Sakawa is believed to be a Ghanaian term for illegal practices which combine modern Internet-based fraud with African traditionalist rituals. The rituals, which are mostly in the form of sacrifices, are intended to spiritually manipulate victims so that the scammer's fraud is successful. The term Sakawa referred to specific online scams but has since broadened to include all types of online frauds and scams mainly targeting foreigners.
Historically, European colonizers have stolen and pilfered West Africa's resources such as gold, bauxite, cobalt, industrial diamond, phosphate rock, platinum-group metals (PGM), vermiculite, and zirconium. Practitioners of Sakawa view the act as reparation, or stealing back resources and money from white people. In impoverished areas, it can be seen as a way of survival for some.
- Darko, Sammy (10 May 2015). "Inside the world of Ghana's internet fraudsters". bbc.co.uk. BBC. Retrieved 4 March 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Internet Scamming in Ghana". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Abubakar, Zulaihatu (2012-09-22). "Sakawa Guy Confesses". Modern Ghana. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- "Six teenagers engage in mysterious Sakawa deal | General News 2012-12-30". GhanaWeb. 2012-12-30. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Akwetey-Okunor, Isaac (2012-06-22). "Sakawa coffin exhibited in public | Ghanaian Chronicle". The Ghanaian Chronicle. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Dzandu, Sammy (2013-06-03). "The sakawa menace ...Any solutions | features". Daily Graphic. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- The Sakawa Boys, a documentary about the phenomenon.
- A Look at the Real African Social Engineers, an article on Sakawa culture.
- The Anatomy Of a Sakawa Scam, an article detailing sakawa type frauds.
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