Yakut language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Sakha language)
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Saka language.
Yakut
Sakha
Саха тыла Saxa tıla
Native to Russia
Region Sakha
Ethnicity 480,000 Yakuts (2010 census)[1]
Native speakers
450,000 (2010 census)[1]
Turkic
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
Sakha Republic (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-2 sah
ISO 639-3 sah
Glottolog yaku1245[2]
Yakut and Dolgan languages.png
Locations of Yakut (blue) and Dolgan (green)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.

Like all Turkic languages, Yakut is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

Classification[edit]

Yakut is a member of the Northern Turkic family of languages, which includes Shor, Tuvan, and Dolgan in addition to Yakut. Like Turkish, Yakut has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject–object–verb. Yakut has been influenced by Tungusic and Mongolian languages.[3]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Yakut is spoken mainly in the Sakha Republic. It is also used by ethnic Yakut in Khabarovsk Region and a small diaspora in other parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey, and other parts of the world. Dolgan, a close relative of Yakut, considered by some[who?] a dialect, is spoken by Dolgans in Krasnoyarsk Region. Yakut is widely used as a lingua franca by other ethnic minorities in the Sakha Republic – more Dolgans, Evenks, Evens and Yukagirs speak Yakut than their own languages. About 8% of the people of other ethnicities than Yakut living in Sakha claimed knowledge of the Yakut language during the 2002 census.[4]

Phonology[edit]

One characteristic feature of Yakut is vowel harmony. For example, if the first vowel of a Yakut word is a front vowel, the second and other vowels of the same word are usually the same vowel or another front vowel: кэлин (kelin) "back": э (e) is open unrounded front, и (i) is close unrounded front. Yakut initial s- corresponds to initial h- in Dolgan and played an important operative rule in the development of proto-Yakut, ultimately resulting in initial Ø- < *h- < *s-. Ubrjatova (1985) suggests that the rule was either reintroduced through Evenki contact, or may be a substratal feature of the Yakut language itself. An example is shown in the word meaning 'not': Dolgan huoq and Yakut suox. This phonetic observation gave rise to two acknowledgements:[5]

  1. that the original phenomenon in proto-Yakut may have likewise been the result of substratal influence.
  2. that the change of *s > h (debuccalization) is, however, well known and is far from unusual, being characteristic of such languages as Greek in its development from Proto-Indo-European, as well as such Turkic languages as Bashkir, e.g. höt 'milk' < *süt.

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Yakut
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Fricative voiceless s x h
voiced ɣ
Approximant plain l j
nasalized ȷ̃
Flap ɾ

Vowels[edit]

Vowel phonemes of Yakut
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close short i y ɯ u
long ɯː
Open short e ø a o
long øː
Diphthong ie ɯa uo

Writing system[edit]

Main article: Yakut scripts

Yakut is written using the Cyrillic script: the modern Yakut alphabet, established in 1939 by the Soviet Union, consists of the usual Russian characters but with 5 additional letters: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү.

Сахалыы сурук-бичигэ Saqalıı suruk-biçige (Yakut alphabet)

