Salem Maritime National Historic Site
Salem Maritime National Historic Site
Salem Custom House (1819)
|Location||Essex County, Massachusetts, USA|
|Nearest city||Salem, Massachusetts|
|Area||9 acres (0.036 km2)|
|Website||Salem Maritime National Historic Site|
|NRHP reference No.||66000048|
|Added to NRHP||September 1, 1976|
|Designated NHS||March 17, 1938|
The Salem Maritime National Historic Site is a National Historic Site consisting of 12 historic structures, one replica tall-ship, and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land along the waterfront of Salem Harbor in Salem, Massachusetts. Salem Maritime is the first National Historic Site established in the United States (March 17, 1938). It interprets the Triangle Trade during the colonial period, in cotton, rum, sugar and slaves; the actions of privateers during the American Revolution; and global maritime trade with the Far East, after independence. The National Park Service manages both the National Historic Site and a Regional Visitor Center in downtown Salem. The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior.
In 2014, the National Park Service, which runs the Salem Maritime National Historic Site, released figures and statistics for 2012: there were 756,038 visitors to Salem who spent an estimated $40,000,000. The National Park Service celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2016.
The site preserves and interprets numerous maritime resources in the form of artifacts, collections and structures, including:
- Derby House (1762) – built in 1762 by Captain Richard Derby as a wedding gift for his son Elias Hasket Derby, a fine example of Georgian architecture. Derby was the first millionaire in the New World.
- Derby Wharf (1762, extended 1806) – Salem's longest wharf (nearly 1/2 mile). When in active use, it was lined with warehouses of goods from around the world. The Derby Wharf Light (1871) remains at the end of the wharf.
- Friendship of Salem – a replica of a 1797 East Indiaman; the new ship was built in the Scarano Brothers Shipyard in Albany, New York, in 2000 and is operated as a museum ship. The original Friendship made 15 voyages during her career: to Batavia, India, China, South America, the Caribbean, England, Germany, the Mediterranean, and Russia. She was captured as a prize of the War of 1812 by the British in September 1812.
- Hawkes House (1780, 1800) – designed by famous Salem architect Samuel McIntire, building was begun in 1780. The unfinished building was purchased and completed around 1800 by Benjamin Hawkes.
- Narbonne House (1675) – The part of the house with the high peaked roof was built by butcher Thomas Ives, who later added a lean-to the south side and a kitchen lean-to at the back. Around 1740 the southern lean-to was replaced by today's gambrel-roofed addition. From 1750 to 1780, the house was owned by Capt. Joseph Hodges, and in 1780 the house was purchased by tanner Jonathan Andrew. The house was lived in by descendants of the Andrew family from 1780 to 1964, when the house was sold to the National Park Service.
- Pedrick Store House, a three-story building, constructed around 1770, is a historic rigging and sail loft, which was relocated to the Salem Maritime National Historic Site from Marblehead, MA in 2007.
- Salem Custom House (1819) – the 13th Customs House in Salem; the first was built in 1649. Taxes were collected on imported cargoes. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the eagle on top of the Custom House in his novel The Scarlet Letter. The eagle was carved by woodcarver and cabinetmaker Joseph True. Other works of his are in the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem.
- St. Joseph Hall (1909) – Original home of The St. Joseph Society (1897), a fraternal society established by Polish immigrants. The first floor was retail space that could be rented out to provide an income for the support of the building. The large hall on the second floor was the site of hundreds of weddings, dances, plays, and other social events in the Polish community, which expanded rapidly in the late 19th-early 20th-century immigration wave. On the top floor, the Society built several apartments to house new immigrants until they could get permanently settled. The building now serves as park headquarters.
- West India Goods Store (1804) – Built by Captain Henry Prince about 1804 and was likely first used as a warehouse, where Prince kept goods imported from the East Indies, such as pepper, coffee, water buffalo hides, and tortoise shells. By 1836, Charles Dexter had a shop in this building. It was one of many that served the needs of Salem households by selling candles, oils, clothing, tin, and glassware. Besides stocking general groceries such as grain, cheese, dried beans and even rum, the store attracted customers with many foreign imported goods and luxuries from Europe, Asia and Africa. The store continued to operate as a retail space throughout the nineteenth century. Later occupants included painters, a tobacconist, and a wine and liquor merchant.
Custom House seen from the deck of the Friendship of Salem
Adjacent historic areas
A short walk from the Salem Maritime National Historic Site are the Chestnut Street District, Federal Street District, Downtown Salem District, Bridge Street Neck Historic District, Charter Street Historic District, Crombie Street District, Derby Waterfront District, Essex Institute Historic District, Salem Willows Historic District and the Salem Common Historic District.
- List of maritime museums in the United States
- List of museum ships of the United States military
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
- List of lighthouses in the United States, Massachusetts
- List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts
- List of historic houses in Massachusetts
- List of the oldest buildings in the United States
- "History & Culture - Salem Maritime National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Tom Dalton. "What's drawing the most visitors?". Salem News. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- "We're inviting you to our 100th birthday party! - Centennial (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Dustin Luca. "Halloween steps off in Salem". Salem News. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Glusac, Elaine (30 June 2016). "Celebrating the National Park Centennial". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- "Salem Maritime National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- "Narbonne House, official web site". National Park Service. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Bethany Bray. "Rigging shed will be demolished". Salem News. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- "Pedrick Store House: Construction Updates - Salem Maritime National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- "Seaport Advisory Council awards funding for North Shore projects". Beverly Citizen. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- "Designation of National Park System Units". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- "The National Park Service Organic Act". National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
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