Salm (state)

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County (Counties) of Salm
Grafschaft(en) Salm
State of the Holy Roman Empire, then
State of the Confederation of the Rhine


Capital Vielsalm (originally)
Government Principality
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Partitioned from County
    of Saarbrücken
 •  First partitioned into
    Lower and Upper Salm
 •  Lower Salm extinct; to
 •  Part of Upper Salm to
    Wild- and Rhinegraves
 •  Annexed to Imperial
    département of Lippe
 •  Mediatised to Prussia 1815
Preceded by
Succeeded by
County of Saarbrücken County of Saarbrücken
Kingdom of Prussia

Salm is the name of several historic countships and principalities in present Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and France.




The County of Salm arose in the 10th century in Vielsalm, in the Ardennes region of present Belgium. It was ruled by a junior branch of the House of Luxembourg, called the House of Salm.

In 1165, it was divided into the counties of Lower Salm, in the Ardennes, situated in Belgium and Luxembourg, and the county of Upper Salm, situated in the Vosges mountains, present France.

Lower Salm[edit]

main articles: House of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedburg and House of Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck

The counts of Lower Salm became extinct in 1416, and the county was inherited by the House of Reifferscheid-Dyck. In 1628 the county was elevated to an altgraviate, and henceforth the fief was renamed the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid.

In 1639 the Altgraviate was divided up into the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedburg, to the Northwest of Cologne, and the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck, Neuss.


main articles: House of Salm-Reifferscheid-Raitz, House of Salm-Reifferscheid-Hainsbach and House of Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim

In 1734 the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedburg was divided in three by splitting off the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Raitz, from Bohemian descent, and the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Hainsbach from the original altgraviate.

In 1803 the, smaller, Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedburg was renamed the Altgraviate of Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim. In 1804 it was raised to a principality, und existed until 1806, when it was mediatised.


The county was mediatised, and the family branch became extinct in 1888.

Upper Salm[edit]

main articles: House of Salm-Blankenburg, House of Salm-Badenweiler, House of Salm-Dhaun and House of Salm-Kyburg

In 1246 the County of Upper Salm was split up, and the County of Salm-Blankenburg came into existence, next to it.

In 1431 the County of Upper Salm was split up again, and the County of Salm-Badenweiler came into existence, next to it.

The County of Upper Salm was inherited by the Wild- and Rhinegraves in 1475, who then called their fief the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Upper Salm.

In 1499 the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm was divided up into two entities, the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Kyrburg and the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Dhaun.


The county became extinct in 1506, and was inherited by the House of Lorraine.


In 1520 the County of Salm-Badenweiler was split up, and the County of Salm-Neuburg came into existence, next to it. In 1653 the fief was inherited by the Austrian House of Sinzendorf, but the House of Salm kept using the title until 1784, when the last lord died.

The county was annexed by the House of Lorraine from 1600 until 1608, when it came back into the family. 1670 the territory was finally annexed by France.


In 1607 the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Kyrburg was divided in three by splitting off the Wild- and Rhinagraviate of Salm-Mörchingen and the Wild- and Rhinagraviate of Salm-Tronecken from the original Wild- and Rhinegraviate. In 1637 the lord of Salm-Tronecken died and his territories were joined with ... . In 1681 the last lord of Salm-Kyrburg died, and his territories were joined with Salm-Mörchingen.

In 1688 the last lord of Salm-Mörchingen died. His territories were joined with ... .

In 1743 a completely new territory of Salm-Kyrburg was created, this time the Principality of Salm-Kyrburg. It was shortly annexed by France in 1811 and mediatised in 1813. But the family kept using the titles.


In 1561 the Wild-and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Neuweiler and the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Grumbach were split off Salm-Dhaun.

In 1697 the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Püttlingen was split off Salm-Dhaun.

In 1748 the Salm-Dhaun branch of the family became extinct, its territories went to the branch of Salm-Püttlingen.


Salm-Püttlingen became extinct in 1750. Their territories went to ... .


In 1610 the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Salm was split off Salm-Neuweiler. It was elevated to the Principality of Salm-Salm in 1623.

