A salute state was a princely state in India during the time of British rule which had been granted a gun salute by the British Crown (as paramount ruler); i.e., the protocolary privilege for its ruler to be greeted—originally by Royal Navy ships, later also on land—with a number of cannon shots, as recognition of the state's relative status.
As with the other princely states, the salute states varied greatly in size and importance. The states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, both with a 21-gun salute, were each over 200,000 km2 in size, or slightly larger than the whole of Great Britain; in 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16,000,000, comparable to the population of Romania at the time, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of slightly over 4 million, comparable to that of Switzerland. At the other end of the scale, Janjira and Sachin (11 and 9 guns, respectively, and both ruled by branches of the same dynasty) were respectively 137 km2 and 127 km2 in size, or slightly larger than the island of Jersey; in 1941, Janjira had a population of nearly 14,000, the smallest of the salute states.
- 1 Salute states and equivalents
- 2 Salutes within the Indian Empire (royals, administrators and officers, as of 1947)
- 3 Salute states that acceded to India
- 4 Salute states which became protectorates of India (Sikkim)
- 5 Salute states that acceded to Pakistan
- 6 Salute states in Burma
- 7 Personal salute dynasties on the Indian subcontinent
- 8 States within the British sphere of influence (as of 1947)
- 9 Elsewhere
- 10 Notes
- 11 See also
- 12 References
Salute states and equivalents
When the ruler of a princely state arrived at the Indian capital (originally at Calcutta (Kolkata), then at Delhi), he was greeted with a number of gun-firings. The number of these consecutive "gun salutes" changed from time to time, being increased or reduced depending on the degree of honour which the British chose to accord to a given ruler. The number of gun salutes accorded to a ruler was usually a reflection of the state of his relations with the British and/or his perceived degree of political power; a 21-gun salute was considered the highest. The King (or Queen) of the United Kingdom (who until 1948 was also the Emperor of India) was accorded a 101-gun salute, and 31 guns were used to salute the Viceroy of India.
The number of guns in a salute assumed particular importance at the time of holding of the Coronation Durbar in Delhi in the month of December 1911. The Durbar was held to commemorate the Coronation of King George V with guns firing almost all day. At that time there were three Princely States that were given 21 gun salutes. These were:
In 1917, HH The Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior was upgraded to a permanent and hereditary 21-gun salute, and the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir was granted the same in 1921. Both were granted the increased ranks as a result of the meritorious services of their soldiers in the First World War.
Apart from these, no other Princely State received a 21-gun salute. Three of the most prominent princes, however, enjoyed a local salute of 21 guns within the limits of their own state and 19 guns in the rest of India. They were the Nawab (Begum) of Bhopal, the Maharaja Holkar of Indore and the Maharana of Udaipur.
The Nizam, Maharajas, Princes, etc. were all deeply keen on protocol and ensured that it was practised as a matter of faith. Any departure from it was not taken kindly by them. Salute of guns was one such protocol that was strictly adhered to.
Classifications and sub-classifications of salute states
At the time of Indian independence and partition in 1947, 118 of the roughly 565 princely states were classified as "salute states." The rulers of the five premier states - Hyderabad, Mysore, Baroda, Jammu & Kashmir and Gwalior - received 21-gun salutes. The rulers of six others - Bhopal, Indore, Udaipur, Kolhapur, Travancore and Kalat - received 19-gun salutes, with Bhopal, Indore and Udaipur entitled to a local 21-gun salute. Of the remaining 111 rulers of the salute states, 88 were entitled to gun salutes ranging from 17 to 11 guns, with additional gun-salutes granted on a local or personal basis; the remaining 23 received a salute of nine guns. Rulers with gun salutes of 11 guns or above, whether the salute was hereditary or local only, were entitled to the style of Highness; the Nizam of Hyderabad was granted the unique style of Exalted Highness in 1918, in recognition of the state's contributions to the Allied war effort during the First World War. In 1948, all rulers of nine-gun salute states were also granted the style of Highness.
