Saint Patrick's Saltire
Saint Patrick's Saltire or Saint Patrick's Cross is a red saltire (X-shaped cross) on a white field, used to represent the island of Ireland or Saint Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. In heraldic language, it may be blazoned Argent, a saltire gules. Saint Patrick's Flag is a flag composed of Saint Patrick's Saltire.
The red saltire's association with Saint Patrick dates from the 1780s, when the Order of Saint Patrick adopted it as an emblem. This was a British chivalric order established in 1783 by George III. There is some evidence that a similar saltire was occasionally used to represent Ireland before this. It is often suggested that it derives from the arms of the powerful Geraldine or FitzGerald dynasty. Most Irish nationalists reject its use to represent Ireland as a "British invention".
After its adoption by the Order of Saint Patrick, it began to be used by other institutions. When the 1800 Act of Union joined the Kingdom of Ireland with the Kingdom of Great Britain, the saltire was added to the British flag to form the Union Flag still used by the United Kingdom. The saltire has occasionally served unofficially to represent Northern Ireland and been considered less contentious than other flags flown there.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Modern use of the flag
- 3 Other symbols of Ireland
- 4 Unrelated similar saltires
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Notes
The origins of Saint Patrick's saltire are unclear. The first recorded mention of a Saint Patrick's flag is from the journal of John Glanville, writing about the Anglo-Dutch fleet that sailed to Cadiz, Spain, in 1625. In it Glanville remarks: "That this was an Englishe and not an Irishe action, and the colours contended for the fflag of St George and not of St Paterick, which hee intimated to himselfe being a Baron of England much auntient to my Lord Cromwell (whoe alsoe is a Baron of that Realme) to bee more proper and worthie to carry then anie Irish Viscount whatsoever".[non-primary source needed]
The Order of Saint Patrick, an Anglo-Irish chivalric order, was created in 1783. The order was a means of rewarding those in high office who supported the Anglo-Irish government of Ireland. On its badge was a red saltire on a white background, which it called the "Cross of St Patrick":
And the said Badge shall be of Gold surrounded with a Wreath of Shamrock or Trefoil, within which shall be a Circle of Gold, containing the Motto of our said Order in Letters of Gold Viz. QUIS SEPARABIT? together with the date 1783, being the year in which our said Order was founded, and encircling the Cross of St Patrick Gules, surmounted with a Trefoil Vert each of its leaves charged with an Imperial Crown Or upon a field of Argent.
The use of a saltire in association with St Patrick was controversial because it differed from the usual crosses by custom worn on St Patrick's Day. In particular, the previous crosses associated with Saint Patrick were not X-shaped. Some contemporary responses to the badge of the order complained that an X-shaped cross was the Cross of St Andrew, patron of Scotland. A February 1783 newspaper complained that "the breasts of Irishmen were to be decorated by the bloody Cross of St Andrew, and not that of the tutelar Saint of their natural isle". Another article claimed that "the Cross of St Andrew the Scotch saint is to honour the Irish order of St Patrick, by being inserted within the star of the order ... a manifest insult to common sense and to national propriety".
An open letter to Lord Temple, to whom the design of the Order of St Patrick's badges were entrusted, echoes this and elaborates:
The Cross generally used on St Patrick's day, by Irishmen, is the Cross pattée, which is small in the centre, and so goes on widening to the ends, which are very broad; this is not recorded as the Irish Cross, but has custom for time immemorial for its support, which is generally allowed as sufficient authority for any similar institution ... As bearing the arms of another person is reckoned very disgraceful by the laws of honour, how much more so is it, in an order which ought to carry honour to the highest pitch, to take a cross for its emblem, which has been acknowledged for many ages as the property of an order in another country? If the cross generally worn as the emblem of the Saint who is ascribed to Ireland is not agreeable to your Excellency, sure many others are left to choose from, without throwing Ireland into so ignominious a point of view, as to adopt the one that Scotland has so long a claim to.[disputed ]
Many subsequent commentators have believed that the saltire was simply taken from the arms of the FitzGeralds (or "Geraldines"), who were Dukes of Leinster. The Dukes of Leinster dominated the political and social scene of 18th century Dublin, from their ducal palace of Leinster House (later to become the seat of the Irish parliament and senate, the Oireachtas). William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster was the premier peer in the Irish House of Lords and a founder member of the Order of Saint Patrick. On the other hand, Michael Casey suggests that Lord Temple, pressed for time, had based the Order's insignia on those of the Order of the Garter, and simply rotated its St George's Cross 45 degrees.
