Yakut language

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Yakutian
Sakha tyla
саха тыла, saxa tıla
Pronunciation[saxa tɯla]
Native toRussia
RegionYakutia
EthnicityYakuts (2010 census)
Native speakers
450,000 [1] (2010 census)
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
ISO 639-2sah
ISO 639-3sah
Glottologyaku1245[2]
Yakut and Dolgan languages.png
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Yakut,[3][4] also known as Yakutian, Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in Sakha (Yakutia), a federal republic in the Russian Federation, by the Yakuts.

The Yakut language differs from all other Turkic languages in the presence of a layer of vocabulary of unclear origin (possibly Paleo-Asian). There are also a large number of words of Mongolian origin related to ancient borrowings, as well as numerous recent borrowings from Russian. Like most Turkic languages and their ancestor Proto-Turkic, Yakut is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

Classification[edit]

Yakut is a member of the Northeastern Common Turkic family of languages, which includes Shor, Tuvan and Dolgan in addition to Yakut. Like most Turkic languages, Yakut has vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually subject–object–verb. Yakut has been influenced by Tungusic and Mongolian languages.[5]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Yakut is spoken mainly in the Sakha Republic. It is also used by ethnic Yakuts in Khabarovsk Region and a small diaspora in other parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey, and other parts of the world. Dolgan, a close relative of Yakut, considered by some[who?] a dialect, is spoken by Dolgans in Krasnoyarsk Region. Yakut is widely used as a lingua franca by other ethnic minorities in the Sakha Republic – more Dolgans, Evenks, Evens and Yukagirs speak Yakut than their own languages. About 8% of the people of other ethnicities than Yakut living in Sakha claimed knowledge of the Yakut language during the 2002 census.[6]

Phonology[edit]

One characteristic feature of Yakut is vowel harmony. For example, if the first vowel of a Yakut word is a front vowel, the second and other vowels of the same word are usually the same vowel or another front vowel: кэлин (kelin) "back": э (e) is open unrounded front, и (i) is close unrounded front.

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Yakut
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ɟ ɡ
Fricative voiceless s x h*
voiced ɣ
Approximant plain l j
nasalized ȷ̃
lateral ʎ*
Flap ɾ

*In dialects spoken in the northern districts of Yakutia, the letter с /s/ is pronounced as /h/ when it is at the beginning of a word and the letter дь /ɟ/ is pronounced as /ʎ/ when it stands after л /l/ within a word. This feature likely exists as a result of influence by the Yukaghir languages and/or Tungusic languages.

Sakha language (expect of Dolgan language) is the only Turkic language without hushing sibilants. Also, Sakha and Khorasani Turkic are the only known Turkic languages with voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/.

Vowels[edit]

Vowel phonemes of Yakut
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close short i y ɯ u
long ɯː
Diphthong ie yø (wø) ɯa (əː) uo (wo)
Open short e ø a o
long øː

Orthography[edit]

Yakut is written using the Cyrillic script: the modern Yakut alphabet, established in 1939 by the Soviet Union, consists of the usual Russian characters but with five additional letters: Ҕҕ, Ҥҥ, Өө, Һһ, Үү.

The language has a highly phonemic orthography except for some dialects. While й may be pronounced as /j/ or /ȷ̃/ depending on the word, the distinction is not as relevant nowadays.

Yakut alphabet (Saxalıı suruk-biçik):

Letter Name IPA Note Latin translit.[citation needed]
А а а /a/ A a
Б б бэ /b/ B b
В в вэ /v/ found only in Russian loanwords [7] V v
Г г гэ /ɡ/ G g
Ҕ ҕ ҕэ /ɣ, ʁ/ Ğ ğ
Д д дэ /d/ D d
Дь дь дьэ /ɟ/ C c
Е е е /e, je/ found only in Russian loanwords Ye ye or e
Ё ё ё /jo/ found only in Russian loanwords Yo yo
Ж ж жэ /ʒ/ found only in Russian loanwords J j
З з зэ /z/ found only in Russian loanwords Z z
И и и /i/ İ i
Й й ый /j, ȷ̃/ Nasalization of the glide is not indicated in the orthography Y y
К к кы /k/ K k
Л л эл /l/ L l
М м эм /m/ M m
Н н эн /n/ N n
Ҥ ҥ ҥэ /ŋ/ Ñ ñ
Нь нь ньэ /ɲ/ Ny ny
О о о /o/ O o
Ө ө ө /ø/ Ö ö
П п пэ /p/ P p
Р р эр /ɾ/ R r
С с эс /s/ S s
Һ һ һэ /h/ H h
Т т тэ /t/ T t
У у у /u/ U u
Ү ү ү /y/ Ü ü
Ф ф эф /f/ found only in Russian loanwords F f
Х х хэ /q~x/ Q q
Ц ц цэ /ts/ found only in Russian loanwords Ts ts
Ч ч че /c/ Ç ç
Ш ш ша /ʃ/ found only in Russian loanwords Ş ş
Щ щ ща /ɕː/ found only in Russian loanwords Şş şş
Ъ ъ кытаанах бэлиэ /◌./ found only in Russian loanwords "
Ы ы ы /ɯ/ I ı
Ь ь сымнатар бэлиэ /◌ʲ/ natively in дь and нь (see above); otherwise only in Russian loanwords '
Э э э /e/ E e
Ю ю ю /ju/ found only in Russian loanwords Yu yu
Я я я /ja/ found only in Russian loanwords Ya ya

Grammar[edit]

Syntax[edit]

The typical word order can be summarized as subjectadverbobjectverb; possessorpossessed; nounadjective.

