Salem County, New Jersey

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Salem County, New Jersey
Salem Court House.JPG
Seal of Salem County, New Jersey
Seal
Map of New Jersey highlighting Salem County
Location in the state of New Jersey
Map of the United States highlighting New Jersey
New Jersey's location in the U.S.
Founded 1694[1]
Seat Salem[2]
Largest city Pennsville Township (population)
Lower Alloways Creek Township (area)
Area
 • Total 372.33 sq mi (964 km2)
 • Land 331.90 sq mi (860 km2)
 • Water 40.43 sq mi (105 km2), 10.86%
Population
 • (2010) 66,083[3]
 • Density 196/sq mi (75.5/km²)
Congressional district 2nd
Website www.salemcountynj.gov

Salem County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. Its western boundary is formed by the Delaware River and it has the eastern terminus of the Delaware Memorial Bridge, connecting to New Castle, Delaware. Its county seat is Salem.[2][4] The county is part of the Delaware Valley area. As of the 2010 Census, the county's population was 66,083,[3] increasing by 1,798 (+2.8%) from the 64,285 counted in the 2000 Census,[5] retaining its position as the state's least populous county.[6][7] The most populous place was Pennsville Township, with 13,409 residents at the time of the 2010 Census. Lower Alloways Creek Township covers 72.46 square miles (187.7 km2), the largest total area of any municipality.[7]

History[edit]

European settlement began with English colonists in the seventeenth century, who were settling both sides of the Delaware River. They established a colonial court in the area in 1681, but Salem County was first formally organized within West Jersey on May 17, 1694, from the Salem Tenth. Pittsgrove Township was transferred to Cumberland County in April 1867, but was restored to Salem County in February 1868.[1] The area was initially settled by Quakers.

The Old Salem County Courthouse, situated on the same block as the Salem County Courthouse, serves as the court for Salem City in the 21st century. It is the oldest active courthouse in New Jersey and is the second oldest courthouse in continuous use in the United States, the oldest being King William County Courthouse in Virginia.[8] The courthouse was built in 1735 during the reign of King George II using locally manufactured bricks.[9] The building was enlarged in 1817 and additionally enlarged and remodeled in 1908. Its distinctive bell tower is essentially unchanged and the original bell sits in the courtroom.

Judge William Hancock of the King's Court presided at the courthouse.[10] He was later killed by the British in the American Revolutionary War during the massacre at Hancock House committed by the British against local militia during the Salem Raid in 1778. Afterward the courthouse was the site of the "treason trials," wherein suspected Loyalists were put on trial for having allegedly aided the British during the Salem Raid. Four men were convicted and sentenced to death for treason; however, they were pardoned by Governor William Livingston and exiled from New Jersey. The courthouse is also the site of the legend of Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson's proving the edibility of the tomato. Before 1820, Americans often assumed tomatoes were poisonous. In 1820, Colonel Johnson, according to legend, stood upon the courthouse steps and ate tomatoes in front of a large crowd assembled to watch him do so.[11]

Salem County is notable for its distinctive Quaker-inspired architecture and masonry styles of the 18th century.[12] It had a rural and agricultural economy. In the early 20th century, its towns received numerous immigrants from eastern and southern Europe, who markedly added to the population. In the period following World War II, the county's population increased due to suburban development. To accommodate increasing traffic, the Delaware Memorial Bridge was built from Salem County to New Castle, Delaware.

Geography[edit]

According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 372.33 square miles (964.3 km2), including 331.90 square miles (859.6 km2) of land (89.1%) and 40.43 square miles (104.7 km2) of water (10.9%).[7][13]

The terrain is almost uniformly flat coastal plain, with minimal relief. The highest elevation in the county has never been determined with any specificity, but is likely one of seven low rises in Upper Pittsgrove Township that reach approximately 160 feet (49 m) in elevation.[14] Sea level is the lowest point.

Adjacent counties[edit]

The county adjoins the following areas:[15]

1across Delaware Bay; no land border

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 10,437
1800 11,371 8.9%
1810 12,761 12.2%
1820 14,022 9.9%
1830 14,155 0.9%
1840 16,024 13.2%
1850 19,467 21.5%
1860 22,458 15.4%
1870 23,940 6.6%
1880 24,579 2.7%
1890 25,151 2.3%
1900 25,530 1.5%
1910 26,999 5.8%
1920 36,572 35.5%
1930 36,834 0.7%
1940 42,274 14.8%
1950 49,508 17.1%
1960 58,711 18.6%
1970 60,346 2.8%
1980 64,676 7.2%
1990 65,294 1.0%
2000 64,285 −1.5%
2010 66,083 2.8%
Est. 2014 64,715 [17][18] −2.1%
Historical sources: 1790-1990[19]
1970-2010[7] 2000[5] 2010[3] 2000-2010[20]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 66,083 people, 25,290 households, and 17,551 families residing in the county. The population density was 199.1 per square mile (76.9/km2). There were 27,417 housing units at an average density of 82.6 per square mile (31.9/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 79.83% (52,757) White, 14.09% (9,309) Black or African American, 0.36% (240) Native American, 0.84% (557) Asian, 0.02% (10) Pacific Islander, 2.64% (1,745) from other races, and 2.22% (1,465) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 6.82% (4,507) of the population.[3]

