Salomé (1923 film)
|Directed by||Charles Bryant|
|Written by||Oscar Wilde|
|Produced by||Alla Nazimova|
Nigel De Brulier
|Cinematography||Charles Van Enger|
|Distributed by||Nazimova Productions|
|Languages||Silent film |
Salomé is a 1923 silent film directed by Charles Bryant and starring Alla Nazimova. It is an adaptation of the 1891 Oscar Wilde play of the same name. The play itself is a loose retelling of the biblical story of King Herod and his execution of John the Baptist (here, as in Wilde's play, called Jokanaan) at the request of Herod's stepdaughter, Salomé, whom he lusts after.
Salomé is often called one of the first art films to be made in the United States. The highly stylized costumes, exaggerated acting, minimal sets, and absence of all but the most necessary props make for a screen image much more focused on atmosphere and on conveying a sense of the characters' individual heightened desires than on conventional plot development.
As described in a film magazine, during a banquet at Herod's palace, the Tetrarch (Lewis) pays too much attention to his stepdaughter Salomé (Nazimova), angering his wife Herodias (Dione). Salomé goes out into the courtyard adjoining the banquet hall and induces the soldier on guard to let her see Jokanaan (De Brulier), who is then brought up from the prison below. Salomé shows her love for the Prophet and, when he ignores her attentions, declares that she will kiss him. The price is a dance before Herod, who promises her that he will accede to any demand for the dance. Salomé asks for and gets the Prophet's head and kisses it. Herod then turns upon her and orders her killed.
- Alla Nazimova as Salomé, Stepdaughter of Herod
- Mitchell Lewis as Herod, Tetrarch of Judea
- Rose Dione as Herodias, wife of Herod
- Earl Schenck as Narraboth, Captain of the Guard
- Arthur Jasmine as Page of Herodias
- Nigel De Brulier as Jokanaan, the Prophet
- Frederick Peters as Naaman, the Executioner
- Louis Dumar as Tigellinus
Despite the film being only a little over an hour in length and having no real action to speak of, it cost over $350,000 to make. All the sets were constructed indoors to be able to have complete control over the lighting. The film was shot completely in black and white, matching the illustrations done by Aubrey Beardsley in the printed edition of Wilde's play. The costumes, designed by Natacha Rambova, used material only from Maison Lewis of Paris, such as the real silver lamé loincloths worn by the guards.
No major studio would be associated with the film, and it was years after its completion before it was released, by a minor independent distributor. It was a complete failure at the time and marked the end of Nazimova's producing career.
Gay cast rumor
There is a longstanding rumor, which seems to have started while the film was still in production and has been asserted by chronicler of Hollywood decadence Kenneth Anger, that the film's cast is composed entirely of gay or bisexual actors in an homage to Oscar Wilde, as per star and producer Nazimova's demand. It is, of course, impossible to say, but one of the extras in Salomé reported that a number of the cast members—both featured and extras—were indeed gay, but not an unusual percentage of them, and certainly not all of them. What can be said is that Nazimova herself was usually thought of as a lesbian (despite occasional flings with men including Paul Ivano), the two guard characters (who, next to Salomé, have the most screen time) are at least played very stereotypically gay, and several of the female courtiers are men in drag.
Critical reception and legacy
A reviewer for Screenland described Salomé as "a painting deftly stroked upon the silversheet" and that "poets and dreamers will find imaginative delights in the weird settings and the still more weird acting, depressing at times to ordinary folks. And it is worth something to watch Nazimova balance her Christmas-tree headdress!"
Salomé was screened in 1989 at the New York International Festival of Lesbian and Gay films and in 1990 at the New York Gay Experimental Film Festival.
- Getty Center. "Film Series: The Ornament and the Enchantress". The J. Paul Getty Trust. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- "Salomé: Nazimova Production in Six Reels". Exhibitor's Trade Review. East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania: Exhibitor's Trade Review, Inc. 13 (8): 424. January 20, 1923.
- "The Shadow Stage". Photoplay. New York: Photoplay Publishing Company. August 1922. Retrieved September 25, 2015.
- Theophano, Teresa. "Film Actors: Lesbian". glbtq, Inc. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- Russo, Vito (September 20, 1987). The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-096132-9.
- "Little Hints". Screenland. Hollywood, California: Screenland Publishing Company. September 1922. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- "Librarian of Congress Names 25 More Films to National Film Registry". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
- "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2016.
- Lori K. Martin review and DVD liner notes
- Salomé at the AFI/TCM database
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Salome (1923 film).|
- Salomé essay  by Martin Turnbull at National Film Registry
- Salomé at IMDb
- Salomé is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- Salomé at AllMovie
- Salomé essay by Daniel Eagan in America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry, A&C Black, 2010 ISBN 0826429777, pages 85-86.