Nouns[edit]

Nouns have plural and singular forms. The plural is formed with the suffix /-LAr/, which may surface as -лар (-lar), -лэр (-ler), -лөр (-lör), -лор (-lor), -тар (-tar), -тэр (-ter), -төр (-tör), -тор (-tor), -дар (-dar), -дэр (-der), -дөр (-dör), -дор (-dor), -нар (-nar), -нэр (-ner), -нөр (-nör), or -нор (-nor), depending on the preceding consonants and vowels. The plural is used only when referring to a number of things collectively, not when specifying an amount. Nouns have no gender.

Final sound basics Plural affix options Examples
Vowels, л -лар, -лэр, -лор, -лөр Кыыллар (beasts), эһэлэр (bears), оҕолор (children), бөрөлөр (wolves)
к, п, с, т, х -тар, -тэр, -тор, -төр Аттар (horses), күлүктэр (shadows), оттор (herbs), бөлөхтөр (groups)
й, р -дар, -дэр, -дор, -дөр Баайдар (rich people)*, эдэрдэр (young people)*, хотойдор (eagles), көтөрдөр (birds)
м, н, ҥ -нар, -нэр, -нор, -нөр Кыымнар (sparks), илимнэр (fishing nets), ороннор (beds), бөдөҥнөр (they're large)*

Notes[edit]

* Nouns can also be adjectives, which also have plural forms. So, for example, улахан is big and улаханнар is bigs or correctly they are big.

There are exceptions: уол (boy) — уолаттар (boys) and кыыс (girl) — кыргыттар (girls).

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns in Yakut distinguish between first, second, and third persons and singular and plural number.

Singular Plural
1st мин (min) биһиги (bihigi)
2nd эн (en) эһиги (ehigi)
3rd human кини (kini) кинилэр (kiniler)
non-human ол (ol) олор (olor)

Although nouns have no gender, the pronoun system distinguishes between human and non-human in the third person, using кини (kini, 'he/she') to refer to human beings and ол (ol, 'it') to refer to all other things.[8]

Questions[edit]

Question words in Yakut remain in-situ; they do not move to the front of the sentence. Sample question words include: туох (tuox) "what", ким (kim) "who", хайдах (xaydax) "how", хас (xas) "how much", ханна (xanna) "where", and ханнык (xannık) "which".

Vocabulary[edit]

Yakut (Cyrillic) Yakut (Latin) Turkish Azerbaijani English Mongolian (Cyrillic)

/Mongolian (Latin)

аччыктааһын aççıktahin açlık aclıq hunger өлсгөлөн / ölsgölön
аччык aççık ac hungry өлссөн / ölssön
аат aat ad ad name нэр / ner
балык balık balık balıq fish
балыксыт balıksıt balıkçı balıqçı fisherman
yy uu su su water ус /us
тимир timir demir dəmir iron төмөр /tömör
күөл küöl göl göl lake нуур /nuur
атах atax ayak ayaq foot
мурун murun burun burun nose
баттах battax saç saç hair үс /üs
илии ilii el əl hand
күн kün gün gün day, sun
муус muus buz buz ice мөс /mös
ыт ıt it it dog
сүрэх sürex yürek ürək heart зүрх /zürx
сарсын sarsın yarın sabah tomorrow
бүгүн bügün bugün bugün today
былыт bılıt bulut bulud cloud
хаар xaar kar qar snow
хаан xaan kan qan blood
эт et et ət meat
тиис tiis diş diş tooth
ат at at at horse
таас taas taş daş stone
үүт üüt süt süd milk сүү /süü
ынах ınax inek inək cow үнээ /ünee
хара xara kara qara black хар / xar
сыттык sıttık yastık yastıq pillow
быһах bıhax bıçak bıçaq knife
бытык bıtık bıyık bığ mustache
кыс, кыһын kıs, kıhın kış, kışın qış, qışın winter
туус tuus tuz duz salt
тыл tıl dil dil tongue, language хэл /xel
cаха тылa saxa tıla saha dili, sahaca saxa dili, saxaca Yakut language
кыыс kııs kız qız girl, daughter
уол uol oğul, oğlan oğul, oğlan son, boy
үөрэтээччи üöreteeççi öğretici, öğretmen müəllim teacher
үөрэнээччи üöreneeççi öğrenci,talebe şagird, tələbə student
уһун uhun uzun uzun long, tall
кулгаах kulgaax kulak qulaq ear
сыл sıl yıl il year жил /jil
киһи kihi kişi insan, kişi human, man хүн /hün
суол suol yol yol road, way
асчыт asçıt aşçı aşbaz cook
тараах taraax tarak daraq comb
орто orto orta orta middle
күн ортото kün ortoto gün ortası günorta midday, noon
күл kül gülmek gülmək to laugh
өл öl ölmek ölmək to die
ис is içmek içmək to drink
бил bil bilmek bilmək to know
көр kör görmek görmək to see хар /xar
үөрэн üören öğrenmek öyrənmək to learn
үөрэт üöret öğretmek öyrətmək to teach
ытыр ıtır ısırmak dişləmək to bite
хас xas kazmak qazmaq to dig
тик tik dikiş dikmek, dikmek tikiş, tikmək to sew
кэл kel gelmek gəlmək to come
салаа salaa yalamak yalamaq to lick
тараа taraa taramak daramaq to comb
биэр bier vermek vermək to give
бул bul bulmak tapmaq to find
диэ die demek demək to say
киир kiir girmek girmək to enter
иһит ihit işitmek eşitmək to hear
ас as açmak açmaq to open
тут tut tutmak tutmaq to hold

