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Salsola oppositifolia
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Salsoloideae
Tribe: Salsoleae
Genus: Salsola
  • Caspia Galushko
  • Darniella Maire & Weiller
  • Eremochion Gilli
  • Hypocylix Woł.
  • Isgarum Raf.
  • Kali Mill.
  • Neocaspia Tzvelev
  • Physandra Botsch.

Salsola is a genus of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus sensu stricto is distributed in central and southwestern Asia, North Africa, and the Mediterranean.[1] A common name of various members of this genus and related genera is saltwort, for their salt tolerance. The genus name Salsola is from the Latin salsus, meaning "salty".[2]


The species of Salsola are mostly subshrubs, shrubs, small trees, and rarely annuals. The leaves are mostly alternate, rarely opposite, simple, and entire. The bisexual flowers have five tepals and five stamens. The pistil ends in two stigmata. The fruit is spherical with a spiral embryo and no perisperm.[2][3][4]


The genus name Salsola was first published in 1753 by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum.[5] The type species is Salsola soda L.

The genus Salsola belongs to the tribe Salsoleae s.s. of the subfamily Salsoloideae in the family Amaranthaceae. The genus was recircumscribed in 2007 based on molecular phylogenetic research, greatly reducing the number of species.[1] Synonyms of Salsola sensu stricto are: Darniella Maire & Weiller, Fadenia Aellen & Townsend, Neocaspia Tzvelev and Hypocylix Wol..[citation needed]

Salsola stocksii
Harvested Salsola soda

Plants of the World Online includes:[6]

  1. Salsola acanthoclada Botsch.
  2. Salsola africana (Brenan) Botsch.
  3. Salsola algeriensis Botsch.
  4. Salsola angusta Botsch.
  5. Salsola arbusculiformis Drobow
  6. Salsola australis R.Br.
  7. Salsola austrotibetica Sukhor.
  8. Salsola baranovii Iljin
  9. Salsola basaltica (C.Brullo, Brullo, Gaskin, Giusso, Hrusa & Salmeri) C.Brullo & Brullo
  10. Salsola brevifolia Desf.
  11. Salsola chellalensis Botsch.
  12. Salsola chinghaiensis A.J.Li
  13. Salsola collina Pall.
  14. Salsola cruciata L.Chevall. ex Batt. & Trab.
  15. Salsola divaricata Masson ex Link
  16. Salsola drummondii Ulbr.
  17. Salsola euryphylla Botsch.
  18. Salsola glomerata (Maire) Brullo
  19. Salsola × gobicola Iljin
  20. Salsola griffithii (Bunge) Freitag & Khani
  21. Salsola gymnomaschala Maire
  22. Salsola gypsacea Botsch.
  23. Salsola halimocnemis Botsch.
  24. Salsola hartmannii Sukhor.
  25. Salsola ikonnikovii Iljin
  26. Salsola intramongolica H.C.Fu & Z.Y.Chu
  27. Salsola jacquemontii Moq.
  28. Salsola junatovii Botsch.
  29. Salsola kali L.
  30. Salsola komarovii Iljin
  31. Salsola laricifolia Litv. ex Drobow
  32. Salsola mairei Botsch.
  33. Salsola masclansii G.Monts. & D.Gómez
  34. Salsola melitensis Botsch.
  35. Salsola monoptera Bunge
  36. Salsola pachyphylla Botsch.
  37. Salsola papillosa (Coss.) Willk.
  38. Salsola paulsenii Litv.
  39. Salsola pontica (Pall.) Iliin
  40. Salsola praecox (Litv.) Litv.
  41. Salsola praemontana Botsch.
  42. Salsola ryanii Hrusa & Gaskin
  43. Salsola sabrinae Mosyakin
  44. Salsola sinkiangensis A.J.Li
  45. Salsola squarrosa Steven ex Moq.
  46. Salsola strobilifera (Benth.) Mosyakin
  47. Salsola subglabra Botsch.
  48. Salsola tamamschjanae Iljin
  49. Salsola tamariscina Pall.
  50. Salsola tragus L. (sometimes placed in Kali)
  51. Salsola tunetana Brullo
  52. Salsola turcica Yıld.
  53. Salsola verticillata Schousb.
  54. Salsola webbii Moq.
  55. Salsola zaidamica Iljin
  56. Salsola zygophylla Batt.

Excluded species: Many species formerly grouped in Salsola were excluded by Akhani et al. (2007). Some may now be classified in separate genera:[1]


The leaves and shoots of S. soda, known in Italy as barba di frate or agretti, are cooked and used as vegetables. The species is also used for the production of potash.[7] In Namibia, where the plant is called gannabos, it is a valuable fodder plant.[8]


  1. ^ a b c Akhani, Hossein; Edwards, Gerald; Roalson, Eric H. (2007). "Diversification of the old world Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast data sets and a revised classification". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 168 (6): 931–956. doi:10.1086/518263. JSTOR 10.1086/518263. S2CID 86789297.
  2. ^ a b Mosyakin, S. L. (2004). "Salsola" (concerning the genus sensu lato). Flora of North America. 4.
  3. ^ Zhu, Gelin; Mosyakin, Sergei L.; Clemants, Steven E. "Chenopodiaceae" (Salsola s. l. - Online, concerning the genus sensu lato). Flora of China. 5 (402).
  4. ^ Freitag, Helmut; Hedge, Ian C.; Jafri, Saiyad Masudal Hasan; Kothe-Heinrich, Gabriele; Omer, S.; Uotila, Pertti. "Chenopodiaceae" (Salsola s. l. - Online, concerning the genus sensu lato). Flora of Pakistan.
  5. ^ Carl von Linné (1753). "Species Plantarum" (First publication of genus). 1 (222). {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Plants of the World Online: Salsola L. (retrieved 3 March 2024)
  7. ^ "Salsola soda". Plants for a Future. Retrieved November 20, 2020.
  8. ^ Rothauge, Axel (February 25, 2014). "Staying afloat during a drought". The Namibian. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014.