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Samanhudi 1962 Indonesia stamp.jpg

Hadji Samanhudi (1868 – 28 December 1956) was founder of Sarekat Dagang Islam, a mass organization in Indonesia that was previously an association for batik traders in Surakarta.

Born in Lawiyan, Solo (Surakarta) as Soedarno Nadi, he was educated until SR (Sekolah Rakyat) but he didn't graduate. After that he learned Islam in Surabaya. At the same time he traded batik.

Samanhudi founded Sarekat Dagang Islam, or Islamic Trade Union in 1911. The Union consists of batik entrepreneurs in East and Central Java to protect their business from Chinese competition. The members of the organization were unified by a common religion, Islam, albeit one with many influences from mysticism and local traditions. Samanhudi remained as its chairman until 1914, two years after Tjokroaminoto transformed the organization into a political one.

Since 1920, Samanhudi became inactive in the party. His health was bad, but his interest to national movement never calmed down. For a long time his name never appeared. After Indonesia's independence, he was active again. To defend Republic of Indonesia facing Dutch aggression, Samanhudi formed Solo Branch of Indonesian Rebel Front (Barisan Pemberontak Indonesia Cabang Solo) and Pancasila Union Branch (Cabang Persatuan Pancasila). When the Netherlands launched Clash II, he formed an army named Hawk Union Movement (Gerakan Kesatuan Alap-alap). That army was assigned to provide equipments mainly foods for army union fighting in the front line. There were many services he gave when Indonesian National Revolution took place.

He died in Klaten (28 December 1956) and was buried in Banaran, Grogol, Sukoharjo.


  • Blumberger, J.Th.Petrus. (1931). De Nationalistische Beweging in Nederlandsch-Indië. Haarlem: H.D. Tjeenk Willink & Zoon N.V.
  • McVey, Ruth T. (1963). ed. Indonesia. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, Inc.