|The Hitachi Tree at the Moanalua Gardens, Hawaii|
Albizia saman (sometimes treated under the obsolete name Samanea saman) is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Neotropics. Its range extends from Mexico south to Peru and Brazil, but it has been widely introduced to South and Southeast Asia, as well as the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii. Common names include saman, rain tree and monkeypod (see also below). It is often placed in the genus Samanea, which by yet other authors is subsumed in Albizia entirely.
Saman is a wide-canopied tree with a large symmetrical crown. It usually reaches a height of 25 m (82 ft) and a diameter of 40 m. The leaves fold in rainy weather and in the evening, hence the name "rain tree" and "five o'clock tree" (Pukul Lima) in Malay. Several lineages of this tree are available, e.g., with reddish pink and creamish golden colored flowers.
During his 1799–1804 travels in the Americas, Alexander von Humboldt encountered a giant saman tree near Maracay, Venezuela. He measured the circumference of the parasol-shaped crown at 576 ft (about 180.8 m), its diameter was around 190 ft (about 59.6 m), on a trunk at 9 ft (about 2.8 m) in diameter and reaching just 60 ft (nearly 19 m) in height. Humboldt mentioned the tree was reported to have changed little since the Spanish colonization of Venezuela; he estimated it to be as old as the famous Canary Islands dragon tree (Dracaena draco) of Icod de los Vinos on Tenerife.
The tree, called Samán de Güere (transcribed Zamang del Guayre by von Humboldt) still stands today, and is a Venezuelan national treasure. Just like the dragon tree on Tenerife, the age of the saman in Venezuela is rather indeterminate. As von Humboldt's report makes clear, according to local tradition, it would be older than 500 years today, which is rather outstanding by the genus' standards. It is certain, however, the tree is quite more than 200 years old today, but it is one exceptional individual; even the well-learned von Humboldt could not believe it was actually the same species as the saman trees he knew from the greenhouses at Schönbrunn Castle. A famous specimen called the "Brahmaputra Rain Tree" located at Guwahati on the banks of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India has the thickest trunk of any Saman; approximately twelve feet (3.66 meters) diameter at breast height (DBH).
Large branches of the tree tend to break off, particularly during rainstorms. This can be hazardous as the tree is very commonly used for avenue plantation.
Albizia saman is a well-known tree, rivalled perhaps only by lebbeck and pink siris among its genus. It is well represented in many languages and has numerous local names in its native range. Most names that originated in Europe (where the tree hardly grows at all) are some variety of "rain tree". The original name, saman - known in many languages and used for the specific epithet - derives from zamang, meaning "Mimosoideae tree" in some Cariban languages of northern Venezuela.
The name "rain tree" was coined in tropical India, especially Bengal. Its origin is the moisture that collects on the ground under the tree, largely the honeydew-like discharge of cicadas feeding on the leaves.
- English: saman, rain tree, monkey pod, giant thibet, inga saman, cow tamarind, East Indian walnut, soar, suar.
- Spanish: cenízaro, acacia preta, árbol de lluvia (rain tree), genízaro
- Cuba: algarrobo
- Central America: carreto, cenicero, dormilon, genizaro, zarza
- Colombia: campano, saman
- Venezuela: carabeli, couji, lara, urero, samán
- French: arbre à (la) pluie (rain tree)
- German: Regenbaum (rain tree), Soar, Suar
- Portuguese: chorona
- Haitian Creole: guannegoul(e)
- Jamaica: goango, guango
- Trinidad: Samaan Tree
In the Caribbean region, it is occasionally called marsave.
- Sanskrit: Shiriisha
- Bengali: shirish শিরীষ
- Gujarati: shirish
- Hindi: vilaiti siris सीरस
- Kannada: Bhagaya mara
- Malayalam: chakkarakkay maram ചക്കരക്കായ് മരം
- Marathi: विलायती शिरीश (exotic shirish)
- Sinhalese: mara
- Tamil: thoongu moonji maram தூங்குமூஞ்சி மரம் (Literal translation is tree with a sleeping face, actual meaning is sleepy tree. Refers to leaves closing in the evening)
- Telugu: nidra ganneru తెలుగు
- Indonesian: meh
- Malay: pukul lima (five o'clock tree, in Malaysia), pokok hujan (rain tree)
- Javanese: trembesi
- Khmer ampil barang (French tamarind)
- Malagasy: bonara(mbaza), kily vazaha, madiromany, mampihe, mampohehy
- Burmese: kokko ကုက္ကို
- Sundanese: ki hujan (rain tree)
- Thai: ก้ามปู (kampu), ฉำฉา (chamcha), จามจุรีแดง (chamchuri daeng), จามจุรี (chamchuri)
- Vietnamese: còng, muồng tím, cây mưa (rain tree)
As an introduced plant on Fiji, it is called in some regions vaivai (ni vavalagi), from vaivai "watery" (in allusion to the tree's "rain") + vavalagi "foreign". In some parts of Vanua Levu, Fiji the word vaivai is used to describe the lebbeck, because of the sound the seedpods make, and the word mocemoce (sleepy, or sleeping) is used for A. saman due to the 'sleepiness' of its leaves.
During the production of the 1960 film Swiss Family Robinson, a 60 metres (200 ft) tall albizia saman tree in Tobago was used for the construction of the family's famous tree house. The set was left intact after filming, but was destroyed by Hurricane Flora in 1963. The tree itself has survived, and is located approximately near Goldsborough, Tobago. This 200 foot figure comes from the motion picture company, and motion picture publicity departments have been known to exaggerate. This height needs to be independently confirmed.
According to a research conducted at the School of Forestry of the Bogor Agricultural Institute, Indonesia, a mature tree with a crown diameter measuring 15 meters absorbed 28.5 tons of CO2 annually. The trees have been planted in cities of Kudus and Demak and also will be planted along the shoulder of the road from Semarang to Losari.
Black-rumped flameback (Dinopium benghalense) on rain tree bark
Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
- The Legume Phylogeny Working Group (LPWG). (2017). "A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny". Taxon. 66 (1): 44–77. doi:10.12705/661.3.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 16, 2014.
- "Samanea saman". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- Presuming von Humboldt used the Magdeburg foot of 1755, introduced in Prussia in 1793, which was 1.044 ft (31.385 cm).
- von Humboldt & Bonpland (1820): pp.98-100
- von Humboldt & Bonpland (1820): p.99 footnote
- <not stated> (November 4, 2012). "Landmark Trees of India".
- It is a rather close relative to the ingas.
- Among the legumes, it is not very closely related to tamarinds.
- It is not at all closely related to walnuts.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Albizia saman.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Albizia saman|
- Arditti, Joseph & On, Mak Chin (2004): The Golden Rain Tree. Version of 2004-MAY-01. Retrieved 2008-MAR-31.
- International Legume Database & Information Service (ILDIS) (2005): Albizia saman. Version 10.01, November 2005. Retrieved 2008-MAR-30.
- von Humboldt, Alexander & Bonpland, Aimé (1815): Reise in die Aequinoctial-Gegenden des neuen Continents (Part 3). J.G. Cotta, Stuttgart and Tübingen. Image/PDF fulltext at Google Books