Equal-to-apostles, the Illuminator
|His Holiness the Archbishop of Serbs|
|Church||Serbian Orthodox Church|
|See||Metropolitanate of Žiča|
|Ordination||Patriarch Manuel I of Constantinople|
|Birth name||Rastislav "Rastko" Nemanjić|
|Born||1169 or 1174[a]
|Died||January 27, 1236
|Buried||Holy Forty Martyrs Church (until May 6, 1237)
Mileševa (until 1594)
|Parents||Stefan Nemanja and Anastasija|
|Motto||Only Unity Saves the Serbs|
|Feast day||January 27 [O.S. January 14]|
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church Eastern Catholic Churches|
|Canonized||by Serbian Orthodox Church|
|Attributes||ktetor, teacher, legislator, diplomat, protector of the poor, writer|
|Shrines||Church of Saint Sava (Belgrade)|
Saint Sava (Serbian: Свети Сава/Sveti Sava, pronounced [sʋɛ̂ːtiː sǎːʋa], 1174 – 14 January 1236), known as the Illuminator, was a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law, and a diplomat. Sava, born Rastko, was the youngest son of Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja (founder of the Nemanjić dynasty), and ruled the appanage of Hum briefly in 1190–92. He then left for Mount Athos where he received the monastic name Sava (Sabbas) and restored, together with his father, the monastery of Hilandar, which marked a beginning of cultural prospering. In 1219 he was recognized as the first Serbian Archbishop by the Patriarchate of Constantinople, and in the same year he authored the oldest known constitution of Serbia, Zakonopravilo, thus securing full independence; both religious and political. Sava heavily influenced Serbian medieval literature.
He is widely considered as one of the most important figures of Serbian history, and is canonized and venerated by the Serbian Orthodox Church, as its founder, on January 27 [O.S. January 14]. His life has been interpreted in many artistic works from the Middle Ages to modern times. He is the patron saint of Serbian schools and schoolchildren. The Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade is dedicated to him, built where the Ottomans burnt his remains in 1594–95 following an uprising in which the Serbs used icons of Sava as their war flags; the church is one of the largest church buildings in the world.
Rastislav "Rastko" Nemanjić (Растко Немањић, pronounced [râstkɔ nɛ̌maɲitɕ]) was born in 1169 or 1174,[a] in Gradina (modern Podgorica, Montenegro). He was the youngest son of Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja and Anastasija, and was thus part of the first generation of the Nemanjić dynasty; his brothers were Vukan and Stefan. The brothers received a good education at the Serbian court, in the Byzantine tradition, which Serbia was under great political, cultural and religious influence. Rastko showed himself serious and ascetic; as the youngest son, he was made Prince of Hum at an early age, in ca. 1190. Hum was a province between Neretva and Dubrovnik. Teodosije the Hilandarian said that Rastko, as a ruler, was "mild and gentle, kind to everyone, loving the poor as few others, and very respecting of the monastic life". He was uninterested in fame or wealth, and the throne. The governing of Hum was previously held by his uncle Miroslav of Hum, who continued to hold at least the Lim region with Bijelo Polje while Rastko held Hum. After two years, in autumn 1192 or shortly afterwards, Rastko left Hum for Mount Athos. Miroslav may have continued as ruler of Hum when Rastko had left. Athonite monks were frequent visitors to the Serbian court – lectures perhaps made him determined to leave.
Upon arriving at Athos, he entered the Russian St. Panteleimon Monastery where he received the monastic name of Sava (Sabbas), and according to tradition it was a Russian monk who was his spiritual guidance, said to have had earlier guested the Serbian court with other Athonite monks. He then entered the Greek Vatopedi monastery. His father tried to persuade him to return to Serbia. Sava replied to his father: "You have accomplished all that a Christian sovereign should do; come now and join me in the true Christian life".
Stefan Nemanja took his son's advice – he summoned the assembly at Studenica and abdicated on March 25, 1196, giving the throne to his middle son, Stefan. The next day, Nemanja and his wife Ana took monastic vows. Nemanja took monastic vows under the name Simeon, and stayed in Studenica until leaving for Mount Athos in fall 1197. The arrival of Nemanja was greatly pleasing to Sava and and the Athonite community, as Nemanja as a ruler had donated much to the community.
