Sambo (martial art)

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Sambo
Sambo at the 2015 European Games.jpg
Sambo at the 2015 European Games
Highest governing bodyFédération Internationale de Sambo
Registered as a sport disciplineSoviet Union, November 16, 1938 (Goskomsport)[1]
Characteristics
ContactYes
Mixed genderNo
TypeMartial art
EquipmentSambovka
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
OlympicNo
World Games1985, 1993
Sambo, Russian: самбо
International Federation of Amateur Sambo logo.png
International Federation
of Amateur Sambo
Also known asSombo (in English-speaking countries)
FocusHybrid
Country of originSoviet Union Soviet Union
Famous practitionersPractitioners
ParenthoodSport Sambo:
Judo, Jujutsu, Kurash, Alysh, Bökh, Ssireum, Greco-Roman wrestling, Catch Wrestling
Combat Sambo:
Sport Sambo, Kulachniy Boy, Pankration
Olympic sportNo
Official websitesambo.sport

Sambo (Russian: са́мбо, pronounced [ˈsambə]) is a Soviet martial art, an internationally-practised combat sport,[2][3] and a recognized style of amateur wrestling included by FILA in the World Wrestling Championships along with Greco-Roman wrestling and freestyle wrestling.[4][5]

It originated in the Russian SFSR in Soviet Union. The word sambo is an acronym of the romanization samozashchita bez oruzhiya (Russian: самозащита без оружия), which literally translates to 'self-defence without weapons'.[6] The correct, official English spelling, approved by USA Wrestling and the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee, is SOMBO.[1]

Sambo is relatively modern since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet NKVD and Red Army to improve hand-to-hand combat abilities of the servicemen.[2] It was intended to be a merger of the most effective techniques of other martial arts.

The pioneers of sambo were Viktor Spiridonov and Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov spent several years living in Japan and training in Judo under its founder Kano Jigoro.[7] Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the Great Purge after being accused of being a Japanese spy.[8]

Spiridonov and Oshchepkov independently developed two different styles, which eventually cross-pollinated and became what is known as sambo. Compared to Oshchepkov's system, called "free wrestling" in Russia (known in the West as catch-as-catch-can wrestling or simply catch wrestling), Spiridonov's style was softer and less brutal. It was also less strength-dependent, which in large part was due to injuries Spiridonov sustained during World War I.[9]

Anatoly Kharlampiev, a student of Vasili Oshchepkov, is also considered a founder of sambo. In 1938, it was recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee.[8]

Styles[edit]

There are multiple competitive sport variations of sambo (though sambo techniques and principles can be applied to many other combat sports). Below are the main formats that are recognized by FIAS.[10]

  • Sport sambo or Sambo wrestling (Russian: Борьбa Самбо, romanizedBor'ba Sambo, lit. 'Sambo Wrestling') is stylistically similar to old-time catch wrestling and judo, and in a lot of ways influenced by them, but with some differences in rules, protocol, and uniform. More akin to catch wrestling, and in contrast with judo, sambo allows various types of leg locks, while not allowing chokeholds. It also focuses on throwing, groundwork, and submissions, with very few restrictions on gripping and holds.[11] Sambo is an international style of amateur wrestling recognized by the FILA Congress in 1966.
  • Combat sambo (Russian: Боевое Самбо, romanizedBoyevoye Sambo). Utilized and developed for the military, combat sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including forms of striking and grappling. Combat sambo allows regular punches, kicks, elbows, and knees, as well as soccer kicks, headbutts and groin strikes, in addition to throws, holds, chokes and locks, except for a standing or flying wristbar.[12] The chief distinction from Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), apart from striking techniques, is that combat sambo rules and regulations do not permit a one-sided resort to ground fighting without throws or other combative maneuvers (i.e., by simply sitting down and continuing from the ground without touching his opponent that BJJ allows). In terms of aliveness, combat sambo surpasses ARB by design, though both were designed for combat situations only. Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but also hand protection and sometimes shin protection and headgear. The first FIAS World Combat Sambo Championships were held in 2001. The World Combat Sambo Federation, based in Russia, also sanctions international combat sambo events.
Grand Prix Paris de Sambo 2017 IMG 8177 (35300004615).jpg Grand Prix Paris de Sambo 2017 IMG 3412 (34125435664).jpg
Both Sambo wrestling (left) and Combat sambo competitions require Sambovka jacket and shirts as a uniform, and held at a standard wrestling mat. However, Combat sambo competitions also require gloves, headgear, mouthpiece, groin, and shin protection equipment to minimize injuries.

