Jump to content

Salaam Bombay!

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salaam Bombay!
Salaam Bombay! poster
Theatrical release poster
Directed byMira Nair
Written by
Screenplay bySooni Taraporevala
Story byMira Nair
Produced by
CinematographySandi Sissel
Edited byBarry Alexander Brown
Music byL. Subramaniam
Distributed by
Release dates
  • May 11, 1988 (1988-05-11) (Cannes Film Festival)
  • September 13, 1988 (1988-09-13) (TIFF)
  • October 7, 1988 (1988-10-07) (Worldwide)
Running time
113 minutes
Box officeest. $7.5 million (overseas)

Salaam Bombay! is a 1988 Indian Hindi-language drama film, directed, co-written and co-produced by Mira Nair. The screenwriter was Nair's creative collaborator Sooni Taraporevala. This was the first feature film directed by Nair. The film depicts the daily lives of children living in slums in Bombay (now Mumbai), India's largest city. It stars Shafiq Syed, Raghuvir Yadav, Anita Kanwar, Nana Patekar, Hansa Vithal and Chanda Sharma.

Nair's inspiration for the film came from the spirit of Bombay's street children and how they lived. Production began in early 1988, and the film was co-financed by the National Film Development Corporation of India. After being released worldwide on 6 October 1988, the film grossed an estimated $7.4 million at the overseas box office, against a production budget of only $450,000.

Nominated for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film at the 61st Academy Awards, the film was India's second film submission to be so nominated. After its initial release on 11 May 1988 at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival, Salaam Bombay! achieved significant critical acclaim. It won the Caméra d'Or and Audience award at the Cannes Film Festival. The film won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi, the National Board of Review Award for Best Foreign Language Film and three awards at the Montreal World Film Festival. The film was on the list of "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made" by The New York Times.[4]


Before the start of the film, Krishna has set fire to his elder brother's motorbike in retaliation for being bullied by him. His angry mother has taken him to the nearby Apollo Circus and told him that he can only come home when he has earned 500 rupees to pay for the damage. Krishna agrees and starts working for the circus.

The film begins as the circus is packing up to move on to its next site. His boss asks him to run an errand, but when Krishna returns, he finds that the circus has left. Alone, with nowhere to go and without the money to repay his mother, he travels to the nearest big city, Bombay. As soon as he arrives, he is robbed of his few possessions. He follows the thieves, befriends them, and ends up in the city's notorious red-light area of Falkland Road, near the Grant Road Railway Station.

One of the thieves, Chillum, a drug pusher and addict, helps Krishna to get a job at the Grant Road Tea Stall and becomes a mentor of sorts to him. Baba, a local drug dealer, employs addicts like Chillum. Baba's wife, Rekha, is a prostitute, and they have a little daughter, Manju. Rekha is annoyed that she has to raise her daughter in such an environment. Baba had promised to start a new life elsewhere, but it is a promise that Baba cannot or will not fulfill.

Krishna gets a new name, "Chaipau," and learns to live with it. His goal is still to raise the money he needs to return home, but he soon finds out that saving money in his new surroundings is next to impossible. To make matters worse, he has a crush on a young girl named Sola Saal, who has been recently sold to the brothel. He sets fire to her room and attempts to escape with her, but they are caught. The fire causes Krishna to get a severe beating, while Sola Saal, who is considered valuable since she is still a virgin, denies starting the fire and tearfully tries to resist her enslavement. The madame of the house asks Baba to "tame her," which Baba agrees to do.

Meanwhile, Krishna, as well as working at the tea stall, works odd jobs to save some money and help Chillum, who cannot survive without drugs, especially after being sacked by Baba after a disastrous interview with a foreign journalist. Eventually, one of these odd jobs costs Krishna his job at the tea stall. To get more money, Krishna and his pals rob an elderly Parsi man by breaking into his house in broad daylight. Krishna eventually finds out that the money he had saved has been stolen by Chillum for drugs, which Chillum had overdosed on and died.

One night, while returning home from work with friends, Krishna and Manju are apprehended by the police and taken to a juvenile home. Krishna escapes and goes back to his world. He finds that a new recruit in Baba's drug business has taken Chillum's place and name. Krishna meets Sola Saal and tries to convince her to run away with him. She reveals that she is charmed by Baba and no longer interested in Krishna; she is driven away to service her first 'client'. Meanwhile, Rekha is told that the authorities will not release their daughter because the mother is a prostitute. An angry Rekha decides to leave Baba, but Baba beats her in retaliation. She is saved by the timely intervention of Krishna who, in a fit of rage, kills Baba and attempts to run away with her, but they become separated in a parade honoring Ganesh. The film ends with a slow zoom in on Krishna's dejected face.