When Sava guested the Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople, he mentioned the neglected and abandoned Hilandar, and asked him that he and his father be given the permit to restore the monastery and grant it to Vatopedi. The Emperor approved, and sent a special letter and much gold to his friend Stefan Nemanja (monk Simeon). Sava then addressed the Protos of Athos, asking them to support the effort that the monastery of Hilandar becomes the haven of the Serb monks. All Athonite monasteries, except Vatopedi, accepted the proposal, and in July 1198 Emperor Alexios III authored a charter which revoked the earlier decision, and instead not only granted Hilandar, but also the other abandoned monasteries in Mileis, to Simeon and Sava, to be a haven and shelter for Serb monks in Athos. The restoration of Hilandar quickly began and Grand Prince Stefan sent money and other necessarities. Stefan issued the founding charter for Hilandar in 1199.
Sava wrote a typikon (liturgical office order) for Hilandar, modeled on the typikon of the monastery of The Mother of God Euergetes in Constantinople. Besides Hilandar, Sava was the ktitor (founder, donator) of the hermitage at Karyes (seat of Athos) for the monks who devoted themselves to solitude and prayer. In 1199, he authored the typikon of Karyes. Along with the hermitage, he built the chapel dedicated to Sabbas the Sanctified, whose name he received upon monastic vows. His father died on February 13, 1199.
As Nemanja had earlier decided to give the rule to Stefan, and not the eldest, Vukan, in the meantime, back home, the latter began plotting against Stefan; he found an ally in Emeric, the King of Hungary with whom he banished Stefan to Bulgaria, and Vukan usurped the Serbian throne. Stefan returned to Serbia with an army in 1204, and pushed Vukan to Zeta, his hereditary land. After problems at Athos with Latin bishops and Boniface of Montferrat following the Fourth Crusade, Sava returned to Serbia in the winter of 1205–06 or 1206–07, with the remains of his father which he relocated to his father's endowment, the Studenica monastery, and then reconciled his quarreling brothers.
Having spent 14 years in Mount Athos, Sava had extensive theological knowledge and spiritual power. According to Sava's biography, he was asked to teach the court and people of Serbia the Christian laws and traditions and "in that way enwisen and educate". Sava then worked on the religious and cultural enlightenment of the Serbian people, educating in Christian morality, love and mercy. While working on the Orthodox enlightenment, he also worked on the church organization.
In 1217, archimandrite Sava left Studenica and returned to Mount Athos. His departure has been interpreted by a part of the historians as a revolt against his brother Stefan accepting the royal crown from Rome. Stefan was crowned king in the Žiča monastery in 1217. It is possible that Sava did not agree with everything in his brother's international politics, however, his departure for Athos may also be interpreted as a preparation for obtaining the autocephaly (independence) of the Serbian Archbishopric. His departure was planned, both Domentijan and Teodosije, Sava's biographers, stated that before leaving Studenica he appointed a new hegumen (abbot) and "put the monastery in good, correct order, and enacted the new church constitution and monastic life order, to be held that way", after which he left Serbia.
Autocephaly and church organization
On 15 August 1219, during the feast of the Dormition of the Mother of God, Sava was consecrated by Patriarch Manuel I of Constantinople in Nicaea as the first Archbishop of the autocephalous (independent) Serbian Church. With the support of Emperor Theodore I Laskaris and "the Most Venerable Patriarch and the whole Constantinopolitan assembly" the blessing that the Serbian archbishops receive consecration from their own bishops' assemblies without visiting the Patriarch of Constantinople.
From Nicaea, Archbishop Sava returned to Mount Athos, where he profusely donated to the monasteries. In Hilandar, he addressed the question of administration: "he taught the hegumen specially how to, in every virtue, show himself as an example to others; and the brothers, once again, he taught how to listen to everything the hegumen said with the fear of God", as witnessed by Teodosije. From Hilandar, Sava travelled to Thessaloniki, to the monastery of Philokalos, where he stayed for some time as a guest of the Metropolitan of Thessaloniki, Constantine the Mesopotamian, with whom he was a great friend ever since his youth. His stay was of great benefit as he transcripted many works on law needed for his church.