Letter Name IPA Note Turkic Latin translit.[citation needed]
А а а /a/ A a
Б б бэ /b/ B b
В в вэ /v/ found only in Russian loanwords [6] V v
Г г гэ /ɡ/ G g
Ҕ ҕ ҕэ /ʁ/ Ğ ğ
Д д дэ /d/ D d
Дь дь дьэ /ɟ/ C c
Е е е /e, je/ found only in Russian loanwords Ye ye or e
Ё ё ё /jo/ found only in Russian loanwords Yo yo
Ж ж жэ /ʒ/ found only in Russian loanwords J j
З з зэ /z/ found only in Russian loanwords Z z
И и и /i/ İ i
Й й ый /j, ȷ̃/ Nasalization of the glide is not indicated in the orthography Y y or Ỹ ỹ
К к кы /k/ K k
Л л эл /l/ L l
М м эм /m/ M m
Н н эн /n/ N n
Ҥ ҥ ҥэ /ŋ/ Ñ ñ
Нь нь ньэ /ɲ/ Ny ny
О о о /o/ O o
Ө ө ө /ø/ Ö ö
П п пэ /p/ P p
Р р эр /ɾ/ R r
С с эс /s/ S s
Һ һ һэ /h/ H h
Т т тэ /t/ T t
У у у /u/ U u
Ү ү ү /y/ Ü ü
Ф ф эф /f/ found only in Russian loanwords F f
Х х хэ /q~x/ Q q (X x)
Ц ц цэ /ts/ found only in Russian loanwords Ts ts
Ч ч че /c/ Ç ç
Ш ш ша /ʃ/ found only in Russian loanwords Ş ş
Щ щ ща /ɕː/ found only in Russian loanwords Şş şş
Ъ ъ кытаанах бэлиэ /◌./ found only in Russian loanwords "
Ы ы ы /ɯ/ I ı
Ь ь сымнатар бэлиэ /◌ʲ/ natively in дь and нь (see above); otherwise only in Russian loanwords '
Э э э /e/ E e
Ю ю ю /ju/ found only in Russian loanwords Yu yu
Я я я /ja/ found only in Russian loanwords Ya ya

Grammar[edit]

Syntax[edit]

The typical word order can be summarized as subjectadverbobjectverb; possessorpossessed; nounadjective.

Nouns[edit]

Nouns have plural and singular forms. The plural is formed with the suffix /-LAr/, which may surface as [-лар (-lar)], [-лэр (-ler)], [-лөр (-lör)], [-лор (-lor)], [-тар (-tar)], [-тэр (-ter)], [-төр (-tör)], [-тор (-tor)], [-дар (-dar)], [-дэр (-der)], [-дөр (-dör)], [-дор (-dor)], [-нар (-nar)], [-нэр (-ner)], [-нөр (-nör)], or [-нор (-nor)], depending on the preceding consonants and vowels. The plural is used only when referring to a number of things collectively, not when specifying an amount. Nouns have no gender.

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns in Yakut distinguish between first, second, and third persons and singular and plural number.

Singular Plural
1st мин (min) биһиги (bihigi)
2nd эн (en) эһиги (ehigi)
3rd human кини (kini) кинилэр (kiniler)
non-human ол (ol) олор (olor)

Although nouns have no gender, the pronoun system distinguishes between human and non-human in the third person, using кини (kini, 'he/she') to refer to human beings and ол (ol, 'it') to refer to all other things.[7]

Questions[edit]

Question words in Yakut remain in-situ; they do not move to the front of the sentence. Sample question words include: туох (tuox) "what", ким (kim) "who", хайдах (xaydax) "how", хас (xas) "how much", ханна (xanna) "where", and ханнык (xannık) "which".

Vocabulary[edit]

Yakut (Cyrillic) Yakut (Latin) Turkish Azerbaijani English Mongolian (Cyrillic)

/Mongolian (Latin)