Earlier use of saltires in an Irish context
A variety of sources show saltires in use earlier than 1783 in Ireland and in an Irish context, although there is no suggestion that they are linked to St Patrick. The Flag Institute states that arms derive from those of the powerful FitzGerald dynasty (or "Geraldines"), who were Earls of Kildare (and later Dukes of Leinster). Gearóid Mór FitzGerald and his son Gearóid Óg, were also Lord Deputies of Ireland in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
The design on the reverse of some Irish coins (groat and half-groat) minted c. 1480 includes two shields with saltires. At this time, Gearóid Mór FitzGerald was Lord Deputy of Ireland, and the shields are considered to be his arms.
A 1576 map of Ireland (or "Hirlandia") by John Goghe shows the FitzGerald arms over their spheres of influence. It also shows a red saltire flag flying at the masthead of a ship, possibly an Irish pirate, which is engaged in action in the St George's Channel with another ship flying the St George's cross. The red saltire flag does not appear upon Ireland itself, though it is placed upon the neighbouring Mulls of Galloway and Kintyre in Scotland.
English and German picture maps of the Battle of Kinsale of 1601–1602 show the combined Irish–Spanish forces under a red saltire. This is presumed to be the Cross of Burgundy, the war flag of Spain, rather than an Irish flag.
The cross of Burgundy appears on the flag of the Spanish Regiment of Hibernia. It was formed in 1710 by Irishmen who fled their own country in the wake of the Flight of the Earls and the penal laws. It is possible that the design of the flag was influenced by the red saltire.
Contemporary reports of the ensigns of the Irish Catholic Confederation during the Eleven Years' War say that each had a canton with a red saltire on a gold field. A 1645 picture map of the Siege of Duncannon shows Preston's Irish Confederates under a saltire.
The flag used by the King's Own Regiment in the Kingdom of Ireland, established in 1653, was a red saltire on a "taffey" yellow field. Its origin remains a mystery, however. At the funeral of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, Ireland was represented by a red cross (not saltire) on a yellow field. Cromwell's Protectorate of the 1650s briefly used a flag containing the St George's cross to represent England, St Andrew's cross to represent Scotland, and a red saltire on white to represent Ireland. Several drawings of Union flags, including one of HMS Henry made c. 1661 by Willem van de Velde, the elder, include a red saltire as in the post-1800 Union; but there is no evidence for such a design. The Graydon MS. Flag Book of 1686, which belonged to Samuel Pepys, gives the flag of Ireland as the harp and St George's cross on a green field.
A red saltire on green appears on the flag of Berwick's regiment in the Irish Brigade of the French army. This was a brigade made up of Irish Jacobite exiles that formed in 1690. The Irish Brigade served as part of the French Army until 1792.
Several atlases and flag books in the late 17th and 18th centuries show a red-saltire–on–white flag for Ireland; including Paulus van der Dussen's (c. 1690), and Le Neptune françois, a marine atlas published in Amsterdam in 1693, where it is depicted with the legends Ierse above and Irlandois below, which are Dutch and French for "Irish". Jan Blaeu's 1650s atlas has a saltire on white for Ireland, which is hand-coloured red in some copies.
Upwards of forty vessels are now in our harbour, victualling for Newfoundland, of which number thirteen are of our own nation, who wear the St Patrick's flag (the field of which is white, with a St Patrick's cross, and an harp in one quarter.)