Upon his return to Serbia, he had great engagement regarding the organization of the Serbian church, especially regarding the structure of bishoprics, those that were situated on locales at the sensitive border with the Roman Catholic West. At the assembly in Žiča in 1219, Sava "chose, from his pupils, God-understanding and God-fearing and honorable men, who were able in managing by divine laws and by tradition of the Holy Apostles, and keep the apparitions of the holy God-bearing fathers. And he consecrated them and made them bishops" (Domentijan). Sava gave the newly appointed bishops law books and sent them to bishoprics in all parts of Serbia. It is not known how many bishoprics he founded. The following bishoprics were under his administration:
- Zeta (Zetska), seated at Monastery of Holy Archangel Michael in Prevlaka near Kotor
- Hum (Humska), seated at Monastery of the Holy Mother of God in Ston, supervised by Ilarion
- Dabar–Bosna (Dabrobosanska), seated at Monastery of St. Nicholas on the Lim
- Moravica (Moravička), seated at Monastery of St. Achillius in the Moravica region
- Budimlja (Budimljanska), seated at Monastery of St. George
- Toplica (Toplička), seated at Monastery of St. Nicholas in the Toplica region
- Hvosno (Hvostanska), seated at Monastery of the Holy Mother of God in the Hvosno region
- Žiča (Žička), seated at Žiča, the seat of the Church
- Raška (Raške), seated at Monastery of Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in Peć
- Lipljan (Lipljanska), seated at Lipljan
- Prizren (Prizrenska), seated at Prizren
In the same year Sava published Zakonopravilo (or "St. Sava's Nomocanon"), the first constitution of Serbia; thus the Serbs acquired both forms of independence: political and religious. Its purpose was to establish a codified legal system in Serbian Kingdom, and to regulate the governing body of the Serbian Church.
He then stayed at Studenica and continued his education of faith to the Serbian people, later he called for a council outlawing the Bogomils, who were regarded heretics. Sava appointed protobishops, sending them over all of Serbia to baptize the unbaptized, marry the unmarried etc. To maintain his duty as the religious and social leader, he continued to travel among the monasteries and throughout the lands to educate the people. King Stefan died on September 24, 1228, and was succeeded by his son Stefan Radoslav. After the Battle of Klokotnitsa (1230), Stefan Vladislav, Radoslav's younger brother, married Beloslava, the daughter of Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Asen II, subsequently becoming the new King by 1234.
After the crowning of his nephew Radoslav, the son of Stefan, Sava left the Serbian maritime in 1229 for a trip to Palestine. He visited almost all the holy places and endowed them with valued gifts. The Patriarch of Jerusalem, Athanasius, along with the rest of the prelates, and especially monks, warmly greeted and welcomed him. On the way back he visited Nicaea and the Byzantine Emperor John Vatatzes, where he remained for several days. From there, he continued his journey to Mount Athos, Hilandar, and then via Thessaloniki to Serbia. After a short stay at Studenica, Sava embarked on a four-year trip, by himself, throughout the lands where he confirmed the theological teaching, and delivered constitutions and customs of monastic life to be kept, as he had seen in Mount Athos, Palestine and Middle East, according to Teodosije. While visiting Mar Saba, he had been gifted the Trojeručica (the "Three-handed Theotokos"), an icon of Nursing Madonna, and the crosier of Sabbas the Sanctified, which he brought to Hilandar.
Second pilgrimage and death
After the throne change in 1234, when King Radoslav was succeeded by his brother Vladislav, Archbishop Sava began his second trip to the Holy Land. Prior to this, Sava had appointed his loyal pupil Arsenije Sremac as his successor to the throne of the Serbian Archbishopric. Domentijan says that Sava chose Arsenije through his "clairvoyance", with Teodosije stating further that he was chosen because Sava knew he was "evil-less and more just than others, prequalified in all, always fearing God and carefully keeps His commandments". This move was wise and deliberate; still in his lifetime he chose himself a worthy successor because he knew that the further fate of the Serbian Church largely depended on the personality of the successor.
Sava began his trip from Budva, then via Brindisi in Italy to Acre. On this road he experienced various bad events, such as an organized pirate attack in the rough Mediterranean Sea, which however ended well. In Acre he stayed in his monastery dedicated to St. George, which he had earlier bought from the Latins, and then from there went to Jerusalem, to the Monastery of St. John the Apostle, "which he, as soon as arriving, redeemed from the Saracens, in his name". Sava had a prolonged stay in Jerusalem; he was again friendly and brotherly received by Patriarch Athanasius. From Jerusalem he went to Alexandria, where he visited Patriarch Nicholas, with whom he exchanged gifts.
