Salm Island is almost completely glaciarized except for a cape in its southern shore. Its maximum length is 17 km (11 mi) and its area is 344 km2 (133 sq mi). The highest point of the island, Chernysheva Ice Cap, is 343 m.
Salm Island was named by the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition after the Salm-Hoogstraeten aristocratic dynasty to which Count Karl Alexander, one of the expedition's main sponsors, belonged. The Salm-Hoogstraeten dynasty should not be confused with the Hochstetter dynasty.
This island is surrounded by smaller islands.
Adjacent small islands
- Ostrova Bisernyye are two small islets located right off Salm Island's southern shore.
- A few miles to the northeast lie the Hochstetter Islands (oстрова Гохштеттера or oстрова Хохштеттера), made up of a 6.5 km (4 mi) long by 4 km (2 mi) wide island, Hochstetter Island (also known as Gogstettera Yuzhnyy), and two smaller islets Gogstettera Sredniy and ostrov Al'batros. The Hochstetter Islands are named after the German Hochstetter princely dynasty of the Austro Hungarian Empire.
- Roughly north lies 3.7 km (2 mi) long Koldewey Island (oстров Kольдевея), named after Captain Carl Koldewey leader of the second German expedition to the Arctic in 1869-70. Highest point 66 m.
- Off Koldewey Island's northern point there is a small islet called Schoenau Island (oстров Шёнау). This island was named after Teplitz-Schönau (now Teplice Czech Republic), the birthplace of Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph I.
- Southwest of Salm Island lies 10 km (6 mi) long Wilczek Island (oстров Вильчека) (which should not be confused with Wilczek Land in the same archipelago). It is separated from Salm Island by a 3 km (2 mi) wide sound. This island is named after Austro Hungarian nobleman Johann Nepomuk Graf Wilczek.
- 4 km (2 mi) southeast of Salm Island lies small and round Litke Island (oстров Литке). Its area is 14 km2 (5 sq mi) and it was named after Russian Count Fyodor Petrovich Litke.
- All locations:  & 
- Complete island list in Russian: ru:Список островов России
- Salm: Genealogy and princely family branches & Alfred Wilhelm Karl Alexander Graf von Salm-Hoogstraeten
- Captain Karl Koldewey: 
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