Combat Sambo is designed to tackle certain tasks. The effectiveness of this martial art determined by its structure, namely by three components: boxing, sambo, and adapters. Adapters of combat sambo were developed by the academician G. S. Popov. The task of adapters is to ensure the safe transition from middle distance to close one, as well as the consistent usage of sambo and boxing techniques. The given configuration provides the fusion of two martial arts into a single system.

History[edit]

Origins and influences[edit]

Sambo's early development stemmed from the independent efforts of Vasili Oshchepkov and Viktor Spiridonov to integrate the techniques of Catch wrestling, Judo, Jujutsu, and other foreign martial arts into native Turkic wrestling styles, Armenian kokh, Romanian trîntǎ, Mongolian khapsagay and Georgian chidaoba (ru:Чидаоба, ka:ქართული ჭიდაობა). Oschepkov taught judo to elite Red Army forces at the Central Red Army House. Vasili Oschepkov was one of the first foreigners to learn Judo in Japan and had earned his Nidan (second-degree black belt, out of then five) from judo's founder, Kano Jigoro. Spiridonov's background involved indigenous martial arts from various Soviet regions as well as an interest in Japanese jujutsu (though he never formally trained it). His reliance on movement over strength was in part because during World War I, he received a bayonet wound which left his left arm lame. Both Oschepkov and Spiridonov independently hoped that Soviet military hand-to-hand combat techniques could be improved with an infusion of the techniques distilled from other foreign martial arts. Contrary to common lore, Oschepkov and Spiridonov did not cooperate on the development of their hand-to-hand systems.[13] Rather, their independent notions of hand-to-hand combat merged through cross-training between students and formulating efforts by their students and military staff. While Oschepkov and Spiridonov did have occasion to collaborate, their efforts were not completely united.

Each technique was carefully dissected and considered for its merits, and if found acceptable in unarmed combat, refined to reach sambo's ultimate goal: to stop an armed or unarmed adversary in the least time possible.[14] Thus, many techniques from jujutsu, judo, and other martial systems joined with the indigenous fighting styles to form the sambo repertoire.[15] When the techniques were perfected, they were woven into sambo applications for personal self-defense, police, crowd control, border guards, secret police, dignitary protection, psychiatric hospital staff, military, and commandos.[16]

Development[edit]

In 1918, Lenin created Vsevobuch (General Military Training) under the leadership of N. I. Podvoyskiy to train the Red Army. The task of developing and organizing Red Army military hand-to-hand combat training fell to K. Voroshilov, who in turn, created the NKVD physical training center, Dynamo Sports Society.

Spiridonov was a combat veteran of World War I and one of the first wrestling and self-defense instructors hired for Dynamo. His background included Free wrestling (i.e. Catch wrestling), Greco-Roman wrestling, many Turkic folk wrestling styles, and Japanese jujutsu. As a combative investigator for Dynamo, he traveled to Mongolia and China to observe their native fighting styles.

In 1923, Oschepkov and Spiridinov collaborated (independently) with a team of other experts on a grant from the Soviet government to improve the Red Army's hand-to-hand combat system. Spiridonov had envisioned integrating the most practical aspects of the world's fighting systems into one comprehensive style that could adapt to any threat. Oschepkov had observed Kano Jigoro's distillation of Tenjin Shinyo Ryu, Kito Ryu and Fusen-ryū jujutsu into judo, and he had developed the insight required to evaluate and integrate combative techniques into a new system. Their developments were supplemented by Anatoly Kharlampiyev and I. V. Vasiliev who also traveled the globe to study the native fighting arts of the world. Ten years in the making, their catalog of techniques was instrumental in formulating the early framework of the art to be eventually referred to as sambo.

Kharlampiyev is often called the "father of sambo". This may be largely semantics since only he had the longevity and political connections to remain with the art while the new system was named "sambo". However, Kharlampiyev's political maneuvering is single-handedly responsible for the USSR Committee of Sport's accepting sambo as the official combat sport of the Soviet Union in 1938 – decidedly the "birth" of sambo.[17] So, more accurately, Kharlampiyev could be considered the father of "sport" sambo.