After touring the sanctities in Egypt, he returned to Jerusalem, from where he went to the Sinai, where he spent the Lent. He returned briefly to Jerusalem, then went to Antiochia, and from there across Armenia and the "Turkic lands" he went on the "Syrian Sea" and then returned on a ship to Antiochia. On the ship, Sava became sick, and was unable to eat. After a longer trip he arrived at Constantinople where he briefly stayed. Sava first wanted to return home via Mount Athos (according to Domentijan), but he instead decided to visit the Bulgarian capital at Trnovo, where he was warmly and friendly admitted by the Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Asen II (father-in-law of King Vladislav) and Bulgarian Patriarch Joakim. As on all his destinations, he gave rich gifts to the churches and monasteries: "[he] gave also to the Bulgarian Patriarchate priestly honourable robes and golden books and candlesticks adorned with precious stones and pearls and other church vessels", as written by Teodosije. Sava had after much work and many long trips arrived at Trnovo a tired and sick man. When the sickness took a hold of him and he saw that the end was near, he sent part of his entourage to Serbia with the gifts and everything he had bought with his blessing to give "to his children". Domentijan accounted that he died between Saturday and Sunday, most likely on 14 January [O.S. 27 January] 1235.
Sava was respectfully buried at the Holy Forty Martyrs Church. Sava's body was returned to Serbia after a series of requests, and was then buried in the Mileševa monastery, built by Vladislav in 1234. According to Teodosije, Archbishop Arsenije told Vladislav "It's neither nice nor pleasing, before God nor the people, leaving our father [Sava] gifted to us by the Christ. An equal to apostles – who made so many feats and countless efforts for the Serbian lands, decorating it with churches and the kingdom, the archbishopric and bishops, and all constitutions and laws – that his relics lie outside his fatherland and the seat of his church, in a foreign land". King Vladislav twice sent delegations to his father-in-law Asen, asking him to let the relics of Sava be transferred to the fatherland, but the Emperor was unappealing. Vladislav then personally visited him and finally got the approval, and brought the relics to Serbia. With the highest church- and state honours, the relics of Saint Sava were transferred from the Holy Forty Martyrs Church to Mileševa on 6 May [O.S. 19 May] 1237. "The King and the Archbishop, with the bishops and hegumens and many noblemen, all together, little and great, carried the Saint in much joy, with psalms and songs". Sava was canonized, and his relics were considered miraculous; his cult remained throughout the Middle Ages and the Ottoman occupation.
The presence of the relics of St. Sava in Serbia had a church-religious and political significance, especially during the Ottoman period. No individual among the Serbs has been woven into the consciousness and being of the people as Saint Sava, from his time until the present day. In 1377, Bosnian Ban Tvrtko was crowned King in the presence of Sava's relics. In 1448, vojvoda Stefan Vukčić Kosača of Hum styled himself "herzog (duke) of Saint Sava". The cult collected all South Slavic peoples, especially the Orthodox Serbs, while his grave was also a pilgrim site for Catholics and Muslims. Foreign 16th-century writers, Jean Sesno (1547) and Catherine Zen (1550) noted that Muslims respected the tomb of St. Sava, and feared him. Benedicto Ramberti (1553) said that Turks and Jews gave more charity to Mileševa than the Serbs.
Saint Sava is considered to be a founder of independent Serbian literature. His relation to books and writing can be seen through his typcs where writing, reading and books have been given an important place. His first works are on church themes, unliteral. The first of Saint Sava's work with literary elements is his letter to monk Spiridon, which is the only original letter written by Saint Sava which remained until today.
The Zakonopravilo (1219) was the first Serbian constitution and highest code in the Serbian Church, well developed with the compilation of Civil, Roman law, and Canon law, based on Ecumenical Councils, and its basic purpose was the organization of the Serbian monarchy and church. Today, it is the official Canon law of the Serbian, Russian, and Bulgarian Orthodox churches.
His literary work is very large, and especially made for the organisation of monasteries.
- Studenica Typikon, a typikon written in 1207–08
- Hilandar Typikon, a typikon written in 1207–08
- The Life of St. Simeon (Žitije Sv. Simeona), a biography (hagiography) on his father, Stefan Nemanja (Simeon) written in 1207–08
- Letter to hegumen Spiridon, a personal letter written from Jerusalem to his disciple in Studenica. 14th-century copies exist in the Velika Remeta monastery.
- Psaltir-holding laws (Ustav za držanje Psaltira), written in ?