Writing and inspiration[edit]

"One of my first images was of kids surrounding my taxi at a traffic junction- blowing bubbles, singing, a maimed kid on a makeshift skateboard. These were clearly children living in a world where fate had given them nothing but life. Yet they lived with a certain style, a flamboyance. This attracted me. Their physicality, their faces and bodies, were like a map of the journey they had gone through to come to Bombay."
— Mira Nair[5]
The 1st lane of Kamathipura, Bombay

Nair records that the initial inspiration for the film came from the spirit of Bombay's street children. Her ideas developed when she researched the lives of the children with her creative partner Sooni Taraporevala. From the beginning, they decided that real street children would play in the film since the combination of childhood and knowledge in their faces would be hard to find among professional child actors.[5]

Nair was also inspired to make the film after watching Héctor Babenco's drama Pixote (1981). She said, "on the first day of shooting, I received the news that the child actor who played the character of Pixote was shot dead in the street. After this incident, I was more determined to make Salaam Bombay!, and decided to share the film's dividends with street children if we could."[6] After making four documentaries,[7] Salaam Bombay! was Nair's first full-length feature film.[8]


Krishna and Sola Saal in Salaam Bombay!

Most of the film Salaam Bombay! was shot on Falkland Road, a red light district in Kamathipura, Bombay.[9] The child actors in the film were real street children. The cast received drama training at a workshop in Bombay before they appeared in the film. Dinaz Stafford, a child psychologist, found the children, worked with them and assisted in the acting workshop run by Barry John. A room was rented near the Grant Road railway station for rehearsals, where about 130 children rehearsed on the first day.[5] Later, before appearing in the film, a group of 24 street children trained in a workshop, where they were given music, dance and acting training. Gradually the stories of the city of Bombay, their parents, sex, trafficking, drug dealing, gangs and their profiteering were learned from them.[5] Some were reunited with their families before the film was shot.[6] They were paid, had medical treatment, and some of that money was left as a fixed deposit.[5] Irrfan Khan played the role of a letter writer in a two-minute scene in the film, which was his first appearance in a film.[10]

After its release, director Nair with Dinaz Stafford established an organization called the Salaam Baalak Trust in 1989 to rehabilitate the children who appeared in the film.[11] [5] The Salaam Baalak Trust now lends support to street children in Bombay, Delhi and Bhubaneshwar. Shafiq Sayed, who played Krishna in the film, is currently living as an auto rickshaw driver in Bangalore.[12]

Initially, Cadrage, Channel Four Films, Doordarshan, La Sept Cinéma, Mirabai Films and the National Film Development Corporation of India paid for the production of the film.[2][1] Several producers co-produced the film with Nair, with Gabriel Auer from France as the executive producer, Michael Nozik from the UK and Anil Tejani from India and Cherry Rogers as the co-executive producers. Also in co-production were Jane Balfour and co-producer Mitch Epstein.


Music and soundtrack[edit]

Salaam Bombay!: Music from the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, of the film was composed, performed, and directed by L. Subramaniam, was released on cassette and CD versions in 1986 from DRG Music Publishing. The song "Mera Naam Chin Chin Choo" was written by Qamar Jalalabadi, composed by O. P. Nayyar and sung by Geeta Dutt for the 1958 film Howrah Bridge is included in the film soundtrack. Also in a scene at the movie theatre, Sridevi's dance to the song "Hawa Hawaii" sung by Kavita Krishnamurti from the 1987 film Mr. India is performed.[13][14]

Salaam Bombay!: Music from the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by
GenreStage & Screen
Professional ratings
Review scores

Track listing[edit]

All music is composed by L. Subramaniam, Mera Naam Chin Chin Choo composed by Qamar Jalalabadi / O. P. Nayyar

