transfers between Rupert's Bay and the aerodrome connected by a 14-kilometre haul road are assumed to be by road tanker for 20 years, after which a capital allowance has been made for enlargement of the bulk fuel storage and the installation of a fuel transfer pipeline.[24]

Basil Read has been sourcing its own ship, a roll-on/roll-off vessel[32] called NP Glory 4 flying the Thai flag,[33] which, as planned,[34] docked for the first time at St Helena on 11 July 2012 and has since been regularly supplying the island with cargo and personnel for the project.[35]

The company also considered developing a temporary runway to enable the use of a C-130 Hercules-type aircraft to facilitate quicker access to the site within 18 months of the beginning of construction,[32] but this was not done.

Project progress[edit]

Construction on Prosperous Bay Plain, February 2015

On 4 November 2011 Basil Read was awarded to construct an airport on St Helena Island.[10] The first representatives of Basil Read visited the island on Saturday 19 November 2011 for initial investigations and discussions.[36] Following a second team's visit during December 2011 Basil Read's project manager has settled to the island and the first St Helenian citizen has been employed.[30] Preparation works are expected to begin in early 2012 in Rupert's Valley on the west coast, which includes establishing storage facilities, a temporary fuel farm and the design and construction of a temporary wharf.[34]

Basil Read CEO Heyns in November 2011 said design phase would begin immediately and anticipated that construction could begin in May 2012 which at peak would employ some 300 people of which as many locals as possible should be involved. Migrant workers arriving for the airport development project will be subject to a screening for HIV.[37] Construction is said to take place over a 48-month period.[32]

Only four weeks after the approval for the airport to be constructed and years before operations would start, Geo. Robson & Co. (Conveyors) Ltd had already completed and shipped a baggage reclaim carousel for the airport. It will sit half inside the terminal and half outside for the baggage handlers to load with passengers' luggage. The company stated that with a 12-metre (39 ft) perimeter it is one of the smallest baggage reclaim carousels they have ever manufactured.[38] Until the airport opens it will be used at St Helena's harbour to deliver baggage to passengers arriving by the RMS St Helena.

In June 2013 the 100,000th truckload of fill went into Dry Gut, a gorge which must be raised by almost 100 metres (330 ft) in order to create an embankment that will finally carry parts of the runway. This is equivalent to nearly 19% of the total of 8 million cubic metres required. Basil Read’s calculations showed that a further 430,000 truckloads of material is needed to complete the fill. As of July 2014, the Dry Gut fill project has a projected completion date of 8 September 2014.[39]

Calibration flights at the airport began in mid-September 2015, and a Beechcraft King Air 200 leased from TAB Charters in South Africa touched down on the island for the first time on 15 September of that year.[40] UK-based Flight Calibration Services undertook the flights and was to begin the journey from Lanseria International Airport, in Johannesburg, flying via Namibia and Angola. The aircraft was due be on site for an approximately one week to undertake the calibration flights, weather permitting.[41]

The first helicopter to use the airport was a AgustaWestland Wildcat HMA.2 of 201 Flight, 825 Naval Air Squadron attached to the Type 23 frigate HMS Lancaster during Late October 2015.[42][43][44]

In November 2015 a delay of the opening from February to May 2016 was announced.[2] This was needed "in order to fine tune the operational readiness of the airport".

Project prospects[edit]

  • Air access would allow St Helena to develop its tourism sector.
  • A to-be-constructed wharf in Rupert's Bay – if sized appropriately – could allow regularly passing cruise ships to land passengers at the island and bring tourists. To date the lack of a protected landing facility represents a limitation on the development of cruise tourism because, in unfavourable sea conditions, landing is hazardous and potential revenue is lost as many cruise ships refuse to allow passengers to land in such circumstances. In addition, due to the lack of a protected landing facility, many cruise companies do not incorporate St Helena into their itineraries. The sea is roughest in summer which marks the peak of the cruise season.[45]
  • Medical evacuations to South Africa for treatment of serious cases of illness would be sped up significantly, as currently it may take up to one month until transport to South Africa by the RMS St Helena becomes available.
  • The availability of heavy construction equipment would facilate alternative energy projects, such as the construction of larger wind turbines, a tidal power plant or a dam with a hydro-power station in one of St Helena's valleys.[46] Currently limitations in cargo size of RMS St Helena and the unavailability of a large crane prohibit construction of larger wind turbines.[47]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

St Helena will have an open skies policy; this allows any airline operator who meets all the required standards to fly in and out of St Helena.[48]


AviaSolutions was appointed to support the St Helena Government and DFID in reaching a contract with an air service provider to provide services to the island.[49]

On 16 March 2015 it was announced that SHG and DFID had appointed Comair Limited as the preferred bidder for the provision of air services to St Helena.[50] Comair is proposing a weekly flight between Johannesburg Airport and St Helena using a Boeing 737-800 aircraft. The flight time from Johannesburg to St Helena will be about four and a half hours.