The salute states were broadly divided into two categories: the five premier states with a permanent 21-gun salute and with an individual resident, or envoy, stationed in each, and the remaining 113 states incorporated within political agencies (groups of states) under a political agent. The salutes were themselves organised in a strict hierarchy. Each ruling house of a salute state was entitled to a permanent hereditary salute. In some instances, one of three sub-categories consisting of an increase of 2 gun salutes could be awarded as follows:
- Personal and local: Hereditary to an individual state's ruler only within its borders, and personally to the ruler outside his state, but honouring his person and not the state when he was outside it. An award of a personal salute was only for the lifetime of the ruler, and was typically made for distinguished wartime or civic service.
- Personal: Only for the ruler personally, and not to distinguish his state as a whole.
- Local: Hereditary to an individual state's ruler only within its borders.
As a religious head, the Agha Khan received a personal 11-gun salute. In certain cases, a ruler of a non-salute state or a junior member of a princely family could merit a personal salute or the personal style of Highness.
Salutes within the Indian Empire (royals, administrators and officers, as of 1947)
|Number of guns||Recipients|
(Royal Salute)[note 2]
Salute states that acceded to India
At independence in 1947, the gun salutes enjoyed by the 114 states that acceded to the Union of India were as follows:
|Serial No.||Hereditary salute No. of guns||Personal or Local salute No. of guns||Title of Ruler||Name of state||Clan of Ruler||Present Location|
|1.||21||–||H.E.H. The Nizam of||Hyderabad and Berar||Asaf Jahi||Telangana, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh|
|2.||21||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Mysore||Wadiyar||Karnataka|
|3.||21||–||H.H. The Maharaja Gaekwar of||Baroda||Maratha, Gaekwad||Gujarat|
|4.||21||–||H.H. The Maharaja Scindia of||Gwalior||Maratha, Scindia||Madhya Pradesh|
|5.||21||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Jammu and Kashmir||Rajput, Dogra||Jammu and Kashmir|
|6.||19||21 (Local)||H.H. The Nawab of Bhopal||Bhopal||Mirasi Khel Afghan||Madhya Pradesh|
|7.||19||21 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja Holkar of||Indore||Maratha, Holkar||Madhya Pradesh|
|8.||19||21 (Local)||H.H. The Maharana of||Udaipur (Mewar)||Rajput Sisodia||Rajasthan|
|9.||19||–||H.H. The Maharaja Chhatrapati of||Kolhapur||Maratha, Bhonsle||Maharashtra|
|10.||19||H.H. The Maharaja of||Travancore||Samanta Kshatriya||Kerala|
|11.||17||H.H. The Maharao of||Kota||Rajput, Chauhan, Hada||Rajasthan|
|12.||17||19 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Bharatpur||Jat||Rajasthan|
|13.||17||19 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Bikaner||Rajput, Rathore||Rajasthan|
|14.||17||19 (Local)||H.H. The Maharao of||Cutch||Rajput, Jadeja||Gujarat|
|15.||17||19 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Jaipur||Rajput, Kachwaha||Rajasthan|
|16.||17||19 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Jodhpur||Rajput, Rathore||Rajasthan|
|17.||17||19 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Patiala||Sikh Jats,||Punjab|
|18.||17||–||H.H. The Maharao Raja of||Bundi||Rajput, Chauhan, Hada||Rajasthan|
|19.||17||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Cochin||Kshatriya||Kerala|
|20.||17||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Karauli||Rajput Jadon||Rajasthan|
|21.||17||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Rewa||Rajput, Baghela||Madhya Pradesh|
|22.||17||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Tonk||Pathan||Rajasthan|
|23.||15||17 (Personal)||H.H. The Maharaj Rana of||Dholpur||Jat||Rajasthan|
|24.||15||17 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Alwar||Rajput, Kachwaha||Rajasthan|
