Salil Chowdhury

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Salil Chowdhury
Image of Salil Chowdhury
Background information
Born(1925-11-19)19 November 1925[1]
Gazipur, South 24 Parganas, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day West Bengal, India)
Died5 September 1995(1995-09-05) (aged 69)
Calcutta, West Bengal, India
GenresBengali, folk, film base, western classical fusion, Indian classical fusion
Occupation(s)Singer-Songwriter, Composer, Arranger, Poet, Lyricist, Story-writer

Salil Chowdhury; 19 November 1925 - 5 September 1995)[1] was an Indian songwriter, music director, lyricist, writer, and poet who predominantly composed for Bengali, Hindi, and Malayalam films. He composed music for films in 13 languages. This includes over 75 Hindi films, 41 Bengali films, around 27 Malayalam films, and a few Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Gujarati, Oriya and Assamese films. His musical ability was widely recognised[2] and acknowledged in the Indian film industry. He was an accomplished composer and arranger who was proficient in several musical instruments, including flute, the piano, and the esraj. He was also widely acclaimed and admired[2] for his inspirational and original poetry in Bengali.

The first Bengali film for which Chowdhury composed music was Paribortan, released in 1949. Mahabharati, released in 1994, was the last of the 41 Bengali films where he rendered his music. He is affectionately called Salilda by his admirers.


Early influences – childhood and teenage[edit]

Salil Chowdhury was born on 19 November 1922[3] in a village called Gazipur in South 24 Parganas, West Bengal. Salil's childhood was spent in the tea gardens region of Assam. His father was reputed to stage plays with coolies and other low-paid workers of the tea-gardens.[2] From an early age he listened to the Western Classical collection of his father.[2] During the second world war Chowdhury got the opportunity to closely observe human sufferings, hunger and problem of the refugees.[4] He studied in Harinavi D.V.A.S High School and there after graduating from Bangabasi College, affiliated to the University of Calcutta in Kolkata, and during this period his political ideas were formulated along with a considerable maturity in his musical ideas.[2]

As a teenager in school, Chowdhury already had an interest in music, and played the flute, harmonium and esraj. He learnt to play the piano from his elder brother at the age of 6. Once in college, he also began to compose tunes. His first popular song was "Becharpoti tomar bichaar" (lit. the days of new judgement have come because people are now awake), set to a kirtan tune. Chowdhury composed it in 1945 during the Indian National Army trials when the freedom fighters had returned from Andaman jail. Chowdhury shifted to a village in 24 parganas to live with his maternal uncles, when he was witness to a big peasant uprising there in 1943. He got involved with them and began writing songs for the peasant movement. In 1944, while studying for his MA, Chowdhury witnessed people dying on the streets of Calcutta, as 50 lakh Bengalis died during the famine created by the British. The famine was man-made as local rice was instead directed to Britain's war effort overseas, leading to scarcity, aggravated by black marketeers and hoarders. This led Chowdhury to become fully involved in the peasant movement, and he became a full-time member of IPTA and the Communist Party. Subsequently, arrest warrants were issued in his name, and he went underground in the Sunderbans, hiding in paddy fields and supported by local peasants. During this time, he continued writing plays and songs.[5]

In 1944, a young Salil came to Calcutta for his graduate studies. He joined the IPTA[2] (Indian Peoples Theater Association) the cultural wing of the Communist Party of India. He started writing songs[2] and setting tunes for them.[2] The IPTA theatrical outfit travelled through the villages and the cities bringing these songs to the common man. Songs like Bicharpati, Runner and Abak prithibi[2] became extremely popular with the general population at the time.

Songs like Gnaayer bodhu (গাঁয়ের বধূ), which he composed at the age of 20, brought about a new wave of Bengali music.[2] Almost every notable singer at the time from West Bengal had sung at least one of his songs. A few examples are Debabrata Biswas, Hemanta Mukherjee, Shyamal Mitra, Sandhya Mukherjee, Manabendra Mukherjee, Subir Sen, and Pratima Banerjee.

Film career[edit]

Sitting from left: Robin Majumdar, Bhanu Banerjee, Robin Chatterjee, Ila Bose, Bani Ghoshal, Sabita Chowdhury and Salil Chowdhury
Standing from left: V. Balsara, Shyamal Mitra, Montu Bose and Jahar Roy

The first Bengali film in which Salil Chowdhury composed music was Paribortan, released in 1949. Mahabharati, released in 1994, was the last of the 41 Bengali films where he rendered his music.

