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(Redirected from Salter–Harris fractures)
An X-ray of the left ankle showing a Salter–Harris type III fracture of medial malleolus. Black arrow demonstrates fracture line while the white arrow marks the growth plate.
|Classification and external resources|
|eMedicine||radio/613 article/1260663, orthoped/627|
- Type I – transverse fracture through the growth plate (also referred to as the "physis"): 6% incidence
- Type II – A fracture through the growth plate and the metaphysis, sparing the epiphysis: 75% incidence, takes approximately 2–3 weeks to heal.
- Type III – A fracture through growth plate and epiphysis, sparing the metaphysis: 8% incidence
- Type IV – A fracture through all three elements of the bone, the growth plate, metaphysis, and epiphysis: 10% incidence
- Type V – A compression fracture of the growth plate (resulting in a decrease in the perceived space between the epiphysis and metaphysis on x-ray): 1% incidence
- Type VI – Injury to the peripheral portion of the physis and a resultant bony bridge formation which may produce an angular deformity (added in 1969 by Mercer Rang)
- Type VII – Isolated injury of the epiphyseal plate (VII–IX added in 1982 by JA Ogden)
- Type VIII – Isolated injury of the metaphysis with possible impairment of endochondral ossification
- Type IX – Injury of the periosteum which may impair intramembranous ossification
SALTER mnemonic for classification
- I – S = Slip (separated or straight across). Fracture of the cartilage of the physis (growth plate)
- II – A = Above. The fracture lies above the physis, or Away from the joint.
- III – L = Lower. The fracture is below the physis in the epiphysis.
- IV – TE = Through Everything. The fracture is through the metaphysis, physis, and epiphysis.
- V – R = Rammed (crushed). The physis has been crushed.
(alternatively SALTER can be used for the first 6 types - as above but adding Type V: 'E' for Everything or Epiphysis and Type VI:'R' for Ring)
Salter–Harris fracture images
|Salter–Harris fracture radiographs with insets showing fracture lines.|
- Salter RB, Harris WR (1963). "Injuries Involving the Epiphyseal Plate". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 45 (3): 587–622. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- Salter-Harris Fracture Imaging at eMedicine
- "S.H. Type I – Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics". Wheelessonline.com. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- "S.H. Type II – Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics". Wheelessonline.com. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- "Salter Harris Type III Frx – Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics". Wheelessonline.com. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- "Salter Harris: Type IV – Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics". Wheelessonline.com. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- "Type V – Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics". Wheelessonline.com. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2013-08-27.
- Rang, Mercer, ed. (1968). The Growth Plate and Its Disorders. Harcourt Brace/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-00568-8.
- Ogden, John A. (1 October 1982). "Skeletal Growth Mechanism Injury Patterns". Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics 2 (4): 371–377. doi:10.1097/01241398-198210000-00004. PMID 7142386.
- Davis, Ryan (2006). Blueprints Radiology. ISBN 9781405104609. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
- Gaillard, Frank. "Radiopedia". Retrieved 2008-03-03.[dead link]
- Tidey, Brian. "Salter-Harris Fractures". Retrieved 2008-03-03.