|25.||15||–||H.H. The Maharawal of||Banswara||Rajput, Sisodia||Rajasthan|
|26.||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Datia||Rajput, Bundela||Madhya Pradesh|
|27.||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Dewas Senior||Maratha, Puar||Madhya Pradesh|
|28.||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Dewas Junior||Maratha, Puar||Madhya Pradesh|
|29.||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Dhar||Maratha, Puar||Madhya Pradesh|
|30.||15||–||H.H. The Maharawal of||Dungarpur||Rajput Sisodia||Rajasthan|
|31||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Idar||Rajput Rathore||Gujarat|
|32||15||–||H.H. The Maharawal of||Jaisalmer||Rajput, Bhati||Rajasthan|
|33||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Kishangarh||Rajput, Rathore||Rajasthan|
|34||15||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Orchha||Rajput, Bundela||Madhya Pradesh|
|35||15||–||H.H. The Maharawat of||Pratapgarh||Rajput, Sisodia||Rajasthan|
|36||15||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Rampur||Pathan||Uttar Pradesh|
|37||15||–||H.H. The Maharaol of||Sirohi||Rajput, Chauhan,Devda||Rajasthan|
|38||13||15 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Benares||Brahmin Goutam||Uttar Pradesh|
|39||13||15 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Bhavnagar||Rajput, Gohil||Gujarat|
|40||13||15 (Personal and Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Jind||Sikh Jat,||Punjab|
|41||13||15 (Personal and Local)||H.H. The Nawab of||Junagadh||Babi||Gujarat|
|42||13||15 (Personal and Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Kapurthala||Sikh Ahluwalia||Punjab|
|43||13||15 (Local)||H.H. The Raja of||Nabha||Sikh Jat,||Punjab|
|44||13||15 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja Jam Sahib of||Nawanagar||Rajput, Jadeja||Gujarat|
|45||13||15 (Local)||H.H. The Maharaja of||Ratlam||Rajput, Rathore||Madhya Pradesh|
|46||13||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Cooch Behar||Rajput, Rajvanshi||West Bengal|
|47||13||–||H.H. The Maharaja Raj Sahib of||Dhrangadhra||Rajput, Jhala||Gujarat|
|48||13||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Jaora||Pathan||Madhya Pradesh|
|49||13||–||H.H. The Maharaj Rana of||Jhalawar||Rajput, Jhala||Rajasthan|
|51||13||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Palanpur||Afghan||Gujarat|
|52||13||–||H.H. The Maharaja Rana Sahib of||Porbandar||Rajput, Jethwa||Gujarat|
|53||13||–||H.H. The Maharana of||Rajpipla||Rajput, Gohil||Gujarat|
|54||13||–||H.H. The Raja of||Tripura (princely state)||Rajput||Tripura|
|55||11||13 (Local)||H.H. The Nawab of||Janjira||Siddi||Maharashtra|
|56||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Ajaigarh||Rajput, Bundela||Madhya Pradesh|
|57||11||–||H.H. The Maharana Raja of||Ali Rajpur||Rajput, Sisodia||Madhya Pradesh|
|58||11||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Baoni||Pathan||Madhya Pradesh|
|59||11||–||H.H. The Rana of||Barwani||Rajput, Sisodia||Madhya Pradesh|
|60||11||–||H.H. The Sawai Maharaja of||Bijawar||Rajput, Bundela||Madhya Pradesh|
|61||11||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Cambay (Khambhat)||Pathan||Gujarat|
|62||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Chamba||Rajput||Himachal Pradesh|
|63||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Charakhari||Rajput, Bundela||Madhya Pradesh|
|64||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Chhatarpur||Rajput, Parmar||Madhya Pradesh|
|65||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Faridkot||Sikh Jat,||Punjab|
|66||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Gondal||Rajput, Jadeja||Gujarat|
|67||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Bilaspur||Rajput||Himachal Pradesh|
|68||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Jhabua||Rajput Rathore||Madhya Pradesh|
|69||11||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Maler Kotla||Afghan||Punjab|
