# Sakuma–Hattori equation

The Sakuma–Hattori equation is a mathematical model for predicting the amount of thermal radiation, radiometric flux or radiometric power emitted from a perfect blackbody or received by a thermal radiation detector.

## History

The Sakuma–Hattori equation was first proposed by Fumihiro Sakuma, Akira Ono and Susumu Hattori in 1982.[1] In 1996 a study investigated the usefulness of various forms of the Sakuma–Hattori equation. This study showed the Planckian form to provide the best fit for most applications.[2] This study was done for 10 different forms of the Sakuma–Hattori equation containing not more than three fitting variables. In 2008, BIPM CCT-WG5 recommended its use for radiation thermometry uncertainty budgets below 960 °C.[3]

## General form

The Sakuma–Hattori equation gives the electromagnetic signal from thermal radiation based on an object's temperature. The signal can be electromagnetic flux or signal produced by a detector measuring this radiation. It has been suggested that below the silver point[A], a method using the Sakuma–Hattori equation be used.[1] In its general form it looks like[3]

${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {C}{\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{\lambda _{x}T}}\right)-1}},}$

where:

 ${\displaystyle C}$ Scalar coefficient ${\displaystyle c_{2}}$ Second radiation constant (0.014387752 m⋅K[4]) ${\displaystyle \lambda _{x}}$ Temperature-dependent effective wavelength in meters ${\displaystyle T}$ Temperature in kelvins

## Planckian form

### Derivation

The Planckian form is realized by the following substitution:

${\displaystyle \lambda _{x}=A+{\frac {B}{T}}}$

Making this substitution renders the following the Sakuma–Hattori equation in the Planckian form.

 Sakuma–Hattori equation (Planckian form) ${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {C}{\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{AT+B}}\right)-1}}}$ Inverse equation [5] ${\displaystyle T={\frac {c_{2}}{A\ln \left({\frac {C}{S}}+1\right)}}-{\frac {B}{A}}}$ First derivative [6] ${\displaystyle {\frac {dS}{dT}}=\left[S(T)\right]^{2}{\frac {Ac_{2}}{C\left(AT+B\right)^{2}}}\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{AT+B}}\right)}$

### Discussion

The Planckian form is recommended for use in calculating uncertainty budgets for radiation thermometry[3] and infrared thermometry.[5] It is also recommended for use in calibration of radiation thermometers below the silver point.[3]

The Planckian form resembles Planck's Law.

${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {c_{1}}{\lambda ^{5}\left[\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{\lambda T}}\right)-1\right]}}}$

However the Sakuma–Hattori equation becomes very useful when considering low-temperature, wide-band radiation thermometry. To use Planck's Law over a wide spectral band, an integral like the following would have to be considered:

${\displaystyle S(T)=\int _{\lambda _{1}}^{\lambda _{2}}{\frac {c_{1}}{\lambda ^{5}\left[\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{\lambda T}}\right)-1\right]}}d\lambda }$

This integral yields an incomplete polylogarithm function, which can make its use very cumbersome. The standard numerical treatment expands the incomplete integral in a geometric series of the exponential

${\displaystyle \int _{0}^{\lambda _{2}}{\frac {c_{1}}{\lambda ^{5}[\exp({\frac {c_{2}}{\lambda T}})-1]}}d\lambda =c_{1}({\frac {T}{c_{2}}})^{4}\int _{c_{2}/(\lambda _{2}T)}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{3}}{\exp(x)-1}}dx}$

after substituting ${\displaystyle \lambda =c_{2}/(xT)}$, ${\displaystyle d\lambda =-c_{2}/(x^{2}T)dx}$. Then

${\displaystyle J(c)\equiv \int _{c}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{3}}{\exp x-1}}dx=\int _{c}^{\infty }{\frac {x^{3}\exp(-x)}{1-\exp(-x)}}dx=\int _{c}^{\infty }\sum _{n\geq 1}x^{3}\exp(-nx)dx}$
${\displaystyle =\sum _{n\geq 1}\exp(-nc){\frac {(nc)^{3}+3(nc)^{2}+6nc+6}{n^{4}}}}$

provides an approximation if the sum is truncated at some order.