In an interview with All India Radio, Salil Chowdhury described his coming to Bombay in 1953 as a "stroke of luck". He was writing the script for a Bengali film about a peasant who was disowned of his land and had gone to Calcutta to earn money as a Rickshaw puller. Hrishikesh Mukherjee, who heard of it from Chowdhury during a visit to Calcutta, liked it immensely and suggested that he narrate it to the director Bimal Roy. Roy heard it, and asked him to meet him again the next morning. However, when Chowdhury went to meet him the next day, he learnt that Roy had rushed to Bombay on an urgent call. A week later, he received a telegram from Roy that he wanted to turn his script into a movie. This resulted in Chowdhury's debut in the Hindi film industry in 1953[2] as the music director for Do Bigha Zamin (1953). The movie was based on Tagore's poem by the same name, but the story was different and was written by Salil Chowdhury himself. Directed by Bimal Roy, this film took his career to new heights when it became the first film to win the Filmfare Best Movie Award and won the international Prize at the Cannes Film Festival. [5]

After working for about 20 years in Bengali and Hindi films, he entered the Malayalam film industry and, in 1964, composed music for the movie Chemmeen.[2] He went on to compose music for films in 13 languages. This includes over 75 Hindi films, 41 Bengali films, around 27 Malayalam films, and a few Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Gujarati, Oriya and Assamese films. Asked about his method, Chowdhury described it thus – He would usually ask the film maker to explain the situation to him, then Chowdhury would compose a tune to suit the mood, and the lyric writer would set in words. This remained his practice for most of his films including Madhumati, in which Shailendra wrote the lyrics subsequently.[5]

Poet, Playwright, Short story writer, Salil also directed a film Pinjre Ke Panchhi starring Meena Kumari, Balraj Sahani and Mehmood based on his own story and screenplay in 1966. Salil Chowdhury was the Founder of Bombay Youth Choir, the first ever Secular Choir in India in 1958 as its composer and conductor - he inspired scores of secular choir groups to be formed throughout India formulating a new genre of music using vocal polyphony for Indian Folk and Contemporary Music.

Personal life[edit]

Salil Chowdhury was married to the painter Jyoti Chowdhury in July 1953. He had three daughters with her — Aloka, Tulika and Lipika. Later, he moved in with singer Sabita Chowdhury, with whom he had two sons, Sukanta and Sanjoy, and two daughters, Antara and Sanchari. Sanjoy Chowdhury is a successful music composer and has scored music for over 100 feature films. Sabita Chowdhury was a legendary singer and their daughter Antara Chowdhury too a known singer. Smt. Sabita Chowdhury died on 29 June 2017.[6]


Chowdhury on a 2013 stamp of India
  • Salil's music was a blending of Eastern and the Western music traditions. He had once said: "I want to create a style which shall transcend borders – a genre which is emphatic and polished, but never predictable".[7] He dabbled in a lot of things and it was his ambition to achieve greatness in everything he did.[7] But at times, his confusion was fairly evident: "I do not know what to opt for: poetry, story writing, orchestration or composing for films. I just try to be creative with what fits the moment and my temperament", he once told a journalist.[7]
  • Salil's love for Western classical music started when he was a young boy growing up in an Assam tea garden where his father worked as a doctor. His father inherited a large number of western classical records and a gramophone from a departing Irish doctor. While Salil listened to Mozart, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, Chopin, and others everyday, his daily life was surrounded by the sound of the forest, chirping of the birds, sound of the flute and the local folk-music of Assam.[7] This left a lasting impression in young Salil. He became a self-taught flute player and his favourite composer was Mozart. His compositions often used folk melodies or melodies based on Indian classical ragas but the orchestration was very much western in its construction. According to his daughter Antara, (Ref.: Ek Fankar @ Vividbharati Radio Programme at 10.00 pm on 19 November 2013), Salil himself once joked that he was Mozart, reborn.
  • Salil being a composing exponent, he even sensed the talent of a guitarist who played in his orchestra and uttered that, "I think he’s going to be the best composer in India".[8] The guitarist eventually turned out to be Maestro Ilaiyaraaja. A. R Rahman's father, R. K Shekhar used to conduct Salil Chowdhury's arrangements in South Indian film music. Rahman once said that his musical understanding was greatly influenced by the musical sessions conducted by Salil Chowdhury.[2]
  • "The Salil Chowdhury Foundation of Music, Social Help & Education Trust" was created in 2002 by Sabita Chowdhury, wife, and Antara Chowdhury, daughter of the late composer, to carry forward the legacy and preserve the works of Salil Chowdhury. In 2015 the Salil Chowdhury Memorial Concert and Honours were established in memory of the Genius to honour some of the greatest Indian singers and musicians.[9]