|70||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Mandi||Rajput Chandravanshi||Punjab|
|71||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Manipur||Rajput||Manipur|
|72||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Morvi||Rajput Jadeja||Gujarat|
|73||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Narsinghgarh||Rajput Umat||Madhya Pradesh|
|74||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Panna||Rajput Bundela||Madhya Pradesh|
|75||11||-||The Maharaja of||Pudukkottai||Thondaiman||Tamil Nadu|
|76||11||–||H.H. The Nawab of||Radhanpur||Irani||Gujarat|
|77||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Rajgarh||Hindu,Rajput||Madhya Pradesh|
|78||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Sailana||Rajput Rathore||Madhya Pradesh|
|79||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Samthar||Gurjar||Madhya Pradesh|
|80||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Sirmaur (Nahan)||Rajput, Bhati||Himachal Pradesh|
|81||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Sitamau||Rajput Rathore||Madhya Pradesh|
|82||11||–||H.H. The Raja of||Suket (SunderNagar)||Rajput Chandravanshi||Himachal Pradesh|
|83||11||–||H.H. The Maharaja of||Tehri Garhwal||Rajput, Parmar||Uttarakhand|
|84||11||–||H.H. The Maharana Raj Sahib of||Wankaner||Rajput, Jhala||Gujarat|
|85||9||11 (Personal)||H.H. The Raja of||Baria||Rajput, Chauhan||Gujarat|
|86||9||11 (Personal)||H.H. The Raja of||Dharampur||Rajput, Sisodia||Gujarat|
|87||9||11 (Personal)||H.H. The Raja of||Sangli||Maratha, Brahmin administrators (Patwardhan)||Maharashtra|
|88||9||11 (Local)||H.H. The Raja of||Sawantwadi||Maratha, Bhonsle||Maharashtra|
|89||9||–||The Thakur Sahib of||Wadhwan||Rajput Jhala||Gujarat|
|90||9||–||The Nawab Babi of||Balasinor||Irani (Muslim)||Gujarat|
|91||9||–||The Nawab of||Banganapalle||(Muslim Shia)||Andhra Pradesh|
|92||9||–||The Maharawal of||Bansda||Rajput Solanki||Gujarat|
|93||9||–||The Raja of||Baraundha||Rajput Bargujar||Madhya Pradesh|
|94||9||–||The Raja of||Bhor||Maratha, Brahmin||Maharashtra|
|95||9||–||The Raja of||Chhota Udaipur||Rajput, Chauhan||Gujarat|
|96||9||–||The Maharana of||Danta||Rajput, Paramara||Gujarat|
|97||9||–||The Thakore Sahib of||Dhrol||Rajput, Jadeja||Gujarat|
|98||9||–||The Maharaja of||Jawhar||Maratha, (Mukne)||Maharashtra|
|99||9||–||The Maharaja of||Kalahandi (Karond)||Rajput, (Gangavanshi)||Odisha|
|100||9||–||The Rao of||Khilchipur||Rajput, Chauhan,(Khinchi)||Madhya Pradesh|
|101||9||–||The Thakore Sahib of||Limbdi||Rajput, Jhala||Gujarat|
|102||9||–||The Nawab of||Loharu||(Muslim)||Haryana|
|103||9||–||The Maharana of||Lunawara||Rajput, Solanki||Gujarat|
|104||9||–||The Raja of||Maihar||Rajput, Kachwaha||Madhya Pradesh|
|105||9||–||The Maharaja of||Mayurbhanj||Rajput, (Bhanj)||Odisha|
|106||9||–||The Raja of||Mudhol||Maratha, Ghorpade||Karnataka|
|107||9||–||The Raja of||Nagod||Rajput, Parihar||Madhya Pradesh|
|108||9||–||The Thakore Sahib of||Palitana||Rajput, Gohil||Gujarat|
|109||9||–||The Maharaja of||Patna||Rajput, Chauhan||Odisha|
|110||9||–||The Thakore Sahib of||Rajkot||Rajput, Jadeja||Gujarat|
|111||9||–||The Nawab of||Sachin||Siddi||Gujarat|
|112||9||–||The Maharana of||Sant||Rajput, Parmara||Gujarat|
|113||9||–||The Rajadhiraj of||Shahpura||Rajput, Sisodia||Rajasthan|
|114||9||–||The Maharaja of||Sonepur||Rajput||Odisha|
In 1948 The Hindu Rajput Maharana of Udaipur was raised to first place in the Order of Precedence, displacing the Muslim Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar due to his stubborn stance of not acceding to the union . The system of gun salutes continued in the Republic of India until 1971.
Although salutes with many more guns have been used for Western Monarchs (and dynastic and other associated occasions), the 21-gun salute has in modern times become customary for Sovereign Monarchs (hence also known as 'royal salute') and republic.
