Salmo obtusirostris

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Salmo obtusirostris
Softmouth.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Genus: Salmo
Species: S. obtusirostris
Binomial name
Salmo obtusirostris
(Heckel, 1851)
Subspecies
  • S. o. oxyrhynchus
  • S. o. salonitana
  • S. o. krkensis
  • S. o. zetensis

Salmo obtusirostris, also known as the Adriatic trout,[2] Adriatic salmon,[1] and softmouth trout,[3] is a species of salmonid fish endemic to the rivers of Western Balkans in southeastern Europe. The scientific name has changed several times through history; synonyms include Thymallus microlepis, Salmothymus obtusirostris and Salar obtusirostris.[2]

This species spawns in the early spring and is an obligatory freshwater fish.[3] They are an important game fish.[2]

Distribution and subspecies[edit]

Salmo obtusirostris is found naturally in four drainages of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro: the Neretva-Vrljika system, the Jadro, the Morača-Zeta system and the Krka river drainages.[2][3]

In addition, sometimes during 1960's, it has been introduced from the Jadro river to the nearby Zrnovnica river, both being small karst, single river drainages, of very short course, in vicinity of Split.[2]

Although the Vrljika belongs to the Neretva River drainage it's a sinking river, divided in several on surface and underground segments, hence separated from the Neretva River in significant manner regarding softmouth trout populations. However, the Vrljika softmouth trout is apparently most similar to the Neretva's subspecies, while some autapomorphies exist in the Vrljika population. The Vrljika softmouth trout appears to have originated from a vicariance that split a common ancestral population into large (Neretva) and small (Vrljika) fragmented populations.[4]

The different populations are sometimes classified into subspecies:[3]

Appearance and anatomy[edit]

The most obvious characteristic of the Adriatic trout is an elongated snout. It also has a small and flashy mouth, relatively large scales and high body depth.[3] The color of the body varies between subspecies, it is mostly green with red and black dots. There are no vertical stripes that are common in brown trout of the Adriatic Sea drainages that can be found.[citation needed]

Conservation[edit]

Adriatic trout are threatened by excessive damming, hybridization with introduced species and overfishing.[1] In the river Neretva, natural hybrids (named kosor by locals) between Adriatic and brown trout can be found. Hybridization was also confirmed experimentally (Kosorić & Vuković. 1969).[full citation needed] Adriatic trout prefers rivers with more water and wide riverbed. Adriatic and brown trout have different spawning times that overlap only slightly every few years, which is why natural hybridization is not widespread and both species live sympatrically in the same rivers.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Salmo obtusirostris". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2006: e.T19862A9056634. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T19862A9056634.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2007). "Salmo obtusirostris" in FishBase. May 2007 version.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Softmouth trout". Balkan Trout Restoration Group. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  4. ^ "Softmouth trout from the River Vrljika – Salmo obtusirostris ssp". balkan-trout.com. Balkan Trout Restoration Group. Retrieved 3 April 2015.