Salaam Bombay!: Music from the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
No.TitlePerformed byLength
1."Main Titles"L. Subramaniam3:21
2."Chaipau's Theme"L. Subramaniam1:23
3."The Entry of Solasaal"L. Subramaniam1:33
4."Chick Melody"L. Subramaniam0:54
5."Mera Naam Chin Chin Choo"Geeta Dutt3:24
6."Chillum's Theme"L. Subramaniam4:56
7."Manju's Theme"L. Subramaniam1:11
8."Chaipau's Theme"L. Subramaniam0:56
9."Street Children Sing a Ballad of Lost Promises"L. Subramaniam1:54
10."Souls of Dead Children Floating"L. Subramaniam1:11
11."Escape From the Chiller Room"L. Subramaniam2:12
12."Baba Kisses Solasaal"L. Subramaniam1:21
13."Farewell to Manju"L. Subramaniam2:25
14."Chaipau Helps Chillum Across the Tracks"L. Subramaniam1:15
15."The Funeral Procession"L. Subramaniam4:31
16."Chaipau Sets Fire to Solasaal's Bed"L. Subramaniam1:13
17."Solasaal's Theme"L. Subramaniam1:01
18."Escape From the Chiller Room"L. Subramaniam2:54
19."Medley: Aartis for the Ganpati Festival"L. Subramaniam2:18
20."Chaipau Alone"L. Subramaniam2:21
21."End Credit Music"L. Subramaniam3:23


Initial screening[edit]

Before commercial release, the film premiered at the Directors' Fortnight at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1988. It was later screened at the Toronto International Film Festival on 13 September in 1988.

Initial theatrical run[edit]

In 1988, the film was released on 24 August in France, on September in India, on 7 October at the 26th New York Film Festival,[15] on 20 December in Italy, and on 22 December in Belgium.

Following year, the film was released on 13 January in Denmark, 2 February in Netherlands, on 10 February in Finland, on 27 April in West Germany, on 29 June in Australia, on 27 July in Argentina, on 24 September at the Cinefest Sudbury International Film Festival in Canada and 3 November in Sweden.

In 1990, the film was released on 26 January in East Germany, on 10 March in Japan, and on 5 April in Hungary. Following year, the film was released on 18 January in Portugal.

Box office[edit]

Salaam Bombay! earned US$2,080,046 in the United States and Canada,[16] from 506,100 ticket sales.[17] In France, the film sold 633,899 tickets;[18] the average ticket price in 1988 was 34  francs,[19] which is equivalent to 21,552,566 francs (US$3,803,394). In Germany, the film sold 258,728 tickets;[20] the average ticket price in 1989 was 9.5 DM,[21] which is equivalent to 2,457,916 DM (US$1,550,736). The average exchange rate in 1988 was 1 US dollar equal to 1.585 Deutsche Mark,[22] which is worth US$1,550,736.

The film also sold 346 tickets in Switzerland and Spain since 1996,[23] adding up to total overseas footfalls of 1,399,073 tickets sold in the United States, France, Germany, Switzerland and Spain.

Against a production budget of $450,000,[2] the film grossed an estimated total of US$7,434,176 in overseas markets, becoming one of the highest-grossing Indian films in overseas markets at that time.[24] The average exchange rate in 1988 was 1 US dollar equal to ₹13.9171,[25] which is equivalent to 103,462,171 (equivalent to 1.2 billion or US$14 million in 2023).


The film was re-released in France on 12 December 2001 and 7 January 2015. In 2005, it was also screened at the New Horizons Film Festival in Poland on 23 July. The film was re-released in Indian theatres in March 2013.[26] In 2015, at the BFI London Film Festival, the film was screened on 9 October, and on 18 October at the Tallgrass Film Festival in the United States.[citation needed]

Critical reception[edit]

Medium Rating/% Critics
AllMovie[27] -
AlloCiné[28] 16
IMDb[29] 7,814
Rotten Tomatoes[30] 93% 30
Metacritic[31] 78 4

"In that respect Salaam Bombay! is quite different from Pixote, the 1981 film about Brazilian street children. Although the two films obviously have much in common, the children of Pixote exist in an anarchic and savage world, while those in "Salaam Bombay!" share a community, however humble."