Some of the rulers not listed above were granted increased gun salutes after the independence, e.g. the Maharana of Mewar (at Udaipur, Maharajpramukh in Rajasthan) was raised to first place in the Order of Precedence, displacing the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar, and all 9-gun states were permitted the use of the style of Highness. However, it has not been possible to obtain complete details for all the rulers.
This system continued till 1971, when privileges and Privy Purses of ex-rulers were abolished by the Government of India.
Salute states which became protectorates of India (Sikkim)
|Hereditary salute No. of guns||Personal or Local salute No. of guns||Title of Ruler||Name of state||Clan of Ruler||Present Location|
|15||–||H.H. The Maharaja (Chogyal) of||Sikkim||Tipihar||Sikkim|
Though officially considered a princely state under its ruler, the Maharaja Chogyal, Sikkim was given the separate status of a British protectorate in 1890, and maintained a high degree of autonomy. In 1947, the Maharaja Chogyal and his people decided against accession to India and chose to maintain Sikkim's internal sovereignty. The state formally became a protectorate of India in 1950. Following the death of the Maharaja Chogyal in 1963 and his succession by his unpopular son, Palden Thondup Namgyal, popular demands for increased individual rights grew more frequent. After Sikkim's first free general elections in 1974, the Indian Army placed the Chogyal under house arrest. Under military supervision, a controversial referendum was held in 1975, which approved the state's merger with India and the abolition of the monarchy. Sikkim was formally merged into India as its 22nd state on 26 April 1975.
Salute states that acceded to Pakistan
Between August 1947 and March 1948, thirteen Muslim princely states in western India acceded to the new Dominion of Pakistan, created from British India by the Indian Independence Act 1947, thus becoming the Princely states of Pakistan. Between 1955 and 1974, they were all amalgamated into larger federations and provinces. All of the princely states were in the western part of the country, so all were merged into the eventual West Pakistan, which now covers the same area as the present-day republic of Pakistan. The states retained internal autonomy so long as they existed, but all had lost this by 1974. The styles and titles enjoyed by the former ruling families ceased to be officially recognised by the Government of Pakistan in January 1972, with the exception of the small states of Hunza and Nagar, which were incorporated into the Northern Areas of Pakistan in October 1974.
Four salute states acceded to Pakistan between 3 October 1947 and 27 March 1948. In order of precedence, they were as follows:
|Serial No.||Hereditary salute No. of guns||Personal salute No. of guns||Title of Ruler||Name of state||Clan of Ruler||Present Location|
|1.||19||–||The Khan of||Kalat||Muslim||Balochistan|
|2.||17||–||The Nawab of||Bahawalpur||Muslim Abbasi||Panjab|
|3.||15||–||The Mir of||Khairpur||Muslim Billochi||Sindh|
|4.||11||–||The Mehtar of||Chitral||Muslim Katur||NWFP|
After several promotions and two further post-colonial awardings – which India didn't do – the gun salutes enjoyed by the states in Pakistan were as follows in 1966:
- Hereditary salute of 21-guns: The Amir of Bahawalpur
- Hereditary salute of 19-guns: The Khan of Kalat
- Hereditary salute of 17-guns: The Mir of Khairpur
- Hereditary salute of 15-guns: The Mir of Hunza (granted by President Ayub Khan in 1966, previously non-salute)
- Hereditary salute of 15-guns: The Wali of Swat (granted by President Ayub Khan in 1966, previously non-salute)
- Hereditary salute of 11-guns: The Mehtar of Chitral
Salute states in Burma
- 9 guns (permanent, for rulers of the following Shan States):
Personal salute dynasties on the Indian subcontinent
Rulers of princely states (in 1947)
- 11 guns: The Aga Khan (religious leader of the Nizari Ismaili branch of Islam); only salute not attached to any territorial principality).