In 1803, when the Bishopric of Münster was secularized, part of it was given to the princes of Salm-Salm who by then already were in possession of the Lordship of Anholt. This new Principality of Salm, covering the area around Borken, Ahaus and Bocholt, was a member of the Confederation of the Rhine. In 1810 it was annexed by France, as a part of the Imperial département of Lippe. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, it was mediatized to Prussia. The family branch exist until today.

In 1696 Salm-Neuweiler was divided in two, the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Leuze and the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Salm-Hoogstraten. Their lands were incorporated into Belgium. The branches became extinct in 1887 and 1186.


In 1668 the Wild- and Rhinegraviate of Rheingrafenstein-Grenzweiler was split off Salm-Grumbach. It was mediatised and incorporated into Prussia. The branch extinction occurred in 1819.

In 1803 Salm-Grumbach was annexed by France. The lords of Salm-Grumbach received the Principality of Salm-Horstmar as compensation in 1803. It was mediatised in 1813. The family branch sold its titles to Salm-Salm in 1892.

List of states[edit]

List of Rulers[edit]

Counts of Salm (1019–1165)[edit]

House of Salm[edit]

  • Giselbert (1019–1059)
  • Herman I (1059–1088)
  • Andrea II (1088–1138)
  • Herman (1138–1140)
  • Henry (1140–1165)

Counts and Altgraves of Lower Salm (1165-1628-1639)[edit]

House of Salm[edit]

  • Frederick I (1163–1172)
  • Frederick II (1172–1210)
  • Gerhard (1210–1240)
  • Henry III (1240–1247)
  • Henry IV (1247–1265)
  • William (1265–1297)
  • Henry V (1297–1336)
  • Henry VI (1336–1362)
  • John (1362–1370)
  • Henry VII (1370–1416)

House of Reifferscheid-Dyck[edit]

  • Otto (1416–1455)
  • John I (1455–1475)
  • John II (1475–1479)
  • Peter (1479–1505)
  • John III (1505–1537)
  • John IV (1537–1559)
  • Werner (1559–1629)
  • Ernst Frederick, (1629–1639) first altgrave

Altgraves of Salm-Reifferscheid-Bedbur and Princes of Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim (1639-1803-1893)[edit]

House of Reifferscheid-Dyck[edit]

  • Erik Adolf (1639–1673)
  • Francis William (1673–1734)
  • Charles Anthony (1734–1755)
  • Sigismund (1755–1798)
  • Francis William, reign (1798–1806) last altgrave (1803–1804), first prince (1804–1806) died 1831
  • Constantin (1831–1856), title in pretence
  • Francis Charles (1856–1860)
  • Leopold (1860–1893)
  • Alfred (1893–1924)

Altgraves of Salm-Reifferscheid-Hainspach (1734-1811-1897)[edit]

House of Reifferscheid-Dyck[edit]

  • Leopold Anthony (1734–1769)
  • Francis Wenceslaus (1769–1832), title in pretence since 1811
  • Francis Vincent (1832–1842)
  • John (1842–1847)
  • Francis Joseph (1847–1887)
  • Alois (1887–1897)

Altgraves and Princes of Salm-Reifferscheid-Raitz (1734-1790-1918)[edit]

House of Reifferscheid-Dyck[edit]

  • Anthony (1734–1769)
  • Charles Joseph, last altgrave (1769–1790), first prince (1790–1811)
  • Hugh I Francis (1811–1836), title in pretence
  • Hugh II Charles (1836–1888)
  • Hugh III (1888–1890)
  • Hugh IV (1890–1903)
  • Hugh V Leopold (1903–1946)
  • Hugh VI
  • Hugh VII (born 1973)

Altgraves of Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck (1639-1806-1888)[edit]

House of Reifferscheid-Dyck[edit]

  • Ernest Salentin (1639–1684)
  • Francis Ernest (1684–1721)
  • August Eugene Bernard (1721–1767)
  • William (1767–1775)
  • Joseph (1775–1806) in pretence till 1861
  • Alfred (1861–1888), title to branch of Salm-Reifferscheid-Krautheim

Counts and Wild- and Rhinegraves of Upper Salm (1210-1475-1499)[edit]