Roger Ebert, Salaam Bombay!, rogerebert.com[32]

Salaam Bombay! mainly received positive reviews from critics who commented on the cultural and social impact of the film. On the film review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 93% based on 30 reviews, with a rating average of 7.8/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Salaam Bombay! examines life in a part of the world that many viewers have never visited - but does so with enough compassion and grace to make them feel as if they have."[30] At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating to reviews, the film has a score of 78 based on 4 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[33]

Roger Ebert wrote, "The history of the making of "Salaam Bombay!" is almost as interesting as the film itself."[32] English writer Hilary Mantel commented, "A warm and lively film, made by Mira Nair with only a handful of professional actors."[34] Ted Shen of Chicago Reader wrote that, "like Hector Babenco's Pixote the film is unsparingly gritty, but with a woman's tenderness it also grants the characters an occasional moment of grace."[35] Richard Corliss of Time magazine wrote that, "Salaam Bombay! deserves a broad audience, not just to open American eyes to plights of hunger and homelessness abroad, but to open American minds to the vitality of a cinema without rim shots and happy endings."[36] American film critic Dave Kehr stated, "Much to Nair`s credit, she exploits neither the exoticism of her locale (there are no tour-guide, look-at-this flourishes) nor the misery of her subjects (suffer they may, but they do not demand pity)."[37] American film critic David Sterritt stated, "the movie is terrifically well-acted and beautifully filmed, however, marking an auspicious feature-film debut for Indian-American director Mira Nair."[38] Peter Travers commented that "poetic, powerful and disturbing, Salaam Bombay! transcends language and cultural barriers.[39]

Emanuel Levy, thought that the film "drew its intensity and colour from its locale, the slums of Bombay."[40] Vincent Canby says, "for a film about such hopelessness, Salaam Bombay! is surprisingly cheering."[15] Christopher Null wrote, "with Salaam, Nair proves an early ability with a camera and at getting performances out of obviously inexperienced actors, but her writing talents are much sketchier."[41] Rita Kempley of The Washington Post wrote, "Nair's film has been compared to Hector Babenco's chilling "Pixote," a Brazilian look at a 10-year-old street criminal, but hers is a more compassionate, though equally troubling, portrait."[42] On movie review site Rediff.com critic Sukanya Verma commented, Salaam Bombay! "still brilliant in 25 years."[43]


List of awards and nominations
Organisation Date of the ceremony Category Nominee(s) Result Ref.(s)
Cannes Film Festival May, 1988 Caméra d'Or Mira Nair Won [44]
Audience Award Won [45]
Los Angeles Film Critics Association 10 December 1988 New Generation Award: Won [46]
Best Foreign Film Nominated
National Board of Review 13 December 1988 Top foreign films Won [47]
Boston Society of Film Critics 1988 Best Foreign-Language Film Won [48]
Los Angeles Women in Film Festival 1988 Lillian Gish Award (Excellence in Feature Film) Won [49]
Montreal World Film Festival 1988 Jury Prize Won [50]
Air Canada Award for Most Popular Film of the Festival Won [50]
Prize of the Ecumenical Jury Won [50]
Golden Globe Awards 28 January 1989 Best Foreign Language Film Nominated [51]
César Awards 4 March 1989 Best Foreign Film Nominated
Academy Awards 29 March 1989 Best International Feature Film Nominated [52]
National Film Awards May 1989 Best Feature Film in Hindi Won [53]
Best Child Artist Shafiq Syed Won
Annonay International Film Festival 1989 Prix du Public Mira Nair Won [54]
British Academy Film Awards 11 March 1990 Best Film Not in the English Language Nominated [55]
Filmfare Awards 1990 Best Film Nominated
Best Director Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Anita Kanwar Nominated

