St. Thaddeus Monastery
|The Armenian Monastic Ensemble in Iran|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||ii, iii, vi|
|Inscription||2008 (32nd Session)|
The Monastery of Saint Thaddeus (Armenian: Սուրբ Թադէոսի վանք – Surb Tadeosi vank'; Persian: کلیسای سن تادئوس – Kelisā ye San Tādeus) is an ancient Armenian monastery in the mountainous area of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
Also known as the Black Church (Azerbaijani: Qara Kilsə; Persian: Qare Kelisā – قره کلیسا), it is about 20 kilometers from the town of Maku, and is visible from quite a distance, due to the massiveness of the church, strongly characterized by the polygonal drums and conical roofs of its two domes.
History and architecture
Saint Thaddeus, also known as Saint Jude, (not to be confused with Judas Iscariot), was martyred while spreading the Gospel. He is revered as an apostle of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Legend has it that a church dedicated to him was first built on the present site in AD 68.
Not much appears to remain of the original church, it was extensively rebuilt in 1329 after an earthquake damaged the structure in 1319. Nevertheless, some of the parts surrounding the altar apse date from the 10th century.
Much of the present structure dates from 1811, when the Qajar prince Abbas Mirza helped in renovations and repairs. Undertaken by Simeon, Father Superior of the monastery, a large narthex-like western extension was added to the church.
The structure duplicates the design of the Etchmiadzin Cathedral. The 19th century additions are from carved sandstone. The earliest parts are of black and white stone, hence its Turkic name Qara Kilse, meaning "the Black Church."
In July 2008, the Monastery of Saint Thaddeus was added to UNESCO's World Heritage List, along with two other Armenian monuments located in the same province, namely the Monastery of Saint Stepanos and the Chapel of Dzordzor.
Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew
According to Armenian Church tradition, the Apostles Thaddeus and Bartholomew traveled through Armenia in AD 45 to preach the word of God, where many people were converted and numerous secret Christian communities were established.
The ancient Christian historian Moses of Khorene told the following story, considered a legend by most modern historiographers. Thaddeus converted King Abgar V of Edessa. After his death, the Armenian kingdom was split into two parts. His son Ananun crowned himself in Edessa, while his nephew Sanatruk ruled in Armenia. About AD 66, Ananun gave the order to kill Saint Thaddeus in Edessa. The king's daughter Sandokht, who had converted to Christianity, was martyred with Thaddeus. Her tomb is said to be located near the Qara Kelisa.
Annually, the monastery holds a ceremony on the Day of Saint Thaddeus, attended by Armenian pilgrims from all over Iran and other countries.
- Korbendau, Yves; Parker, Claire; McElhearn, Kirk (2009-03-01). The Many Faces of Iran. ISBN 9782867701535.
- Index of Armenian Art: Armenian Architecture
- Jude: A Pilgrimage to the Saint of Last Resort By Liz Trotta
- "Thadeus Monastery – Armenica.org". armenica.org.
- Thierry & Donabedian 1989, p. 308.
- Patrick Donabedian & Jean-Michell Thierry, "Armenian Art", New York, 1989. Page 308.
- David Wilmshurst (2011). The Martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East. East & West Publishing Limited. pp. 7–9. ISBN 978-1-907318-04-7. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to St. Thaddeus Monastery.|
- UNESCO World Heritage: Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran
- Thaddeus Monastery at Armeniapedia
- St Thaddeus at Armenica.org
- Armenian Architecture studies
- Hamid-Rezā Hosseini, Sound of the Ancient Bell, in Persian, Jadid Online, October 31, 2008, 
A shorter English version: Iran's World Heritage Monastery, Jadid Online, December 25, 2008: 
Slide show (with English subtitles):  (5 min 41 sec)