St Patrick's crosses
Other crosses besides the red saltire have been associated with Saint Patrick. Crosses in various shapes and colours were worn as badges on St Patrick's Day from the 17th to the early 20th century. The cross pattée has also been used,:xviii including by the Friendly Brothers of Saint Patrick, a fraternal organization whose symbols influenced those of the Order of Saint Patrick.
Modern use of the flag
The most widespread use of St Patrick's Saltire today is in the Flag of the United Kingdom. With the 1800 Act of Union that merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, the red saltire was incorporated into the Flag of the United Kingdom as representing Ireland. The red saltire is counterchanged with the saltire of St Andrew, such that the white always follows the red clockwise. The arrangement accounts for the discontinuous look of the red diagonal lines, and has introduced a requirement to display the flag "the right way up", with the white line of St Andrew above the red of St Patrick in the upper lefthand quarter next to the flagpole. As with the red cross, so too the red saltire is separated by a white fimbriation from the blue field. This fimbriation is repeated for symmetry on the white portion of the saltire, which thereby appears wider than the red portion. The fimbriation of the cross of St George separates its red from the red of the saltire.
Flags in Northern Ireland are controversial, their symbolism reflecting underlying sectarian and political differences. Saint Patrick's Saltire is sometimes used as a cross-community symbol with less political baggage than either the Union Flag or the Ulster Banner, seen as pro-Unionist, or the Irish tricolour used by Irish nationalists.:81
It is one of two flags authorised to be flown on church grounds by the Church of Ireland, the other being the Compass Rose Flag of the Anglican Communion. This was the recommendation of a 1999 synod committee on sectarianism. For similar motives, it is the basis of the police badge of the new Police Service of Northern Ireland.:81
The St Patrick's flag is the flag of St Patrick's College, Maynooth, and is flown on Degree days and other important occasions. Its use is not affected by the creation of a separate National University of Ireland, Maynooth in 1997. The Royal Dublin Society's flag, dating from c. 1902 – c. 1912, has a red saltire, but its significance is unknown. The Irish Free State Girl Guides, descended from the Unionist British Girl Guides, had a Saint Patrick's Saltire on the flag it used from its establishment in 1929 until the 1937 Constitution. The saltire appeared on the house flag of Irish Shipping, founded 1941, and that used by Irish Continental Line in 1973–1978. It replaced the St George's Cross in 1970 on the flag of the Commissioners of Irish Lights. The badge of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, designed by John Vinycomb, incorporates the saltire and the arms of the four provinces.
Regardless of the uncertainty over its origins, the red saltire, or saltire gules on a white field was used in the arms adopted by various Irish organisations, and some outside Ireland.
The arms of Trinity College Dublin show two flags, a red cross on white and a red saltire on white, which Hayes-McCoy and Galloway interpret as representing England and Ireland respectively. The arms were granted by Arthur Vicars in 1901, based on a 1612 seal showing uncoloured cross and saltire flags. Bernard Burke's 1864 armory does not specify the flag's format,:1031 and nineteenth-century depictions of them vary.
The arms of Cork city show red-saltire flags on the two towers, though not on versions prior to 1800. Coleraine Borough Council includes Saint Patrick's Saltire, as Patrick is said to have given Coleraine its name. The saltire also appears in the coat of arms of the County Mayo town of Westport to commemorate the visit of St Patrick to the nearby mountain, Croagh Patrick. It also appears on the arms of Co. Fermanagh The Urban District Council of Rathmines and Rathgar was granted arms in 1929, a year before it was absorbed into Dublin Corporation; these featured a Saint Patrick's Saltire and a Celtic Cross. A red saltire also appears on the arms of County Kildare, but this is because of the association of Kildare with the Fitzgerald family.
The original arms of the Royal Irish Academy in 1786 did not have the saltire, but those granted in 1846 do. There are red saltires in the arms of the Queen's University in Ireland (est. 1850, arms granted 1851, dissolved 1879), its successor, Queen's University Belfast (est. 1908, arms granted 1910), and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland.