Political pensioners under the British Raj
- 21 guns for Khudadad, i.e. Tippu Sultan's Muslim empire, starting from the usurped Mysore throne (also 21 guns), meant to replace Delhi's (Mughal) Padshah-i-Hind
- 19 guns (only personal and local) for the Nawab of Murshidabad, as heirs of greater Bengal (including present Bangladesh, Bihar, Odisha and West Bengal)
- 15 guns (until 1899) for HH the Nawab (later restyled Prince) of Arcot, i.e. the Carnatic
- 13 guns salute for Raja of Vizianagram
Zamindars in French India
- 4 guns: Manyam Zamindar of Yanam
States within the British sphere of influence (as of 1947)
Sovereign foreign monarchs
- 21 guns:
Semi-sovereign foreign rulers
- 19 guns:
Protectorates under the Indian Empire
- 21 guns:
- HH the Sultan of Mascat [the Ibadi Imamate became a sovereign nation as Sultanate of (Muscat –the core, named after the capital, of modern- and) Oman][note 9]
- HH the Sultan/Hami of Zanzibar (an East African sultanate on the islands now part of Tanzania, set up by a branch of the Omani sultans)
- 15 guns: HH the Maharaja (Druk Desi) of Bhutan [a sovereign Buddhist Himalayan nation] (since 1963 HM the Druk Gyalpo)
- 11 guns: HH the Emir of Kuwait; HH the Emir of Bahrain (promoted in 1932 from 7-guns)
- 7 guns: The Emir of Qatar (awarded in 1916)
- 5 guns:
- The Emir of Abu Dhabi
- The Emir of Dubai (promoted from 3 guns in 1929)
- 3 guns: all in Trucial Oman, known as the 'Pirate Coast' (- ?no agency? Persian Gulf residency?; now all among the 7 constitutive emirates of the sovereign nation UAE):
- 21 guns: HM the native (Amerindian tribal) King of Mosquito Coast (in present Nicaragua; styled His Majesty, most unusual as HM is normally reserved for the Paramount Ruler and its (independent) peers; under British protectorate since 1688, formalised in 1749 with appointment of a resident Superintendent; Britain relinquished control in 1783–87; Nicaraguan sovereignty was recognised in 1860 under the Treaty of Managua, hence the King considered a mere Chief, in 1894 militarily driven into exile to Jamaica)
- 9 guns: the Kabaka (native, tribal king) of Buganda (in [Western] Uganda, granted after (?) 1912, before 1939 permanent grant)
- Only if present in person. The only time this salute was fired was on the occasion of the 1911 Delhi Durbar, for which the King-Emperor was in attendance.
- Also on the occasions of the Sovereign's Birthday, the Accession and Coronation Anniversaries, when an Imperial Proclamation was delivered and for the Birthday of a Queen-Empress (as Royal Consort). There were two periods when two Queen-Empresses of India were living: from 1910 to 1925, and from 1936 until the death of Mary of Teck in 1953.
- On arriving or departing from a military station, or when attending a state ceremony.
- On assuming or relinquishing office, or on a public arrival or departure from a military station and on formal ceremonial occasions. Also for a private arrival or departure from a military station (optional, if desired).
- As a vice-admiral, with two guns added.
- On assuming or relinquishing office. Provided the AOC-in-C is the most senior military officer in the area, on a public arrival or departure from a military station and on formal ceremonial occasions; also for a private arrival or departure from a military station (optional, if desired), if seniority condition fulfilled.
- On assuming or relinquishing office, or on a public arrival or departure from a military station and on formal ceremonial occasions. Also for a private arrival or departure from a military station (optional, if desired). Only if the senior officer present and in actual command.
- Considered a de jure foreign monarch.
- Princely state
- List of Indian princely states
- List of Maratha dynasties and states
- List of Rajput dynasties and states
- List of Indian monarchs
- Prince and Principality for information on princely styles worldwide
- Maratha titles
- Maratha Empire
- RoyalArk – Salute States
- Indian Princely States
- – Ed Haynes' list for circa 1911– various copies circulate, none propely annotated
- The India Office and Burma Office List: 1945. Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1945. pp. 33–37.
- India (Salute) - The Royal Ark
- The India Office and Burma Office List: 1945. Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1945. pp. 44–45.
- The India Office and Burma Office List: 1945. Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1945. p. 53.
- Yawnghwe (Shan State) (9 Gun Salute)
- VIZIANAGRAM (Zamindari)
- pg 73. "Qatar: A Modern History." Fromherz, Allan James. Georgetown University Press, Washington, 2012