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Salminus, popularly known as dorado or dourado, is a genus of relatively large (up to 1.3–1.4 m or 4.3–4.6 ft long), predatory freshwater fish from the Characidae family. They are native to large tropical and subtropical rivers in South America, and undertake migrations during the rainy season to spawn. They are very popular among recreational anglers and also support important commercial fisheries.
Significant taxonomic confusion has surrounded this genus, and until a review in 1990, several additional species were recognised (most of these are junior synonyms of S. brasiliensis). Although known for more than 150 years, S. franciscanus was only scientifically described in 2007. Today, four species are recognised:
- Salminus affinis Steindachner, 1880 – Santiago and Magdalena basins in Ecuador and Colombia
- Salminus brasiliensis (G. Cuvier, 1816) (dorado/golden dorado) – Paraguay, Uruguay, Chapare and Mamoré basins, and drainage of the Lagoa dos Patos
- Salminus franciscanus F. C. T. Lima & Britski, 2007 – São Francisco basin
- Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 – upper Paraná, Amazon and Orinoco basins
- Fishing World-records: Salminus brasiliensis. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Fishing World-records: Salminus franciscanus. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- Lima, F. C. T., and H. A. Britski (2007). Salminus franciscanus, a new species from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) Neotrop. Ichthyol. 5(3).
- Géry, J. and L. Lauzanne (1990). Les types des espèces du genre Salminus Agassiz, 1829 (Ostariophysi, Characidae) du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris. Cybium 14(2): 113-124.
- Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). Species of Salminus in FishBase. October 2011 version.
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