- Zakonopravilo, the constitution of the Kingdom of Serbia written in 1219
In the first part of Studenica typikon he first described the life of his father Stefan Nemanja, the ktitor of the monastery, while the Life of St. Simeon (Žitije Sv. Simeona). Under influence of this biography, a completely independent literary kind of biographies of Serbian saints and rulers was formed. Žitije Svetog Simeona contains eleven chapters, which are sorted in these groups: Building of Studenica, Nemanja's withdrawal from the throne, Sava's way to Mount Athos, Death of St. Simeon, Moving of Simeon's body to Serbia.
Legacy and cult
Hilandar became one of the most important cultural and religious centre of the Serbian people. Gregory of Sinai (1260s–1346) considered him to be a great illuminator. Sava III (fl. 1292–1316) calls him great apostle and archbishop of Serbia, while for Archbishop Danilo II (fl.1324–1337) he is our master and teacher.
In 1594, the Banat Uprising was organized by bishop Teodor of Vršac, Sava Temišvarac and vojvoda Velja Mironić, among others, in the area around Vršac. The rebellion began in the Ottoman Temeșvar Eyalet. For a short time, the Serb rebels captured several cities in Banat, including Vršac, Bečkerek, and Lipova, as well as Titel and Bečej in Bačka. It had the character of a holy war, the Serb rebels carrying war flags with the image of Saint Sava. Grand Vizier Sinan Pasha, who led the Ottoman army, ordered the green flag of Muhammad brought from Damascus to counter the Serbian flag. Sinan Pasha then ordered that the remains of Sava be taken to Belgrade and burnt. Ahmed-beg Ochuse carried out the orders, he took a military convoy to Mileševa, ordered the monks to remove Sava's wooden coffin in the sarcophagus and put it on the horses that the monks would lead. On the way, they beat the monks and killed or took along those that were in their path, so that the rebels in the woods would hear of it. On April 27, 1595, the wooden coffin burnt on a pyre on the Vračar hill in Belgrade. The flames were seen over the Danube, and the Turks celebrated. The Church of Saint Sava was built on the place where his remains were burned, its construction began in the 1930s and was completed in 2004.
In the time of Ottoman occupation, Sava's cult overpast previous Serbian boundaries. It expanded in Russia, notably during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Russian monk Elder Isaija brought the manuscript of Life of Saint Sava from Mount Athos to Russia. Later many other libraries across Russia possessed works by Saint Sava or about him.
As a saint, Sava was respected even among the Roman Catholics. Bosnian bishop Ivan Tomko Mrnavić (1579–1637) wrote the first biography of Saint Sava, which did not not contain historical character but a literary. Various writers wrote about Saint Sava with respect, among others: Antun Sasin (1525–1595), Ivan Kavanjin (d. 1714), Pavao Ritter Vitezović (1652–1713).
In Serb-populated territories, various works of cultural significance have been done on the feast day of Saint Sava. For example Matica srpska was founded on Sava's day, the Serbian gymnasium in Novi Sad etc.
From the 19th century, Saint Sava is more seen as a patron of school and education, first in Vojvodina (probably in Zemun, 1826). Some of the most respected Serbian writers found inspiration in the life and works of Saint Sava, such as: Branko Radičević, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Vojislav Ilić, Miloš Crnjanski.
Around 42 portraits of him remains from medieval times. Saint Sava's artistic cult reached its height in the 18th century, reached at rood screen of cathedral church in Sremski Karlovci, which was built around 1780 by Teodor Kračun and Jakov Orfelin. In more modern Serbian art (19th and 20th centuries) Saint Sava was an inspiration of those artists who wanted to show their patriotism and devotion to the church, education, enlightenment and generally - culture.
Many stories show Saint Sava as a teacher and wonder-worker. As a wonder-worker Sava is related to water, ice and snow. Veselin Čajkanović considered that many former Serbian pagan beliefs could be seen through Saint Sava.
Sava founded and reconstructed churches and monasteries wherever he stayed. While staying at Vatopedi, even before the arrival of his father (1197), he founded three chapels (paraklisi). He had the monastery church covered in lead, and was regarded the second ktitor, also having donated highly valuable ecclesiastical art objects. Together with his father he was the great, second ktitor of the monasteries of Iviron, Great Lavra and churches in Karyes. The most important was Hilandar, together with his father (1198). He then founded the cell at Karyes, and in 1199 became he ktitor of three more Authonite monasteries: Karakallou, Xeropotamou, and Philotheou. In 1197 he gave a large contribution to the Constantinopolitan monastery of the Holy Mother of God Euergetes, and did the same to Philokallou in Thessaloniki; "due to him also giving much gold for the erection of that monastery, the population there regard him the ktitor", according to Teodosije (1246–1328).