Year Film
1953 Do Bighaa Zameen
1954 Biraaj bahu; Naukri; Manohar
1955 Amaanat; Taangewaali
1956 Aawaaz; Parivaar; Jaagte Raho
1957 Aparadhi Kaun; Ek Gaaon ki Kahaani; LaalBatti; Musaafir, Zamaana
1958 Madhumati
1959 Heeramoti
1960 Jawaahar; Honeymoon; Qaanoon; Parakh; Usne Kaha Tha
1961 Chaardeewaari; Chhayaa; Kaabuliwaalaa; Maayaa; Memdidi; Sapan Suhaane
1962 Half Ticket; Jhoola; Prem Patra
1965 Chaand Aur Sooraj; Poonam Ki Raat
1966 Pinjre Ki Panchhi; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose; Jawaab Aayega
1968 Mitti Ka Dev
1969 Ittefaaq; Sara Akaash
1970 Aanand
1971 Gehraa Raaz; Mere Apne
1972 Annadata; Anokha Daan; Anokha Milan; Mere Bhaiyaa; Sabse Bada Sukh
1974 Rajnigandhaa
1975 Chhoti si Baat; Sangat
1976 Jeevan Jyoti; Mrigayaa; Udaan Chhoo
1977 Minoo; Anand Mahal
1979 Kalaa Patthar; Jeenaa Yahaan
1980 Chehre Pe Chehra; Chemmeen Lahrein; Chirutha; Kuhasaa; Naani Maa; Room no.203; Daisy
1981 Plot no. 5; Agni Pareeksha
1982 Dil Ka Saathi Dil; Darpok ki Dosti; Artap
1984 Kanoon Kya Karega
1986 Zevar
1988 Trishaagni
1989 Kamla Ki Maut; Nehru The Jewel of India; Atmadaan; Aakhiri Badlaa
1990 Triyaatri; Hamaari Shaadi * (MD: Sanjoy Chowdhury and Salil Chowdhury)
1991 Netraheen Saakshi;
1994 Tiriacharittar (or Striyascharittram)
1994 Swami Vivekananda
1995 Mera Damaad


Year Film
1949 Poribartan
1951 Barjaatri
1952 Paasher Baadi
1953 Baansher Kella
1953 Bhor Hoye Elo
1954 Aaj Sondhaay
1954 Mohila Mahal
1955 Rickshawaala
1956 Raat Bhore
1956 Ak din Raatre
1959 Baadi Thekey Paaliye
1960 Gangaa
1961 Rai Bahadur
1964 Kinu Goaalaar Goli
1964 Ayanaanto
1964 Laal Paathor
1966 Paari
1972 Marjina Aabdullah
1972 Raktaakto Banglaa (made in Bangladesh)
1977 Kobita
1977 Sister
1979 Jibon Je Rakam;Rupaali Soikate (made in Bangladesh)
1979 Srikaanter Will
1980 Byapika Bidaay
1980 Parabesh
1980 Akaler Sandhaney
1980 Antarghaat
1982 Artap
1985 Protiggya
1985 Debikaa
1985 Mowchor
1986 Jibon
1989 Swarnatrishaa
1990/91 Aashrita **(background: Salil) (MD:Hridaynath Mangeskar)
1991 Haaraaner Naatjamaai
1994 Mahabharoti
1994 Sei Somoy
1961 Komol Gandhaar
1981 Aswamedher Ghoraa


