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In Jainism, Samavasarana or Samosharana ("Refuge to All") is the divine preaching hall of the Tirthankara. The word samavasarana is derived from two words, sama, meaning general and avasara, meaning opportunity. It is a place where all have an opportunity to acquire wisdom. The divine pavilion is built by heavenly beings (devas) after the tirthankara attain omniscience (Kevala Jnana). The theme of Samavasaranas has been popular in Jain art.
In samavasarana, the tirthankara sits on a throne without touching it (about two inches above it). Around the tirthankara sit the ganadharas (chief disciples). Living beings sit in the following order:
- In the first hall, ascetics
- In the second hall, one class of deva ladies
- In the third hall, aryikas (nuns) and laywomen
- In the next three halls, three other classes of deva ladies
- In the next four halls, the four classes of devas (heavenly beings)
- Men, in the eleventh hall
- Animals, in the last hall
According to Jain texts, there would be four wide roads with four huge columns, Manasthamba (literally, pride pillar), one in each side. The total size of the hall varies depending upon the height of the people in that era. The size of Rishabhadeva's samavasarana was 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi).
In samavasarana, a tirthankara sits facing the east, but appears to be looking in all directions. Tirthankara sits on a soft cushion while preaching the Jain philosophy in plain terms. All humans and animals can understand the discourse. Jain scriptures say that all creatures who listen would become less violent and less greedy. The speech of the tirthankara is distinctly heard by every one present.
- Rai, Champat Jain (2008), Risabha Deva (Second ed.), India: Bhagwan Rishabhdeo Granth Mala, ISBN 9788177720228
- Pramansagar, Muni (2008), jain tattvavidya, India: Bhartiya Gyanpeeth, ISBN 978-81-263-1480-5
- Wiley, Kristi L. (2009), The A to Z of Jainism, Scarecrow Press, ISBN 9780810868212
- Champat Rai Jain (1929). "X: THE SAMAVASARANA". Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism. K. Mitra, Indian Press, Allahabad. p. 126.
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