Current situation[edit]

Reaction to the Comair announcement on St. Helena was largely negative,[51] with stories of luggage loss and crime in Johannesburg as well as the fact that many of St. Helena's residents have personal links with Cape Town.[52] Concerns have also been raised about medical referrals, which are handled in Cape Town. These issues remain unresolved.

The St Helena Government expects that a return economy flight from St Helena to South Africa would cost around £600. Assuming that an off-peak economy seat from South Africa to the UK would be available for approximately £700, return tickets for flights via South Africa to the UK would take the total price to around £1,300.[53] On the 9th of October 2015 Governor Mark Capes confirmed that once a month there will be a flight from St Helena to Ascension provided by Comair .[54]

Airlines Destinations
Comair Johannesburg-OR Tambo (begins May 2016), Ascension Island (begins May 2016)
Atlantic Star Airlines
operated by TUIfly
London-Gatwick (begins May 2016)[55]

Strategic relevance[edit]

The airport will extend the United Kingdom's capabilities to carry out airborne missions in the South Atlantic region, such as maritime patrols in accordance with international fishing agreements (e.g. ICCAT), counter-piracy missions along important trade routes, and also airlift operations notably into Southern Africa.

According to analysts the UK government's decision to finally go ahead with the airport, after long delays, seems to be driven in part by concerns over a continuing tense standoff with Argentina in the sovereignty dispute over the Falkland Islands. The island is about 3,812 miles (seven hours and 40 minutes flight time) from the Falklands. But, analysts say that was nevertheless an improvement over the present state of isolation from the UK for both St. Helena and the Falklands.[56]


Bidding process[edit]

According to Private Eye magazine, all of the companies tendering for the job of building and running the airport had by late September, 2006 withdrawn from bidding for the project, which was to be funded by the Department for International Development (DfID). The local Access Office explained that the reasons were unclear but it seems the bidders considered the DfID has been unhelpful by not providing the possibility of on-site investigations in order to complete a detailed design before providing a fixed price for the project. According to the DfID's Director for Overseas Territories, his department remains committed to an airport for St Helena but at the time of the article there were no new bidders.[57]

DfID restarted the procurement process to identify a suitable Design, Build and Operate contractor in October 2006. Capability Statements were received by DfID in March 2007 and four bidders were pre-approved for the Design, Build and Operator contract and a further three applicants have been pre-approved for the Air Service Provider contract. The applicants for the DBO visited the island for six months from June 2007 before submitting their final proposals, and as of January 2008 DfID is down to a shortlist of two bidders.

It was reported in The Guardian on 10 December 2008 that UK Secretary of State for International Development Douglas Alexander had announced a "pause in negotiations over the St Helena airport contract",[58] apparently related to the 2008 economic downturn.

The St. Helena Leisure Corporation (Shelco) was set up by Arup's Sir Nigel Thompson and Berwin Leighton Paisner's Robert Jones, planning to construct luxury resorts and a hotel to be run by Oberoi Hotels & Resorts in conjunction with the airport. The real estate was to be sold even before construction had started; the proposal was turned down by the local government and the DfID.[59]

Environmental issues[edit]