Year Film
1965 Chemmeen
1968 Ezhuraathrikal
1970 Abhayam
1973 Swapnam
1974 Nellu
1975 Neelaponman
1975 Raagam
1975 Rasaleela
1975 Thomasleeha (or St. Thomas)
1975 Prateekshaa
1976 Aparadhi
1976 Thulavarsham
1977 Dweep (background music only)
1977 Samayamayilla Polum
1977 Etho Oru Swapnam
1977 Madanolsavam
1977 Vishukkanni
1978 Devdasi
1979 E Ganam Marakkumo
1979 Chuvanna Chirakkukal
1979 Puthiya Velicham
1980 Air Hostess
1982 Anthiveylile Ponnu
1984 Vellam (background music only)
1990 Vaasthuhaara (background music only)
1994 Thumboli Kadappuram


Language Year Film
Tamil 1971 Uyir (Salilda composed background music only - MD was Ramana Sridhar)
Tamil 1973 Karumbu
Tamil 1978 Paruvamazhai
Tamil 1979 Azhiyatha Kolangal
Tamil 1980 Thooraththu Idimuzhakkam
Telugu 1974 Chairman Chalamayya
Telugu 1978 Amara Prema
Kannada 1971 Samsayaphala
Kannada 1975 Onde Rupa Eradu Guna
Kannada 1977 Chinna Ninna Muddaduve; Kokila
Gujrati 1978 Ghar Sansaar
Assameese 1970 Aparajeyo
Assameese 1985 Manas Kanya
Oriya 1981 Batasi Jhada
Marathi 1962 Sunbai


List of some songs for which music or lyrics were composed by Salil Chowdhury (in alphabetical order)

IPTA:: Indian People's Theater Association

Awards and recognitions[edit]

1953 – Do Bigha Zamin

A Hindi film directed by Bimal Roy based on a story in Bengali "Rikshawalaa" written by Salil Chowdhury.

1st Filmfare Awards (1954)[10] WinnerBest Film; WinnerBest DirectorBimal Roy;

1st National Film Awards[11] (India) WinnerAll India Certificate of Merit for Best Feature Film

7th Cannes Film Festival (1954)[12] Winner – Prix International (International Prize) Nominated – Grand Prize (Best Film)

Karlovy Vary International Film Festival[13] Winner – Prize for Social Progress

1965 – Chemmeen

A Malayalam film directed by Ramu Kariat, based on a novel of the same name written by the renowned writer Thakazhy Shivshankar Pillai, where Music Direction was done by Salil Chowdhury.

Recipient of President's Gold Medal in 1965.

1958 – Madhumati

Received Filmfare Best Music Director Award along with eight other Filmfare awards[14] Madhumati won the National Film Awards for Best Feature Film in Hindi

The Uttar Pradesh Film Patrakar Sangh Puraskar in 1966 for his only Hindi directorial film 'Pinjre Ke Panchhi'

The Bengal Films Journalist Award, Kolkata in 1973

The Allauddin Smriti Puraskar in 1985 from the Govt of West Bengal

1988 – Salil Chowdhury received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award

The Maharahtra Gaurav Puraskar Award in 1990

Posthumously he was awarded the Mukti Judhho Maitreyi Samman Award by the Govt Bangladesh in 2012.

Poet, Playwright, Short story writer, he also directed a film Pinjre Ke Panchhi starring Meena Kumari, Balraj Sahani and Mehmood b


  1. ^ a b passport
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Chennai, Shaji (20 November 2005). "Flawless harmony in his music". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
  3. ^ Surer Bhuban (6 December 2015). "Salil Chowdhury Long Interview with Kabir Suman Part 2" – via YouTube.
  4. ^ Chumki, Bhowmik (19 November 2017). "ও আলোর পথযাত্রী". Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Surer, Bhuban. "Rare interview – Salil Chowdhury". All India Radio. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Singer Sabita Chowdhury dies". 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d "Remembering Salil Chowdhury on his 22nd death anniversary". mediu,.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  8. ^ "One of a kind". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  9. ^ "The Salil Chowdhury Memorial Concert and Honors". Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  10. ^ Raheja, Dinesh. "Do Bigha Zamin: Poignant, stark, human". Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  11. ^ "1st National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  12. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Do Bigha Zamin". Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
  13. ^ Raheja, Dinesh. "Do Bigha Zameen: poignant, stark, human". Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  14. ^ "The Winners 1958". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]