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Arunachalam 2020, pp. 1063.
  2. ^ a b c d Foster 1997, pp. 119.
  3. ^ Foster 1997, pp. 117.
  4. ^ "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The real test of Salaam Bombay! is in India: Mira Nair" (Interview). Interviewed by M. Rahman. India Today. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  6. ^ a b Shah, Kunal M (10 March 2009). "Salaam Bombay, Again". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  7. ^ AtKisson, Alan. "Salaam Bombay! Proceeds from prize-winning film will benefit street children in India". Context. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  8. ^ Manik, Sharma (7 April 2018). "Why Salaam Bombay, Mira Nair's directorial debut, remains unmatched 30 years after its release". Firstpost. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  9. ^ Kulkarni, Vishwas (16 September 2018). "The uncomfortable truth about Indian cinema". The National. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Salaam Bombay to Blackmail: Irrfan Khan defines what exactly has changed in Indian cinema". Hindustan Times. 5 April 2018. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  11. ^ "More information on the Salaam Baalak Trust". GiveWorld. 2 March 2006. Archived from the original on 2 March 2006.
  12. ^ Seethalakshmi, S (5 March 2009). "'Salaam' star now a rickshaw driver". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013.
  13. ^ Mukhopadhyaya, Anirban (25 February 2018). "পুরুষ-সর্বস্ব বলিউডে কোন জাদুতে নিজেকে তুলে ধরেছিলেন শ্রীদেবী". Ebela. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  14. ^ Ghosh, Pinakpani (13 August 2019). "আপনি এখনও মন জুড়ে, শ্রীহীন ১৭ মাস পরেও অক্ষত সেই সিংহাসন". The Wall. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  15. ^ a b Canby, Vincent (7 October 1988). "Film Festival in a City Where Life is Just Barely Possible". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Salaam Bombay! (1988)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  17. ^ ""Салам, Бомбей" (Salaam Bombay!)". Kinopoisk (in Russian). Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  18. ^ "Charts - LES ENTREES EN FRANCE (Inde)". JP's Box-office. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  19. ^ Hoffman 1992, pp. 296.
  20. ^ "Salaam Bombay! (Europe)". JP's Box-office. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  21. ^ Naughton 2002, p. 68.
  22. ^ "Historical US Dollars to German Marks currency conversion". University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  23. ^ "Salaam Bombay!". Lumiere. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  24. ^ "Pix from afar: National bests in the U.S.". Variety. 7 January 1991. p. 86.
  25. ^ "Pacific Exchange Rate Service" (PDF). UBC Sauder School of Business. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  26. ^ Jamkhandikar, Shilpa (22 March 2013). "A Minute With: Mira Nair on Salaam Bombay". Reuters. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  27. ^ "Salaam Bombay!". AllMovie. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  28. ^ "Salaam Bombay!". AlloCiné. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  29. ^ "Salaam Bombay!". IMDb. Archived from the original on 23 June 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  30. ^ a b "Salaam Bombay!". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  31. ^ "Salaam Bombay!". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  32. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (28 October 1988). "Salaam Bombay!". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  33. ^ "Salaam Bombay! (re-release)". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 23 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  34. ^ Mantel, Hilary (9 April 2019). "Cinema". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  35. ^ Shen, Ted (29 September 2015). "Salaam Bombay!". Chicago Reader. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  36. ^ Corliss, Richard (24 October 1988). "Cinema: Subcontinental Divide". Time. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  37. ^ Kehr, Dave (28 October 1988). "'SALAAM BOMBAY!' FOLLOWS LOST-CHILD-IN-CITY GENRE". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 15 August 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  38. ^ Sterritt, David (7 October 1988). "FREEZE FRAMES". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  39. ^ Travers, Peter (7 November 1988). "Picks and Pans Review: Salaam Bombay". People. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  40. ^ Levy, Emanuel (2 May 2006). "Salaam Bombay". emanuellevy.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  41. ^ Null, Christopher (23 February 2003). "Salaam Bombay!". AMC. Archived from the original on 29 November 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  42. ^ Kempley, Rita (4 November 1988). "'Salaam Bombay!' : (NR)". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  43. ^ Verma, Sukanya (22 March 2013). "Salaam Bombay review: 25 Years on, still brilliant!". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  44. ^ "Awards 1988: All Awards". festival-cannes.fr. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014.
  45. ^ Schuldt, Clay (10 March 2018). "Film Society to show 'Salaam Bombay'". The Journal. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  46. ^ Easton, Nina j. (12 December 1988). "L.A. Film Critics Vote Lahti, Hanks, 'Dorrit' Winners". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  47. ^ "National Board of Review 1988". National Board of Review. 1988. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  48. ^ "BSFC Winners: 1980s". Boston Society of Film Critics. 1980. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  49. ^ Muir 2006, pp. 59.
  50. ^ a b c "Awards of the Montreal World Film Festival - 1988". Montreal World Film Festival. 1988. Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  51. ^ "Winners & Nominees 1989". Golden Globe Awards. 28 January 1989. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  52. ^ "The 61st Academy Awards (1989) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 29 March 1989. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  53. ^ "36th National Film Festival" (PDF). India: Directorate of Film Festivals. 1989. pp. 34, 60. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  54. ^ "Palmarès depuis 1989". Annonay International Film Festival. 1989. Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  55. ^ "Film in 1990". British Academy Film Awards. 1990. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2020.


External links[edit]