Numbers[edit]

In this table, the Yakut numbers are written in Latin transcription (see Writing system).

Old Turkic Azerbaijani Turkish Yakut English
bir bir bir biir one
eki iki iki ikki two
üç üç üç üs three
tört dörd dört tüört four
beş beş beş bies five
altı altı altı alta six
yeti yeddi yedi sette seven
sekiz səkkiz sekiz ağis eight
tokuz doqquz dokuz toğus nine
on on on uon ten

Literature[edit]

The first printing in Yakut was a part of a book by Nicolaas Witsen published in 1692 in Amsterdam.[9]

In 2005, Marianne Beerle-Moor, director of the Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS, was awarded the Order of Civil Valour by the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) for the translation of the New Testament into Yakut.[10]

Oral traditions[edit]

The Yakut have a tradition of oral epic in their language called "Olonkho", traditionally performed by skilled performers. Only a very few older performers of this Olonkho tradition are still alive. They have begun a program to teach young people to sing this in their language and revive it, though in a modified form.[11]

Examples[edit]

Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Novgorodov's alphabet 1920–1929. (Latin alphabet/IPA) зɔn barɯta beje sSakhaUo.pngltatɯgar SakhaUo.pngnna bɯra:bɯgar teŋ bSakhaUo.pnglan tSakhaOeSmall.pngry:ler. kiniler barɯ SakhaOeSmall.pngrkSakhaOeSmall.png:n SakhaOeSmall.pngjdSakhaOeSmall.png:q,
sSakhaUo.pngbasta:q bSakhaUo.pnglan tSakhaOeSmall.pngry:ler, SakhaUo.pngnna beje bejeliger tɯlga ki:riniges bɯhɯ:lara dɔʃɔrdɔhu tɯ:nnɯ:q
bSakhaUo.pnglSakhaUo.pngqta:q.
Latin alphabet 1929—1939. (Yañalif) Çon вarьta вeje suoltatьgar uonna вьraaвьgar teꞑ вuolan tɵryyler. Kiniler вarь ɵrkɵɵn ɵjdɵɵq, suoвastaaq вuolan tɵryyler, uonna вeje вejeliger tьlga kiiriniges вьhььlara doƣordohu tььnnaaq вuoluoqtaaq.
Modern Cyrillic 1939—present. Дьон барыта бэйэ суолтатыгар уонна быраабыгар тэҥ буолан төрүүлэр. Кинилэр бары өркөн өйдөөх, суобастаах буолан төрүүллэр, уонна бэйэ бэйэлэригэр тылга кииринигэс быһыылара доҕордоһу тыыннаах буолуохтаах.
English All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1], Russian census 2010
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sakha". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ [2], Yakut language, Omniglot
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forke, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2020). "Sakha". Glottolog 4.3.
  5. ^ Forsyth, James (1994). A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780521477710. Their language...Turkic in its vocabulary and grammar, shows the influence of both Tungus and Mongolian
  6. ^ Russian Census 2002. 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации (Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts) (in Russian)
  7. ^ Krueger, John R. (1962). Yakut Manual. Bloomington: Indiana U Press.
  8. ^ Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih (1999). Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri. Ankara: Türk Dil Kurumu. ISBN 975-16-0587-3.
  9. ^ "Предпосылки возникновения якутской книги". Память Якутии. Retrieved 2014-10-29.
  10. ^ "People". Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  11. ^ Robin Harris. 2012. Sitting "under the mouth": decline and revitalization in the Skha epic tradition "Olonkho". Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.

External links[edit]

Language-related[edit]

Content in Yakut[edit]