The Sakuma–Hattori equation shown above was found to provide the best curve-fit for interpolation of scales for radiation thermometers among a number of alternatives investigated.[2]

The inverse Sakuma–Hattori function can be used without iterative calculation. This is an addition advantage over integration of Planck's Law.

## Other forms

The 1996 paper investigated 10 different forms. They are listed in the chart below in order of quality of curve-fit to actual radiometric data.[2]

Name Equation Bandwidth Planckian
Sakuma–Hattori Planck III ${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {C}{\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{AT+B}}\right)-1}}}$ narrow yes
Sakuma–Hattori Planck IV ${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {C}{\exp \left({\frac {A}{T^{2}}}+{\frac {B}{2T}}\right)-1}}}$ narrow yes
Sakuma–Hattori – Wien's II ${\displaystyle S(T)=C\exp \left({\frac {-c_{2}}{AT+B}}\right)}$ narrow no
Sakuma–Hattori Planck II ${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {CT^{A}}{\exp \left({\frac {B}{T}}\right)-1}}}$ broad and narrow yes
Sakuma–Hattori – Wien's I ${\displaystyle S(T)=CT^{A}{\exp \left({\frac {-B}{T}}\right)}}$ broad and narrow no
Sakuma–Hattori Planck I ${\displaystyle S(T)={\frac {C}{\exp \left({\frac {c_{2}}{AT}}\right)-1}}}$ monochromatic yes
New ${\displaystyle S(T)=C\left(1+{\frac {A}{T}}\right)-B}$ narrow no
Wien's ${\displaystyle S(T)=C\exp \left({\frac {-c_{2}}{AT}}\right)}$ monochromatic no
Effective Wavelength – Wien's ${\displaystyle S(T)=C\exp \left({\frac {-A}{T}}+{\frac {B}{T^{2}}}\right)}$ narrow no
Exponent ${\displaystyle S(T)=CT^{A}}$ broad no

## Notes

• ^ Silver point, the melting point of silver 962°C [(961.961 ± 0.017)°C[7] ] used as a calibration point in some temperature scales.[8] It is used to calibrate IR thermometers because it is stable and easy to reproduce.

## References

1. ^ a b F Sakuma, S Hattori, "Establishing a practical temperature standard by using a narrow-band radiation thermometer with a silicon detector", in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, vol. 5, edited by J F Schooley, New York, AIP, 421–427 (1982).
2. ^ a b c Sakuma F, Kobayashi M., "Interpolation equations of scales of radiation thermometers", Proceedings of TEMPMEKO 1996, pp. 305–310 (1996).
3. ^ a b c d J. Fischer, P. Saunders, M. Sadli, M. Battuello, C. W. Park, Y. Zundong, H. Yoon, W. Li, E. van der Ham, F. Sakuma, Y. Yamada, M. Ballico, G. Machin, N. Fox, J. Hollandt, M. Matveyev, P. Bloembergen and S. Ugur, "Uncertainty budgets for calibration of radiation thermometers below the silver point" (pdf), CCT-WG5 on Radiation Thermometry, BIPM, Sèvres, France (2008).
4. ^ "2006 CODATA recommended values". National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Dec 2003. Retrieved Apr 27, 2010.
5. ^ a b MSL Technical Guide 22 – Calibration of Low Temperature Infrared Thermometers (pdf), Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand (2008).
6. ^ ASTM Standard E2758-10 – Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Wideband, Low Temperature Infrared Thermometers, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, (2010).
7. ^ J Tapping and V N Ojha (1989). "Measurement of the Silver Point with a Simple, High-Precision Pyrometer". Metrologia. 26 (2): 133. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/26/2/008. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
8. ^ "Definition of Silver Point - 962°C, the melting point of silver". Retrieved 2010-07-26.