Sakine Cansız

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Sakine Cansız
Born1958
Died9 January 2013 (aged 54–55)
Paris, France
Cause of deathExecution-style shooting
CitizenshipTurkey
OccupationKurdish rights advocate
OrganizationKurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)

Sakine Cansız (Turkish pronunciation: [saːciˈne dʒanˈsɯz]; Kurdish: Sakîne Cansiz‎, IPA: [sækiːnɛ dʒænsɪs]; 1958 – 9 January 2013) was one of the co-founders of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (or PKK). A Kurdish activist in the 1980s, she was arrested and tortured by Turkish police.[1] A close associate of Abdullah Öcalan and a senior member of the PKK, she was shot dead in Paris, France, on 9 January 2013, with two other female Kurdish activists, Fidan Doğan and Leyla Söylemez.

Early life[edit]

Cansız was born around 1958 in Tunceli, a city in eastern Turkey, to an Alevi family[2][3] They were eight siblings[4] and she was the eldest daughter.[5] To primary and secondary school she went in Tunceli. In the secondary school she got influenced by her teacher Yusuf Kenan Deniz, who introduced his class to the Dev-Genç, the Revolutionary Youth Federation of Turkey.[6] In 1969 her father migrated to Germany.[7] In 1973 she and her elder brother followed their father to Berlin, Germany.[8] After 11 months in Berlin she returned to Dersim,[4] where she began to study at the Gymnasium[9] and became engaged to Metin.[10] She began to take part in revolutionary activities, which were not endorsed by the family of her fiancée.[11] She fled to Ankara where she first met Abdullah Öcalan,[12] with whom she would work closely.[1] In an interview, she said of this period: "In a sense I abandoned the family. I did not accept that pressure, insisting on revolutionism. That's how I left and went to Ankara. In secret of course."[12]

Activities[edit]

Cansız was arrested in 1979 soon after graduating high school.[13] According to The Guardian, she was arrested just after the 1980 Turkish coup d'état.[1]

She was one of the PKK's founding members (code name "Sara"), and the organization's first senior female member.[13] At the founding meeting of the PKK in Lice in southern Turkey in late September or November 1978 (with 22 persons attending), she represented Elâzığ, the administrative center of Elâzığ Province.[12][14][15] Cansız and Öcalan's former wife Kesire Yıldırım were the only women who participated in this meeting.[14] Cansız was arrested in May 1979 in Diyarbakır Prison and tortured there,[16] but continued to lead the Kurdish movement while in jail, becoming a "legend among PKK members".[1][17]

After her release in 1991, Cansız stayed in the PKK camps in Lebanon's Beqaa Valley and then in northern Iraq where she fought under the command of Osman Ocalan.[18][19] In addition to fighting she organized and headed women squads of the PKK there.[17][18] She went to Europe in the mid-1990s.[18] Murat Karayılan sent her there[1] to be responsible for the PKK's European branch,[17] first in Germany and then in France, to deal with the group's civil affairs.[1][19] According to Hürriyet, she was moved to Europe after having opposed the execution of PKK member Mehmet Şener.[13] France granted Cansız asylum in 1998[20] after she had disagreed with some senior PKK figures.[12] She was detained in Hamburg in March 2007 upon Turkeys request, but released after protests opposing her detention in April 2007.[16]

Reportedly, "she was the most prominent and most important female Kurdish activist. She did not shy away from speaking her mind, especially when it came to women's issues."[1]

Death[edit]

On 10 January 2013, Cansız, in her 50s, was found dead with two other Kurdish female activists, Fidan Doğan and Leyla Şaylemez. Autopsy results placed the time of death for the three women as sometime between 6pm and 7pm on the day before.[17][21][22] Their bodies were found in the Kurdistan Information Center in Paris.[20]

A group of people marching down an urban street behind a red flag with a star in the middle. They are holding up placards with pictures of three different women on them
Demonstration by Kurds in Paris following murders

The killings occurred at a time when the Turkish government was in negotiation with PKK leaders including Öcalan. PKK activists in Paris considered the murders an attempt by "dark forces" within the Turkish government to derail these negotiations. The PKK blamed the Turkish government. Turkish officials pointed at frequent strife within the PKK,[23] with the Turkish national daily Hürriyet claiming that Cansız had been in conflict with Ferman Hussein, the alleged commander of the PKK's military wing.[13] Also killed were Fidan Doğan of the Kurdistan National Congress (based in Brussels) and Leyla Söylemez, a "junior activist". The French interior minister Manuel Valls announced that the three women were all killed execution-style.[24] Two days after the murder, Ömer Güney was detained and later prosecuted for the assassination of the three women. The prosecutor François Molins concluded that the surveillance cameras showed that Ömer Güney was within the Kurdish Information Center during the time of the assassination.[25] And on his bag was found gunpowder.[25]