  • Henry I (1165–1210)
  • Henry II (1210–1240)
  • Henry III (1240–1293)
  • John I (1293–1326)
  • Nicolas (1326–1343)
  • John II (1343–1351)
  • Simon I (1351–1360)
  • John III (1360–1386)
  • Simon II (1386–1397)
  • John IV (1397–1431)
  • Simon III (1431–1475)
  • John V, (1475–1495) first wild- and Rhinegrave
  • John VI (1495–1499)

Counts of Salm-Blankenburg (1210-1506)[edit]

  • Frederick I (1210–1270)
  • Henry I (1270–1301)
  • Henry II (1301–1361)
  • Theobald I (1361–1363)
  • Henry III (1363–1382)
  • Theobald II (1382–1396)
  • Henry IV (1396–1441)
  • Frederick II (1441–1442)
  • Theobald III (1442–1443)
  • Louis (1443–1503)
  • Ulrick (1503–1506)

Counts of Salm-Badenweiler (1431-1600)[edit]

  • John V (1431–1451)
  • John VI (1451–1505)
  • John VII (1505–1548)
  • John VIII (1548–1600)

Wild- and Rhinegraves of Salm-Dhaun (1499-1748)[edit]

  • Philip (1499–1521)
  • Philip Francis (1521–1561)
  • John Philip I (1561–1569)
  • Frederick (1569–1574)
  • Adolf Henry (1574–1606)
  • Wolfgang Frederick (1606–1638)
  • John Louis (1638–1673)
  • John Philip II (1673–1693)
  • Charles (1693–1733)
  • John Philip III (1733–1742)
  • Christian Otto (1742–1748)

Wild- and Rhinegraves of Salm-Neuweiler (1561-1696)[edit]

  • Frederick I (1561–1610)
  • Frederick II (1610–1673)
  • Charles Florentin (1673–1676)
  • Frederick Charles (1676–1696)

Wild- and Rhinegraves of Salm-Leuze and Princes of Salm-Kyburg (1696-1743-1813-1905)[edit]

  • Henry Gabriel (1696–1716)
  • Philipp Joseph of Salm-Leuze, last wild- and Rhinegrave (1716–1743), first sovereign prince (1743–1779)
  • Frederick III (1779–1794)
  • Frederick IV, last sovereign prince (1794–1813), first mediatised prince (1813–1859)
  • Frederick V (1859–1887)
  • Frederick VI Louis (1887–1905)

Wild- and Rhinegraves and Princes of Salm-Hoogstraten (1696-1739-1886)[edit]

  • William Florentin (1696–1707)
  • Nicolas Leopold I, (1707–1770) first prince

see Princes of Salm-Salm

Wild- and Rhinegraves and Princes of Salm-Salm (1574-1738-1813-present)[edit]

Princely arms of Salm-Salm
  • Frederick I, first and last wild- and Rhinegrave (1574–1608)
  • Philip Otto, last count (????-????), first prince (1608–1634)
  • Leopold Philip (1634–1663)
  • Charles Theodor Otto (1663–1710)
  • Louis Otto, last prince (1710–1738)
  • Nicholas Leopold I, first sovereign prince (1739–1770)
  • Louis Otto Charles (1770–1771)
  • Maximilian (1771–1773)
  • Louis Otto Charles (1773–1778)
  • Constantine Alexander, last sovereign prince (1778–1813)
  • Constantin Alexander, first mediatised prince (1813–1828)
  • Florentin (1828–1846)
  • Alfred I (1846–1886)
  • Nicolas Leopold II (1886–1908)
  • Alfred II (1908–1923)
  • Nicolas Leopold III (1923–1988)
  • Charles-Philip (1988–present)
    • Emanuel, heir (born 1961)

Wild- and Rhinegraves of Salm-Püttlingen (1697-1750)[edit]

  • Vollrath Victor (1697–1730)
  • John (1730–1750)
  • Frederick
  • Frederick William (????-1748)
  • John Frederick (1748–1750)
  • Charles Leopold Louis (1750-1750)
  • Frederick William (1750-1750)

References and external links[edit]