There were 25,290 households, of which 29% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.6% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.07.[3]

In the county, 23.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 29.4% from 45 to 64, and 15% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.8 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males.[3]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[21] there were 64,285 people, 24,295 households, and 17,370 families residing in the county. The population density was 190 people per square mile (73/km²). There were 26,158 housing units at an average density of 77 per square mile (30/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 81.19% White, 14.77% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.62% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, and 1.46% from two or more races. 3.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[5][22] Among those residents listing their ancestry, 20.0% were of German, 17.1% Irish, 13.9% English, 12.2% Italian and 6.1% American ancestry according to Census 2000.[22][23]

There were 24,295 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.80% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.50% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.08.[5]

In the county the population was spread out with 25.60% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, and 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males.[5]

The median income for a household in the county was $45,573, and the median income for a family was $54,890. Males had a median income of $41,860 versus $27,209 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,874. About 7.2% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over.[22][24]

Government[edit]

Salem County is governed by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders who are elected at-large to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects a Director and a Deputy Director from among its members. The appointed position professional county administrator was abolished by a unanimous vote of the freeholders in January 2014.[25]

As of 2015, Salem County's Freeholders (with party, residence, term-end year and committee chairmanship listed in parentheses) are Director Julie A. Acton (R, Pennsville Township, 2016; Administration), Deputy Director Ben H. Laury (R, Elmer, 2015; Public Works), Dale A. Cross (R, Pennsville Township, 2017; Public Safety), Douglas H. Painter (R, Pilesgrove Township, 2017; Education and Employment), Beth E. Timberman (D, Woodstown, 2015; Community Services), Robert J. Vanderslice (R, Pennsville, 2017; Health and Human Services) Lee R. Ware (D, Elsinboro Township, 2016; Transportation, Agriculture and Cultural Affairs).[26][27]

Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Gilda T. Gill (R, 2019),[28] Sheriff Charles M. Miller (2015)[29] and Surrogate Nicki A. Burke (2015).[30]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 42,672 registered voters in Salem, of which 13,052 (30.6%) were registered as Democrats, 8,945 (21.0%) were registered as Republicans and 20,652 (48.4%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 23 voters registered to other parties.[31] Among the county's 2010 Census population, 64.6% were registered to vote, including 84.4% of those ages 18 and over.[31][32]

Salem County generally and historically leaned towards the Republican Party, but not as much so as the Northwest or Shore regions of the state. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama carried the county by a 4% margin over Republican John McCain, with Obama receiving 57.27% statewide.[33] Obama received 16,044 votes here (50.4%), ahead of McCain with 14,816 votes (46.6%) and other candidates with 503 votes (1.6%), among the 31,812 ballots cast by the county's 44,324 registered voters, for a turnout of 71.8%.[34] In the 2004 presidential election,

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 42,672 registered voters in Salem, of which 13,052 (30.6% vs. 30.6% countywide) were registered as Democrats, 8,945 (21.0% vs. 21.0%) were registered as Republicans and 20,652 (48.4% vs. 48.4%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 23 voters registered to other parties.[31]In the 2012 U.S. Presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama and Republican Mitt Romney tied, with both candidates receiving 14,719 votes each; the state voted for Obama.[35] Among the county's 2010 Census population, 64.6% (vs. 64.6% in Salem County) were registered to vote, including 84.4% of those ages 18 and over (vs. 84.4% countywide).[31][32] In 2004 Bush received 15,721 votes here (52.5%), ahead of Kerry with 13,749 votes (45.9%) and other candidates with 311 votes (1.0%), among the 29,950 ballots cast by the county's 42,210 registered voters, for a turnout of 71.0%.[36]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 9,599 votes here (46.1%), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 8,323 votes (39.9%), Independent Chris Daggett with 2,011 votes (9.7%) and other candidates with 411 votes (2.0%), among the 20,838 ballots cast by the county's 44,037 registered voters, yielding a 47.3% turnout.[37]

Salem County falls entirely within the 2nd congressional district[38] and the 3rd state legislative district. New Jersey's Second Congressional District is represented by Frank LoBiondo (R, Ventnor City).[39] For the 2014–2015 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 3rd Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Stephen M. Sweeney (D, West Deptford Township) and in the General Assembly by John J. Burzichelli (D, Paulsboro) and Adam Taliaferro (D, Woolwich Township).[40]