On 17 December 2016, Ömer Güney, the sole suspect in the assassination of Sakine Cansız, Fidan Doğan and Leyla Şaylemez died of a severe illness in his Paris prison cell.[26] After his death the French authority decided to close the investigation into the assassination of the three women. In May 2019 the investigation was reopened.[27]

Funeral[edit]

The body of Cansız together with those of the other two women murdered was brought from Paris to Istanbul on 16 January 2013 and transferred to Diyarbakır. A funeral ceremony for the three slain women was held in Diyarbakır with the attendance of tens of thousands of Kurds on 17 January 2013.[28] Each was buried in her hometown: Cansız in Tunceli, Doğan in Kahramanmaraş, and Söylemez in Mersin.[29]

Reactions[edit]

Both Turkey and France condemned the killings of the three women.[30] Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan suggested that the murders were done for two possible reasons: 1) to derail the current negotiations or 2) to carry out an internal execution within the PKK. Turkey's Deputy Prime Minister and government spokesman Bülent Arınç condemned the attack and expressed his condolences.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Letsch, Constanze (10 January 2013). "Sakine Cansiz: 'a legend among PKK members'". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  2. ^ "Slain Kurdish activist Cansiz leaves stamp on militant PKK". Reuters. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  3. ^ Jacinto, Leela (11 January 2013). "Slain PKK member was a rebel with a cause". France 24. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  4. ^ a b Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  5. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. p. 73. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  6. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. p. 64. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  7. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. p. 45. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  8. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  9. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. p. 99. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  10. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. p. 103. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  11. ^ Cansiz, Sakine (2015). Mein ganzes Leben war ein Kampf. 1. Neuss: Mezopotamya Verlag. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-3941012981.
  12. ^ a b c d Buller, Daren (11 January 2013). "Slain Kurdish activist Cansiz leaves stamp on militant PKK". Reuters. İstanbul. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  13. ^ a b c d "Three PKK members killed in Paris attack". Hürriyet. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Paris slaying puts spotlight on Kurdish female warriors". The Times of Israel. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  15. ^ Jongerden, Joost; Akkaya, Ahmet Hamdi (2011). "The Making of the PKK". In Marlies Casier (ed.). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism, and the Kurdish Issue. Joost Jongerden. Taylor & Francis. p. 136. ISBN 9780415583459. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Who was Sakine Cansiz, co-founder of the PKK?". Pluto Press. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d "Kurdish PKK co-founder Sakine Cansiz shot dead in Paris". BBC. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  18. ^ a b c Fraser, Suzan (11 January 2013). "Sakine Cansiz Murdered". Huffington Post. Ankara. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  19. ^ a b "Murder of Kurdish activists' possible inside job". Asharq Alawsat. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  20. ^ a b Elaine Ganley; Suzan Fraser (10 January 2013). "PKK Executions In Paris". Huffington Post. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  21. ^ "Autopsy: Kurdish women died between 6 and 7pm". FIRAT news agency. 11 January 2013. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
  22. ^ "Funeral for PKK members set to take place Jan 16". Hurriyet Daily News. Istanbul. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
  23. ^ Morris, Harvey (10 January 2013). "Theories Link Paris Murders to Kurdish Peace Moves". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  24. ^ Memmott, Mark (10 January 2013). "Three Kurdish Activists Found Dead In Paris; 'Without Doubt An Execution'". NPR. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  25. ^ a b Rundschau, Frankfurter. "Attentat in Paris: Wer ist Ömer Güney?". Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  26. ^ "Culprit of the murder in Paris of Sakine, Fidan and Leyla dies". ANF. 17 December 2016.
  27. ^ "France reopens probe into killing of 3 Kurdish activists". France 24. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  28. ^ "PKK shooting: Kurds mass for women's funerals". BBC. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  29. ^ "Funerals held in hometowns for three Kurdish women killed in Paris". Today's Zaman. 18 January 2013. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  30. ^ "Police hunt killers of PKK co-founder Sakine Cansiz". BBC. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  31. ^ "Three Kurdish women murdered in Paris". Deutsche Welle. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2013.