Prosperous Bay Plain is one of the few remaining sites on Saint Helena that holds significant ecological diversity; according to a 2004 review by Atkins Management Consultants, the survival of numerous endemic species critically depend on preservation and protection of the location; it also is an important[according to whom?] nesting site for the wirebird, Saint Helena's national bird which is listed as critically endangered. Although Shelco still continues to be a major force pushing for the airport's construction, its co-founder Sir Nigel is the chairman of the environmental charity Campaign to Protect Rural England.[59][60][61]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b St Helena Government - Information Memorandum
  3. ^ "The Air Access Project". Atlantic Star Airlines. 
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b "DFID Consultation Document – Annex A – Summary of cost/benefit analysis and financial costs" (PDF). DFID. 16 April 2009. p. 12. 
  6. ^ Kettle, Martin (26 September 2008). "Salvaged with a kiss? Maybe, but Brown's woes run deep". The Guardian. 
  7. ^ Saint Helena to get airstrip
  8. ^ a b c "Airport Approved" The St Helena Herald, Volume XI Number 28, 4 November 2011, p.4
  9. ^ article in the Saint Helena Independant
  10. ^ a b "Basil Read awarded contract to construct airport on St Helena Island" Basil Read company website, 4 November 2011, retrieved 2011-DEC-24
  11. ^ "Application Drawings, CI-01-1001 – General Runway Layout" Airport Development Application, 2004
  12. ^ Olsson, Mikael (20 January 2012). "Editorial" (PDF). The St Helena Independent VII (10) (Jamestown). p. 2. 
  13. ^ a b c d "FIRST PROJECT VARIATION ORDER SIGNED – Additional Runway Works to Allow for Future Expansion" (PDF). press release (No: 13). St Helena Government Access Office. 23 July 2012. 
  14. ^ St Helena Government (12 July 2012). "St Helena Airport Update" (PDF). press release (13). St Helena Government. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
  15. ^ St Helena Government (23 July 2012). "Additional runway works to allow for future expansion". press release. St Helena Government. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  16. ^ Pipe, Simon (8 November 2012). "Doubt over eco-resort as Shelco seeks direct flights to Europe". St Helena Online (Jamestown). 
  17. ^ a b Pipe, Simon (14 June 2013). "No flights from London? Woah, I’m going to Barbados…". St Helena Online (Jamestown). 
  18. ^ a b "Design Changes" (PDF). St Helena Airport Update (31) (Jamestown). 13 June 2013. p. 2. 
  19. ^ a b Olsson, Mikael (6 December 2013). "Editorial" (PDF). The St Helena Independent IX (1) (Jamestown). p. 3. 
  20. ^
  21. ^ WS Atkins plc (October 2004). "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" (PDF). WS Atkins plc. p. 3. 
  22. ^ WS Atkins plc (October 2004). "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" (PDF). WS Atkins plc. p. 4. 
  23. ^ St Helena Access, Project Memorandum Overseas Territories Department, Department for International Development (DFID), January 2005, p. B-6
  24. ^ a b "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" St Helena Government, Department for International Development, January 2005, p. 104
  25. ^ "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" St Helena Government, Department for International Development, January 2005, p. 13
  26. ^ "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" St Helena Government, Department for International Development, January 2005, p. 317
  27. ^ "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" St Helena Government, Department for International Development, January 2005, p. 117
  28. ^ "Thales wins navigation contract for St Helena Island’s first airport". press release. Thales Group. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  29. ^ "Honeywell to provide aircraft landing assurance at St Helena's first airport". press release. Honeywell International Inc. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  30. ^ a b "Basil Read's second team Visits and first St Helenian employed", St Helena Herald, Volume XI no. 35, 23 December 2011, p. 5
  31. ^ "St Helena Access Feasibility Study" St Helena Government, Department for International Development, January 2005, p. 17
  32. ^ a b c "Basil Read wins R2.7bn contract to build St Helena's first airport " Engineering News, 3 November 2011
  33. ^ "N P GLORY 4". database. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  34. ^ a b "Second Basil Read Team Arrives" The St Helena Herald, Volume XI Number 33, 9 December 2011, p.4
  35. ^ Sharon Henry. "NP GLORY 4 MAKES HISTORY, DOCKING AT ST HELENA". news article. St The St Helena Broadcasting (Guarantee) Corporation Ltd. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  36. ^ "Basil Read Team – Progression with Airport Developments" St Helena Government Public Relations / Information Office, Press Release, 24 November 2011
  37. ^ "Airport News" St Helena Independent, Volume VI, Issue 49, 21 October 2011, p. 2
  38. ^ "Robson Ships to the South Atlantic". HUB. 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  39. ^ (PDF)  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ Template:Remote St Helena island welcomes first flight
  41. ^ "First landing ever in St Helena airport scheduled for next week as part of calibration flights". 
  42. ^ "Wildcat loose". Janes. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  43. ^ "Wildcat maritime attack helicopter takes to the seas". Western Gazette. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  44. ^ "Wildcat becomes first helicopter to land at St Helena Airport". Royal Navy. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  45. ^ "Jamestown, St Helena Wharf Improvements, Project EIA: Phase 2, Final Report" by the Government of St Helena, 8 August 2011
  46. ^ St Helena Airport Environmental Statement – Volume 2 by Faber Maunsell AECOM, p. 17-3
  47. ^ "Interview with Craig Penwarden, Renewable Energy Engineer at Saint Helena Government"
  48. ^ Vince Thompson (18 October 2013). "Atlantic Star – The Only Plane in the St Helena Sky". The St Helena Independent 8 (44) (Jamestown). p. 9. 
  49. ^ "homepage". Fly to St Helena. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  51. ^ 20 March 2015
  52. ^ St Helena : Adjournment Debate Legislative Council 30th March 2015 by The Hon Mr Lawson Henry
  53. ^ Air Access Office. "Frequently Asked Questions". St Helena Airport Project. St Helena Government. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  54. ^ "ASCENSION AIR SERVICE TO AND FROM ST HELENA". St Helena Government. October 9, 2015. Retrieved October 21, 2015. 
  55. ^ Atlantic Star Airlines shares news of delay to opening date of St.Helena Airport
  56. ^ "St. Helena airport a key Falklands link". news article. United Press International, Inc. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  57. ^ "Departure Delayed". Private Eye, No. 1167, 15–28 September 2006.
  58. ^ Owen Bowcott: "[1]". The Guardian, 10 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-DEC-10.
  59. ^ a b David Lawson: "Island in the Sun". Property Week, 30 September 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
  60. ^ Robin Stummer and Daniel Howden: "The Battle for St Helena". Ezilon Infobase, 20 October 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
  61. ^ "St. Helena scrub and woodlands". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.  Retrieved 28 August 2007.

External links[edit]