Transportation[edit]

As of 2010, the county had a total of 879.53 miles (1,415.47 km) of roadways, of which 429.36 miles (690.99 km) were maintained by the local municipality, 355.17 miles (571.59 km) by Salem County and 85.94 miles (138.31 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 9.06 miles (14.58 km) by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority.[41]

Salem is served by many different roads. Major county routes include CR 540, CR 551, CR 553 (only in Pittsgrove) and CR 581. State highways include Route 45, Route 47, Route 48 (only in Carney's Point), Route 56 (only in Pittsgrove), Route 77 and Route 140 (only in Carney's Point). The U.S. routes are U.S. Route 40 and the southern end of U.S. Route 130.

Limited access roads include Interstate 295 and the New Jersey Turnpike. Both highways pass through the northern part of the county. Only one turnpike interchange is located in Salem: Exit 1 in Carneys Point (which is also where the turnpike ends). There are a pair of service areas on the Turnpike, both located between exits 1 and 2 in Oldmans Township: The John Fenwic Service Area on the northbound side and the Clara Barton Service Area in the southbound direction.[42]

The Delaware Memorial Bridge (which is signed as I-295/US 40) is a set of twin suspension bridges crossing the Delaware River.Connecting New Castle, Delaware and Pennsville Township, the original span was opened in 1951 and the second span in 1968.[43]

Municipalities[edit]

Index map of Salem County municipalities (click to see index key)

Municipalities in Salem County (with 2010 Census data for population, housing units and area in square miles) are:[44] Other, unincorporated communities in the county are listed next to their parent municipality. Some of these areas are census-designated places (CDPs) that have been created by the United States Census Bureau for enumeration purposes within a Township. Other communities and enclaves that exist within a municipality are also listed next to the name.

Municipality
(map index)
Municipal
type
Population Housing
units
Total
area
Water
area
Land
area
Pop.
density
Housing
density
Unincorporated
communities / notes
Alloway Township (13) township 3,467 1,268 33.83 0.43 33.40 103.8 38.0 Aldine
Alloway CDP (1,402)
Alloway Junction
Friesburg
Mower
Oakland
Penton
Remsterville
Riddleton
Carneys Point Township (6) township 8,049 3,502 17.74 0.87 16.86 477.3 207.7 Biddles Landing
Carneys Point CDP (7,382)
Helms Cove
Laytons Lake
Elmer (1) borough 1,395 577 0.88 0.01 0.87 1,612.3 666.9
Elsinboro Township (10) township 1,036 524 13.32 1.41 11.92 86.9 44.0 Hagerville
Moores Corner
Oakwood Beach
Sinnickson Landing
Lower Alloways Creek Township (11) township 1,770 727 72.46 27.23 45.23 39.1 16.1 Canton
Hancock's Bridge CDP (254)
Mannington Township (8) township 1,806 592 37.73 4.02 33.70 53.6 17.6 Acton
Halltown
Marshalltown
Pointers
Portertown
Slapes Corner
Welchville
Oldmans Township (5) township 1,773 699 20.38 0.93 19.45 91.1 35.9 Auburn
Pedricktown CDP (524)
Penns Grove (4) borough 5,147 2,004 0.91 0.00 0.91 5,656.0 2,202.2
Pennsville Township (9) township 13,409 5,914 24.59 3.31 21.28 630.2 278.0 Deepwater
Pennsville CDP (11,888)
Pilesgrove Township (7) township 4,016 1,594 35.07 0.23 34.84 115.3 45.7 Friendship
Pittsgrove Township (15) township 9,393 3,445 45.92 0.83 45.08 208.3 76.4 Brotmanville
Centerton
Norma
Olivet CDP (1,408)
Quinton Township (12) township 2,666 1,099 24.58 0.49 24.09 110.7 45.6 Harmony
Pecks Corner
Quinton CDP (588)
Salem (3) city 5,146 2,633 2.82 0.47 2.34 2,195.9 1,123.6
Upper Pittsgrove Township (14) township 3,505 1,310 40.49 0.16 40.33 86.9 32.5 Daretown
Monroeville
Whig Lane
Woodstown (2) borough 3,505 1,529 1.63 0.04 1.58 2,211.8 964.9
Salem County 66,083 27,417 372.33 40.43 331.90 199.1 82.6

Climate and weather[edit]