аччык aççık açlık aclıq hunger
aac ass ac hungry
аат aat ad ad name
балык balık balık balıq fish
балыксыт balıksıt balıkçı balıqçı fisherman
yy uu su su water ус /us
тимир timir demir dəmir iron төмөр /tömör
күөл küöl göl göl lake нуур /nuur
атах atax ayak ayaq foot
мурун murun burun burun nose
баттах battax saç saç hair үс /üs
илии ilii el əl hand
күн kün gün gün day, sun
муус muus buz buz ice мөс /mös
ыт ıt it it dog
сүрэх sürex yürek ürək heart зүрх /zürkh
сарсын sarsın yarın sabah tomorrow
бүгүн bügün bugün bugün today
былыт bılıt bulut bulud cloud
хаар xaar kar qar snow
хаан xaan kan qan blood
эт et et ət meat
тиис tiis diş diş tooth
ат at at at horse
таас taas taş daş stone
үүт üüt süt süd milk сүү /süü
ынах ınax inek inək cow үнээ /ünee
хара xara kara qara black хар /khar
сыттык sıttık yastık yastıq pillow
быһах bıhax bıçak bıçaq knife
бытык bıtık bıyık bığ mustache
кыс, кыһын kıs, kıhın kış, kışın qış, qışın winter
туус tuus tuz duz salt
тыл tıl dil dil tongue, language хэл /khel
cаха тылa saxa tıla saha dili, sahaca saxa dili, saxaca Yakut language
кыыс kııs kız qız girl, daughter
уол uol oğul, oğlan oğul, oğlan son, boy
үөрэтээччи üöreteeççi öğretici, öğretmen müəllim teacher
үөрэнээччи üöreneeççi öğrenci şagird, tələbə student
уһун uhun uzun uzun long, tall
кулгаах kulgaax kulak qulaq ear
сыл sıl yıl il year жил /jil
киһи kihi kişi insan, kişi human, man хүн /hün
суол suol yol yol road, way
асчыт asçıt aşçı aşbaz cook
тараах taraax tarak daraq comb
орто orto orta orta middle
күн ортото kün ortoto gün ortası günorta midday, noon
күл kül gülmek gülmək to laugh
өл öl ölmek ölmək to die
ис is içmek içmək to drink
бил bil bilmek bilmək to know
көр kör görmek görmək to see хар /khar
үөрэн üören öğrenmek öyrənmək to learn
үөрэт üöret öğretmek öyrətmək to teach
ытыр ıtır ısırmak dişləmək to bite
хас xas kazmak qazmaq to dig
тик tik dikiş dikmek, dikmek tikiş, tikmək to sew
кэл kel gelmek gəlmək to come
салаа salaa yalamak yalamaq to lick
тараа taraa taramak daramaq to comb
биэр bier vermek vermək to give
бул bul bulmak tapmaq to find
диэ die demek demək to say
киир kiir girmek girmək to enter
иһит ihit işitmek eşitmək to hear
ас as açmak açmaq to open
тут tut tutmak tutmaq to hold

Numbers[edit]

In this table, the Yakut numbers are written in Latin transcription (see Writing system).

Old Turkic Azerbaijani Turkish Yakut English
bir bir bir biir one
eki iki iki ikki two
üç üç üç üs three
tört dörd dört tüört four
beş beş beş bies five
altı altı altı alta six
yeti yeddi yedi sette seven
sekiz səkkiz sekiz ağis eight
tokuz doqquz dokuz toğus nine
on on on uon ten

Literature[edit]

The first printing in Yakut was a part of a book by Nicolaas Witsen published in 1692 in Amsterdam.

In 2005, Marianne Beerle-Moor, director of the Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS, was awarded the “Civil Valour” Order for the translation of the New Testament into Yakut.[8]

Oral traditions[edit]

The Yakut have a tradition of oral epic in their language called "Olonkho", traditionally performed by skilled performers. Only a very few older performers of this Olonkho tradition are still alive. They have begun a program to teach young people to sing this in their language and revive it, though in a modified form.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yakut at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Yakut". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780521477710. Their language...Turkic in its vocabulary and grammar, shows the influence of both Tungus and Mongolian 
  4. ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации (Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts) (Russian)
  5. ^ Ubrjatova, E. I. 1960 Opyt sravnitel'nogo izuc˙enija fonetic˙eskix osobennostej naselenija nekotoryx rajonov Jakutskoj ASSR. Moscow. 1985. Jazyk noril'skix dolgan. Novosibirsk: "Nauka" SO. In Turkic Languages 2 (2): 1-32. Historical Aspects of Yakut (Saxa) Phonology. Gregory D. S. Anderson. University of Chicago.
  6. ^ Krueger, John R. (1962). Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana U Press. 
  7. ^ Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih (1999). Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0587-3. 
  8. ^ "about". Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS. Retrieved 5 Nov 2011. 
  9. ^ Robin Harris. 2012. Sitting "under the mouth": decline and revitalization in the Skha epic tradition "Olonkho". Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.

External links[edit]

Language-related[edit]

Content in Yakut[edit]