Salamandridae

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Salamandridae
True salamanders and newts
Temporal range: 89–0 Ma
Cretaceous–recent[1]
Notophthalmus viridescensPCCA20040816-3983A.jpg
Notophthalmus viridescens from North America
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Urodela
Suborder: Salamandroidea
Family: Salamandridae
Goldfuss, 1820
Genera

  Calotriton
  Chioglossa
  Cynops
  Echinotriton
  Euproctus
  Ichthyosaura
  Lissotriton
  Lyciasalamandra
  Mertensiella
  Neurergus
  Notophthalmus
  Ommatotriton
  Pachytriton
  Paramesotriton
  Pleurodeles
  Salamandra
  Salamandrina
  Taricha
  Triturus
  Tylototriton

Salamandridae is a family of salamanders consisting of true salamanders and newts. Currently, 74 species (with more expected) have been identified in the Northern Hemisphere - Europe, Asia, the northern tip of Africa, and North America. Salamandrids are distinguished from other salamanders by the lack of rib or costal grooves along the sides of their bodies and by their rough skin. Their skin is very granular because of the number of poison glands. They also lack nasolabial grooves.

With a few exceptions, salamandrids have patterns of bright and contrasting colours, most of these are to warn potential predators of their toxicity. They have four well-developed limbs, with four toes on the fore limbs, and (in most cases) five toes on the hind limbs. They vary from 7 to 30 cm (3 to 12 in) in length.[2]

All species within the genus Lyciasalamandra are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young, without a tadpole stage. There are some species within the genus Salamandra are known to be viviparous too. Some newts are neotenic, being able to reproduce before they are fully metamorphosed.[2]

Toxicity[edit]

The genus Taricha use the poision tetrodotoxin (TTX) that binds and blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in nerves and muscles. This blockage causes the cessation of action potentials, leading to paralysis and death. There are species and sub-species of Taricha that live in concurrent regions with a garter snake (Thamnophis) that has developed a resistance to the TTX poisoning. Species that inhabit regions with resistant Thamnophis snakes have evolved to increase their concentrations of TTX in an evolutionary arms race of predatory versus prey.

Conservation Status (IUCN Redlist)[edit]

Conservation Status of Salamandridae
IUCN Classification Number of Species
Least Concern 32
Near Threatened 12
Vulnerable 16
Endangered 14
Critically Endangered 3
Lack of Data 1

Phylogeny[edit]

Cladograms based on the work of Pyron and Wiens (2011)[3] and modified using Mikko Haaramo [4]

Salamandrininae

Archaeotriton basalticus

Salamandrina

Salamandrinae
Chioglossini

Mertensiella caucasica

Chioglossa lusitanica

Salamandrini

Megalotriton filholi

Lyciasalamandra

Salamandra

Pleurodelinae

Carpathotriton

Pleurodelini

Brachycormus noachicus

Chelotriton

Palaeopleurodeles hauffi

Pleurodeles

Echinotriton

Tylototriton

Molgini
Tarichina

Notophthalmus

Taricha

Molgina

Koalliella genzeli

Oligosemia spinosa

Lissotriton

Neurergus

Ommatotriton

Calotriton

Triturus

Euproctus

Ichthyosaura alpestris

Cynopita

Procynops miocenicus

Laotriton laoensis

Pachytriton

Cynops

Paramesotriton

Taxonomy[edit]

The genera Chioglossa, Lyciasalamandra, Mertensiella, and Salamandra are grouped in the subfamily Salamandrinae, the rest are in Pleurodelinae.[5] Those with a more thoroughly aquatic lifestyle are referred to as "newts", but this is not a formal taxonomic description.

Family SALAMANDRIDAE

Fossil record[edit]

Salamandrids have a substantial fossil record spanning most of the Cenozoic. The oldest known fossils date from the Thanetian (Paleocene), but these, and most other known fossil salamandrids apparently belong to the crown group.[6] The sole known stem-salamandrid is Phosphotriton sigei, from the Quercy Phosphorites Formation, which apparently dates from the Middle to Late Eocene.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://fossilworks.org/bridge.pl?a=taxonInfo&taxon_no=37393. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ a b Lanza, B., Vanni, S., & Nistri, A. (1998). Cogger, H.G. & Zweifel, R.G., ed. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
  3. ^ Pyron, R.A.; Weins, J.J. (2011). "A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of advanced frogs, salamanders, and caecilians" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61 (2): 543–853. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.012. PMID 21723399.
  4. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2011). "Caudata – salamanders". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive.
  5. ^ http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/references.php?id=27224
  6. ^ Marjanovic, D.; Laurin, M. (2014). "An updated paleontological timetree of lissamphibians, with comments on the anatomy of Jurassic crown-group salamanders (Urodela)". Historical Biology. 26 (4): 535–550. doi:10.1080/08912963.2013.797972.
  7. ^ Tissier, J.; Rage, J.-C.; Boistel, R.; Fernandez, V.; Pollet, N.; Garcia, G.; Laurin, M. (2016). "Synchrotron analysis of a 'mummified' salamander (Vertebrata: Caudata) from the Eocene of Quercy, France". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 177 (1): 147–164. doi:10.1111/zoj.12341.

External links[edit]

Data related to Salamandridae at Wikispecies Media related to Salamandridae at Wikimedia Commons