Sakala County is situated in north-western Livonia, covering approximately the present territories of Viljandi, the southern half of Pärnu, and a western third of Valga maakond. It was the southernmost of the ancient Estonian counties.
According to one hypothesis, tribe of Sosols mentioned in Old East Slavic chronicles imply to people of Sakala. Chronicles say that Kievan Rus organized military campaign against Sosols in 1060 and taxed them. Year later Sosols rose up, destroyed Kievan Rus fort in Tartu and tried to attack Pskov.
In Sackalian folklore, the neighbouring Ugaunians (ugalased) were enemy warriors and robbers. For instance, a folk song from Viljandi (the capital of Sackalia) calls for speeding up the harvest work because Ugaunians might attack.
- Historical Dictionary of Estonia; p.63 ISBN 0-8108-4904-6
- p31, History of Estonia, 2nd Ed., Tõnu Tannberg, et al. AS Bit 2002, ISBN 9985-2-0606-1
- The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia ISBN 0-231-12889-4
- Mäesalu, Ain (2012). "Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava hill fort?" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Archaeology. 1: 199. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
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