The Church of Ireland diocese of Connor's arms, granted in 1945, include Saint Patrick's Saltire in memory of his supposed enslavement at Slemish. The Church of England Diocese of Truro, established in 1876, has a Saint Patrick's Saltire in its arms, representing "the ancient Celtic Church". The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, whose cathedral is St Patrick's, incorporates the saltire.
To represent Ireland or Northern Ireland
At the 1935 celebrations in London for George V's silver jubilee, "The cross of St George representing England and Wales, and the saltires of St Andrew and St Patrick, representing Scotland and Ireland" were flown separately and used in combination. At the time the Irish Free State was a separate Dominion within the British Commonwealth. In 1986, government policy during state visits to London was to fly the crosses of George, Andrew and Patrick and the Welsh Dragon. The government clarified that the Union Flag was the flag of Northern Ireland, not the Saint Patrick's Saltire or the Ulster Banner.
The barge Gloriana during the 2012 Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant flew flags for the four "home nations" of the United Kingdom, including the Saint Patrick's Saltire for Northern Ireland. In this context, the symbol was referred to as St Patrick's Cross.
On St Patrick's Day
Saint Patrick's Flag is sometimes seen during Saint Patrick's Day parades in Northern Ireland and Britain.:81 Flags are handed out by Down District Council before the Downpatrick parade, near Patrick's burial place at Down Cathedral, in an attempt to create a parade that has cross community support. This has had only limited success however, and controversy continues over the use of flags in the parade. In Great Britain, Saint Patrick's Flag was flown in place of the Irish tricolour at the 2009 parade in Croydon, prompting complaints from some councillors. It was flown on some years on Patrick's Day by Bradford City Council, which subsequently reverted to flying the Irish tricolour.
In political movements
The Saint Patrick's Saltire was on the flag proposed in 1914 of the County Down unit of Irish Volunteers. A writer in The Irish Volunteer complained that The O'Rahilly should have known the saltire was "faked for Union Jack purposes".
In 1932–33 a variation of the flag with a St Patrick's blue background was adopted as the badge and flag of the short-lived Blueshirt fascist movement. This militant group incorporated right-wing, conservative and some former-unionist elements in opposition to the then left-wing republican Fianna Fáil party.
A flag combining St Andrew's Saltire, St Patrick's Saltire, and the Red Hand of Ulster has been used by Ulster separatists, who wish to see Northern Ireland leave the United Kingdom and become an independent state, not joining together with the Republic of Ireland.:85
Other symbols of Ireland
The arms of Ireland since the sixteenth century have been a gold harp with silver strings on a blue field. It represented Ireland in the flags of earlier unions: the Commonwealth Flag (England and Ireland, 1649) and the Protectorate Jack (England, Ireland and Scotland, 1658). It also featured on the Royal Standard since James I.
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Other flags exist which feature a red saltire on a white field.
The flag of Jersey has unknown origins, and a link with St Patrick's saltire has been proposed. The FitzGerald family, who were powerful in Ireland, were Anglo-Norman in origin and also owned land in Jersey. Alternatively, N. V. L. Rybot in 1951 suggested that Jersey's flag originated from a mistake in a 1783 flag book by Carington Bowles, which was copied by later authors. Rybot's theory is that Bowles misinterpreted Ierse (Dutch for "Irish") as meaning "Jersey" in a Dutch flag-book he used as a source. However, French Admiralty charts show that Jersey was using the red saltire before 1783. It was widely felt in Jersey that the flag's similarity to St Patrick's Saltire was causing confusion, and so an amended flag was adopted by the States of Jersey on 12 June 1979, proclaimed by Queen Elizabeth on 10 December 1980 and first officially hoisted on 7 April 1981. The amended flag includes in the upper quadrant the badge of Jersey (a red shield holding the three leopards of Normandy in yellow) surmounted by a yellow "Plantagenet crown".