Spiridonov was the first to begin referring to the new system with a name similar to 'sambo'. He eventually developed a softer style called Samoz that could be used by smaller, weaker practitioners or even wounded soldiers and secret agents. Spiridonov's inspiration to develop 'Samoz' stemmed from his World War I bayonet injury, which greatly restricted his left arm and thus his ability to practice wrestling. Refined versions of sambo are still used today or fused with specific sambo applications to meet the needs of Russian commandos.

Running up to an Olympic sport status[edit]

After being recognized by FILA in 1968, by the U.S. National Amateur Athletic Union in 1972, and after being included to the program of the 1973 World Wrestling Championships along with Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestling (which are indeed Olympic sports,) Sambo was rapidly making its way to become an Olympic sport.[18]

The first World Cup was contested in 1969. Don Curtis, a member of the U.S. Olympic Wrestling Committee, had predicted in 1975, that the Russians will introduce the Sambo wrestling in the 1980 Olympics program in Moscow.[19] In 1975 the first United States National Sambo Championships were held in Mesa, Arizona, in 1977 it was contested along with G.R. and Freestyle at the first Pan American Wrestling Championships in Mexico City, and included in the schedule of the upcoming 1983 U.S. Olympic Festival[20][21] and the 1983 Pan American Games (the 1983 Pan American event in Caracas became the first and subsequently the last edition of Sambo at the Pan Am Games.) In 1979 the National AAU Sambo Committee established several annual awards to honor outstanding persons in the sport of Sambo wrestling.[22] By the 1980s it has been included to Pan American Games, National Sports Festival and AAU Junior Olympics program.[23]

But as a result of political complications of the 1980 Olympic boycott which arouse after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Sambo was at first reduced to a demonstration sport at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, USSR. But later, because of the sport's strong association with the Soviet Union, it was relinquished of the demonstration sport status. It is true that youth sambo was demonstrated in the Games' opening ceremonies; however, sambo was never formally recognized as a demonstration sport. This common error in history books is noted in several sources including From SAMOZ to SAMBO by Anatoly Makovetskii and Lukashev's History of Hand-to-Hand Combat in the First Half of the 20th Century: Founders and Authors.[24] Furthermore, the official documents of the 1980 Olympic Organizing Committee do not mention sambo as a participating sport in the Games.[25] Nevertheless, Jerry Matsumoto, Head of the U.S. Sambo Association, saw in 1990 Sambo becoming an Olympic sport, at least at the demonstration level, within the next eight years.[26]

As a side note, demonstration sports were suspended after the 1992 Summer Olympics. With the changes in the Olympics Judo in for 2013 and the proposed removal of Freestyle Wrestling from the Olympics, there has been a great migration of wrestlers to SAMBO because of its all-encompassing techniques and dynamic yet consistent rules.[citation needed]

Today[edit]

In 1968, the FILA accepted sambo as the third style of international wrestling. In 1985, the sambo community formed its own organization, Federation International Amateur Sambo (FIAS). In 1993, FIAS split into two organizations, both of which used the same name and logo, and the two groups were often referred to as FIAS "East" (under Russian control) and FIAS "West" (under US and Western European control). This split mirrored the last days of Cold War politics of the time as well as the recent break-up of the Soviet Union. In the U.S., disagreements between the sport's organizers and the rise of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu in the 1990s slowed down the growth of sambo before the success of several sambo fighters increased its popularity a decade later.[27] In 2005, FILA reached an agreement with FIAS "West" and re-assumed sanctioning over sport sambo.[28] However, in 2008, FILA again discontinued sanctioning sambo and sambo is now notably missing from the FILA website.[29] At present, only FIAS sanctions international competition in sport sambo. In 2014 FIAS and FILA signed a cooperative agreement.[30] While this does not place sambo back on FILA's recognized list, it does move towards unity and prevents future 'turf wars' regarding the sport's promotion. A similar agreement was signed by FIAS and the International Judo Federation in 2014 as well.[31] Both FIAS and the World Combat Sambo Federation host international combat sambo competition. The American Sambo Association has continued to host freestyle sambo tournaments in the US and Canada since 2004. These events are unrecognized by FILA. Rumors rising in 2012 stating that sambo will be included as a demonstration sport in the 2016 Olympics are therefore not supported by any facts, and thus sambo is still a very long way from maturing into an Olympic sport, notwithstanding the effort that is being put into the matter. Indeed, given the intention of the Olympic Committee to remove classic wrestling from the Olympic roster, there are rumors that sambo is highly unlikely to ever make it to the Olympics. However, sambo has been included in the 27th Annual Summer Universiade for the first time in history.[32] FIAS submitted an application to the International Olympic Committee IOC to consider sambo for the 2020 Games and has devoted 2010–2013 to creating a sambo commission in the International Sports Press Association (AIPS). As of 30 November 2018, sambo has indeed received temporary recognition by the IOC.[33] This close relationship is reestablishing the global popularity and media emphasis on sambo.