Salem, New Jersey
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3
 
 
40
25
 
 
2.8
 
 
44
27
 
 
3.9
 
 
52
34
 
 
3.5
 
 
64
43
 
 
4
 
 
73
53
 
 
3.9
 
 
82
63
 
 
4.6
 
 
86
68
 
 
3.3
 
 
84
66
 
 
4.3
 
 
77
58
 
 
3.4
 
 
66
46
 
 
3.1
 
 
56
37
 
 
3.5
 
 
45
29
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[45]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Salem have ranged from a low of 25 °F (−4 °C) in January to a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in July, although a record low of −14 °F (−26 °C) was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 107 °F (42 °C) was recorded in August 1918. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.78 inches (71 mm) in February to 4.57 inches (116 mm) in July.[45]

Wineries[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 120. Accessed October 30, 2012.
  2. ^ a b Salem County, NJ, National Association of Counties. Accessed January 21, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f DP1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 23, 2013.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  5. ^ a b c d e DP-1 - Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000; Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 23, 2013.
  6. ^ NJ Labor Market Views, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, March 15, 2011. Accessed October 6, 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts; 2010 Census of Population and Housing, p. 6, CPH-2-32. United States Census Bureau, August 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 31, 2013. Accessed October 6, 2013.
  8. ^ Welcome to King William County
  9. ^ Welcome to Salem, New Jersey
  10. ^ William Hancock House, Hancocks Bridge, New Jersey, Cup O'Jersey - South Jersey History
  11. ^ "The Story of Robert Gibbon Johnson and the Tomato", The History Highway of the Salem County Historical Society. May 2005. Accessed August 13, 2007. Archived July 24, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Bishir, Catherine (2005). North Carolina Architecture. University of North Carolina Press. p. 17. 
  13. ^ Census 2010 U.S. Gazetteer Files: New Jersey Counties, United States Census Bureau, Backed up by the Internet Archive as of June 11, 2012. Accessed October 6, 2013.
  14. ^ New Jersey County High Points, Peakbagger.com. Accessed October 1, 2013.
  15. ^ Areas touching Salem County, MapIt. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  16. ^ Supawna Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Brochure, United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  17. ^ PEPANNRES: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  18. ^ State & County QuickFacts for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  19. ^ Forstall, Richard L. Population of states and counties of the United States: 1790 to 1990 from the Twenty-one Decennial Censuses, pp. 108-109. United States Census Bureau, March 1996. ISBN 9780934213486. Accessed October 6, 2013.
  20. ^ U.S. Census Bureau Delivers New Jersey's 2010 Census Population Totals, United States Census Bureau, February 3, 2011. Accessed February 5, 2011.
  21. ^ American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  22. ^ a b c Tables DP-1 to DP-4 from Census 2000 for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau, backed up by the Internet Archive as of July 6, 2008. Accessed October 1, 2013.
  23. ^ DP-2 - Profile of Selected Social Characteristics: 2000 from the Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
  24. ^ DP-3 - Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000 from Census 2000 Summary File 3 (SF 3) - Sample Data for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 30, 2013.
  25. ^ Young, Alex. "Salem County freeholders look to 2014 at annual reorganization meeting", South Jersey Times, January 9, 2014. Accessed August 17, 2015. "He replaces Evern Ford, who will leave county government after the board also voted to abolish his county administrator position with a unanimous vote."
  26. ^ Board of Chosen Freeholders, Salem County, New Jersey. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  27. ^ 2015 County Data Sheet, Salem County, New Jersey. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  28. ^ Salem County Clerk, Salem County Clerk's Office. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  29. ^ Home Page, Salem County Sheriff. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  30. ^ Surrogate's Court, Salem County, New Jersey. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  31. ^ a b c d Voter Registration Summary - Salem, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed January 23, 2013.
  32. ^ a b GCT-P7: Selected Age Groups: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision; 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 23, 2013.
  33. ^ "Presidential Election: Winners by County". The Washington Post. 
  34. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Salem County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed January 22, 2013.
  35. ^ Official List - Candidates for President For GENERAL ELECTION 11/06/2012 Election, Secretary of State of New Jersey, December 6, 2012. Accessed October 1, 2013.
  36. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Salem County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed January 22, 2013.
  37. ^ 2009 Governor: Salem County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed January 22, 2013.
  38. ^ 2012 Congressional Districts by County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections. Accessed January 23, 2013.
  39. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  40. ^ Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed August 1, 2015.
  41. ^ Salem County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  42. ^ Travel Resources: Interchanges, Service Areas & Commuter Lots, New Jersey Turnpike Authority. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  43. ^ About the Delaware Memorial Bridge, Delaware River and Bay Authority. Accessed August 17, 2015.
  44. ^ GCT-PH1: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County -- County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for Salem County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 16, 2015.
  45. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Salem, New Jersey". The Weather Channel. Retrieved October 13, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°35′N 75°22′W / 39.58°N 75.36°W / 39.58; -75.36