The village of Luqa in Malta also has a similar flag. Its origins are unknown, however the flag is almost identical to the personal flag of Grandmaster Piero de Ponte who ruled the Maltese islands from 1534 to 1535.
In the system of International maritime signal flags, a red saltire on a white background denotes the letter V and the message "I require assistance".
The arms of West Dunbartonshire derive from the former arms of the burgh of Clydebank, including a red saltire as the arms of Lennox. Since Old Kilpatrick, a legendary birthplace of Saint Patrick, is in the district, the association of Saint Patrick's Saltire may be considered appropriate, if coincidental.
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It might be noted in passing that a "Burgundian Cross" is illustrated as being used by either Spanish or Irish troops at Kinsale – sucha cross is also part of the Insignia of the Hapsburg Order of the Golden Fleece but my personal belief is that as the statutes were based on those of the Garter, the insignia was also based on that of the Garter badge – the Cross of Saint George is merely turned through 45° to become the Saltire – the Garter with motto is replaced with a simple circle with motto and date.
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The inclusion of St. Patrick's cross is of interest as St. Patrick was not martyred and therefore did not have a cross. The red saltire on white was the emblem of the powerful Irish Fitzgerald family and was a convenient symbol for Ireland.
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The regimental colors remain a mystery ...
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In the first flag following that  ordinance, England and Scotland were represented by the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, and Ireland by a golden harp on a blue ground which is the correct standard of that country. These were displayed quarterly, St. George being first and fourth, Ireland second, and St. Andrew third. The standard of the Protector consisted of this flag with his escutcheon of a white lion rampant on a black field placed in the centre. The harp, however, seemed quite out of place in this flag, and another was tried in which St. George was in the first and fourth, St. Andrew in the second, and the red saltire on white daringly placed in the third as representing Ireland. This was a most unsatisfactory arrangement for visibility at sea, and the old Union was reverted to, but as Ireland was not shown on it, a golden harp was placed in the centre, and at the Restoration the harp was removed and the flag became as it was at the death of Charles I.
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Important: the Union Flag has a correct way up – in the half of the flag nearest the flagpole, the wider diagonal white stripe must be above the red diagonal stripe, as Scotland's St Andrew's Cross takes precedence over Ireland's St Patrick's Cross. It is most improper to fly the flag upside down.
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Concern over blood and thunder bands, some of the flags they have begun to carry, and their 'rowdy' supporters are not uncommon in the Orange Standard. Stricter rules have been introduced to control the situation in the form of the band contract and an official list of flags approved by the Grand Lodge for carrying on parade. Those officially permitted flags are: the Union flag, the flags of the four countries comprising the UK, the Cross of St Patrick, flags of overseas Orange jurisdictions, lodge flags, banners and bannerettes, the Orange Standard, band flags and bannerettes, and flags issued for approved anniversaries such as the Boyne tercentenary.
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In the Lighthouse Service the cap badge originally was a St George's Cross surrounded by a wreath of laurel leaves but from 1970 the St Patrick's Cross has been used.
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The crest is an eagle, preying on a serpent which is an emblem of disease. The supporters are Irish elks, with chaplets of shamrocks around their necks. Over the helmet is conventional drapery, called the Mantling, and derived from a head-covering worn by knights in armour for protection against the sun's heat.
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... the St. Patrick's Cross symbolises the connection with the Saint, when he was a slave in County Antrim.
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The cross of St. George representing England and Wales, and the saltires of St. Andrew and St. Patrick, representing Scotland and Ireland, which together form the Union Jack, have been used in association with each other as separate flags or incorporated in banners at a ... number of points.
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It is seen amongst others in the arms of Queens University, the Royal Irish Academy, The Royal College of Surgeons, and of course in the badge of the Reform Movement.
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- "Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama: State Flag of Alabama". Alabama Department of Archives and History. 6 February 2014. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
According to the Acts of Alabama, 1895, the state flag was to be a crimson cross of St. Andrew on a field of white.
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- "West Dunbartonshire Council". Heraldry Society of Scotland. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
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