Returning to Serbia in 1206, Sava continued his work. The Mother of God Church in Studenica was painted, and two hermitages near Studenica were endowed. His most important architectual work was the Home of the Holy Saviour, called Žiča, the first seat of the Serbian Archbishopric. In Peć he built the Church of the Holy Apostles, and he was also involved in the building of the Mileševa monastery. In Palestine, on Mount Sinai, he founded the Monastery of St. John the Apostle, as a shelter for Serb pilgrims. Sava donated gold to many monasteries in Palestine, Thessaloniki, and especially Mount Athos. His ktitor activity was an expression of deep devotion and sincere loyalty to Christian ideals.
- Hilandar monastery on Mount Athos
- Karyes monastery cell (see: Karyes Typicon)
- Church of John the Apostle in Jerusalem
And many other churches across Serbia, as well.
|Eastern Orthodox Church titles|
|Archbishop of Serbs
December 6, 1219 – January 14, 1235
|Prince of Hum
under Stefan Nemanja
1190 – 1192
Miroslav or Toljen
- B92.net, 27.01.2012, Škole u Srbiji obeležavaju Savindan
- Vlasto 1970, p. 218.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 38.
- Fine 1994, p. 19.
- Fine 1994, p. 52.
- Fine 1994, p. 20.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 30.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 39.
- Fine 1994, pp. 41–48.
- Fine 1994, p. 79.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 40.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 41.
- Zorić 2006.
- Fine 1994, p. 118.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 42.
- "Ikona Presvete Bogorodice „Trojeručice”". Ikonopis. Hilandar.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 43.
- Mileusnić 2000, pp. 43–44.
- Mileusnić 2000, pp. 44.
- Fine 1994, p. 136.
- Fajfrić 2000, ch. 18.
- Mileusnić 2000, pp. 44–45.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 45.
- Đuro Daničić (1872). "Poslanica Svetog Save arhiepiskopa srpskoga". JAZU.
- John Anthony McGuckin (15 December 2010). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 Volume Set. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 560–. ISBN 978-1-4443-9254-8.
- Velimirović 1989, p. 159.
- Branko Pešić (1988). Spomen hram Sv. Save na Vračaru u Beogradu: 1895-1988. Sveti arhijerejski sinod Srpske pravoslavne crkve.
Отац Отаџбине Св. Сава је надахнуо Немањи- ну државу идеалима хришћанског патриотизма и створио слободну цркву у слободној држави. Држа- ва је Отечество - земља мојих ота- ца. Држава не сме да буде импери- ја, јер где ...
- Paul Burns (15 July 2007). Butler's Saint for the Day. A&C Black. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-86012-434-4.
- Mileusnić 2000, p. 37.
- Srpska pravoslavna crkva (2007). Pravoslavlje, Issues 955-978. Izdaje Srpska patrijaršija. p. 45.
- Bogdanović, Dimitrije, ed. (1986). "Свети Сава - Сабрани списи" (Internet ed.). Просвета и Српска књижевна задруга.
- Fine, John Van Antwerp, Jr. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5.
- Matejić, Mateja (1976). Biography of Saint Sava. Kosovo.
- Mileusnić, Slobodan (2000). Sveti Srbi. Novi Sad: Prometej. ISBN 86-7639-478-4. OCLC 44601641.
- Stanojević, Stanoje (2008). "Свети Сава". Rastko.
- Velimirović, Nikolaj (1989). The Life of St. Sava. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-065-5.
- Vlasto, A. P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521074599.
- Zorić, Petar (2006). Законоправило Светога Саве и правни транспланти (PDF) (in Serbian). Alan Watson.
- Žikić, Bojan (1997). Културни херој као "морални трикстер": Свети Сава у усменом предању Срба из БиХ [Culture hero as "moral trickster": Saint Sava in oral traditions of Serbs in BiH] (PDF). Bulletin of the Ethnographical Institute SASA (in Serbian) (Belgrade) XLVI: 122–128.
- Петровић, Миодраг (2002). "Свети Сава као састављач и преводилац Законоправила — српског номоканона" (PDF). Историјски часопис (49): 27–46.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Sava.|