Salakanagara

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The Salakanagara Kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in Western Java[1] The kingdom existed between 130-362 AD. A relatively modern literature in the 17th century Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara describes Salakanagara as being founded by an Indian merchant. However no historical records affirms this modern writeup on the ancient kingdom.

Historiography[edit]

The history of Salakanagara is quite mysterious as the historical and archaeological sources are scarce. Compared to its successor, Tarumanagara, the kingdom did not leave any local tangible historical records and relics such as inscriptions or temples ruins. The main source of Salakanagara's history was a manuscript Pustaka Rajya-rajya I Bhumi Nusantara composed in 17th century by a council led by Prince Wangsakerta of Cirebon, and a few Chinese sources.[2]

History[edit]

According to Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Salakanagara was located on west coast of Java, in the present day Banten province. It was founded by Dewawarman, stylised as Prabu Dharmalokapala Dewawarman Gangga Raksagapura Sagara. Dewawarman was an Indian ambassador or trader sent from India to establish relations with Javadwipa.[2]

According to a history record from India, the kingdom ruled Javadwipa from 130 CE to 362 CE. The founder of the kingdom was Aki Tirem. The kings of Salakanagara were:[3]

  1. Dewawarman I
  2. Dewawarman II
  3. Dewawarman III
  4. Dewawarman IV
  5. Dewawarman V
  6. Dewawarman VI
  7. Dewawarman VII
  8. Dewawarman VIII

Edi S. Ekajati, one of Indonesia historian, argued that Salakanagara is Argyre which was a mythical island of silver in Greek and Roman mythology because Salakanagara means "country of silver" in Sanskrit.[4]

Salakanagara was replaced by Tarumanagara.

Subordinate kingdoms[edit]

Salakanagara was in charge of small kingdoms, which were founded by people from the Dewawarman dynasty (the kings who ruled Salakanagara). Kingdoms that are subordinate to Salakanagara include:

  • Ujung Kulon Kingdom

Ujung Kulon Kingdom is located in the Ujung Kulon region and was founded by Senapati Bahadura Harigana Jayasakti (Dewawarman I's younger brother). When this kingdom was led by Darma Satyanagara, the king married the daughter of Dewawarman III and later became the 4th king in the Kingdom of Salakanagara. When Tarumanagara grew into a large kingdom, Purnawarman (the third Tarumanagara king) conquered the Ujung Kulon Kingdom. Eventually Ujung Kulon Kingdom became the subordinate kingdom of Tarumanagara. More than that, the Ujung Kulon Royal troops also helped the troops of Wisnuwarman (the fourth king of Tarumanagara) to quell the Cakrawarman rebellion.

  • Kingdom of Tanjung Kidul

The Kingdom of Tanjung Kidul has thousands of cities in Aghrabintapura (now including the South Cianjur region). This kingdom was led by Sweta Liman Sakti (Dewawarman I's second sister).

Location[edit]

There are three locations that have been approved as the center of the Salakanagara Kingdom. They are Teluk Lada (Pandeglang, Banten), Condet (Jakarta) and Mount Salak (Bogor).

First, Rajatapura is mentioned by the Wangsakerta Manuscript as the center of the Salakanagara government, located in Lada Bay (Pandeglang, Banten). In the text, Rajatapura is called a translated city in Java. From this the eight King Dewawarman reigned and controlled trade throughout Java.

Second, Ciondet or Condet in East Jakarta, which is 30 kilometers from the port of Sunda Kelapa. This area has a flowing river named Sungai Tiram. The word "Oysters" supports comes from the name of Aki Tirem, in-law of Dewawarman I, founder of Salakanagara.

Third, Mount Salak (Bogor) is a mountain which is a silver-day afternoon compilation. In Sundanese, Salakanagara means Silver Kingdom. In addition, this opinion is also based on the similarity of names between Salaka and Salak.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Darsa, Undang A. 2004. “Kropak 406; Carita Parahyangan dan Fragmen Carita Parahyangan“, Makalah disampaikan dalam Kegiatan Bedah Naskah Kuna yang diselenggarakan oleh Balai Pengelolaan Museum Negeri Sri Baduga. Bandung-Jatinangor: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Padjadjaran: hlm. 1 – 23.
  2. ^ a b "Salakanagara, Kerajaan "Tertua" di Nusantara" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  3. ^ Munandar, Agus Aris; Ekajati, Edi Suhardi (1991). Pustaka pararatwan i bhumi Jawadwipa, parwa 1, sargah 1-4: rangkuman isi, konteks sejarah, dan peta (in Indonesian). Yayasan Pembangunan Jawa Barat.
  4. ^ Edi S. Ekadjati (2005). Kebudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran, Jilid 2. Pustaka Jaya.

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