Uniform and ranking[edit]

Similar to wrestling, a sambo practitioner normally wears either a red or a blue competition outfit. The kurtka (куртка), also called a sambovka (самбовка), looks similar to a Judogi top and belt but has belt loops, shoulder straps, wrestling style shorts, and shoes which match the uniform's color. The sambo uniform does not reflect rank or competitive rating. Sport rules require an athlete to have both red and blue sets to visually distinguish competitors on the mat.

Also similar to the wrestling ranking system used in Russia, a competitive rating system is used (rather than the belt color ranking system used in judo and gendai jujutsu). Various sport organizations distribute these ranks for high levels of competition achievement or in some cases coaching merits. People who have earned these ranks are known as 'Masters of Sport.' Institutions that grant a sambo 'Master of Sport' in Russia include FIAS,[34] FKE,[35] and the International Combat Sambo Federation. Other nations have governing bodies that award 'Masters of Sport' as well, including the American Sambo Association in the United States [36]

Competitions[edit]

FIAS World SAMBO Championships[edit]

Number Year Dates Host Champion Events Participating
countries
1 1973 6–11 September Iran Tehran, Iran  Soviet Union 10 11
2 1974 26–28 July Mongolia Ulan Bator, Mongolia  Soviet Union 10 5
3 1979 11–14 December Spain Madrid, Spain  Soviet Union 10 11
4 1980 30–31 May Spain Madrid, Spain  Soviet Union 10 11
5 1981 28 February – 1 March Spain Madrid, Spain  Soviet Union 10 12
6 1982 3–4 July France Paris, France  Soviet Union 10 11
7 1983 30 September – 1 October Soviet Union Kyiv, Soviet Union  Soviet Union 10 8
8 1984 14–15 June Spain Madrid, Spain  Soviet Union 10 10
9 1985 19–21 September Spain San Sebastián, Spain  Soviet Union 10 11
10 1986 21–24 November France Saint-Jean-de-Luz, France  Soviet Union 10 8
11 1987 November Italy Milan, Italy  Soviet Union 10 9
12 1988 1–5 December Canada Montreal, Canada  Soviet Union 10 11
13 1989 8–11 November United States West Orange, United States  Soviet Union 10 9
14 1990 7–10 December Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union  Soviet Union 10 18
15 1991 28–29 December Canada Montreal, Canada  Soviet Union 10 8
16 1992 6–10 November England Herne Bay, England  Russia 10 14
17 1993 9–15 November Russia Kstovo, Russia  Russia 10 28
18 1994 7–9 October Serbia and Montenegro Novi Sad, Yugoslavia  Russia 10 20
19 1995 1–3 September Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria  Russia 9 23
20 1996 1–3 November Japan Tokyo, Japan  Russia 18 23
21 1997 10–12 October Georgia (country) Tbilisi, Georgia Georgia (country) Georgia 18 20
22 1998 16–18 October Russia Kaliningrad, Russia  Russia 18 20
23 1999 12–14 November Spain Gijón, Spain  Russia 18 20
24 2000 25 November Ukraine Kyiv, Ukraine  Russia 18 21
25 2001 20–21 October Russia Krasnoyarsk, Russia  Russia 18 26
26 2002 26–29 November Panama Panama City, Panama  Russia 18 19
27 2003 18 October
6–10 November
France Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France (Combat Sambo)
Russia St. Petersburg, Russia
 Russia 27 32
28 2004 16–21 June
25–26 September
Czech Republic Prague, Czech Republic (Combat Sambo)
Moldova Chișinău, Moldova
 Russia 27 23
29 2005 21–23 October
11–14 November
Czech Republic Prague, Czech Republic (Combat Sambo)
Kazakhstan Astana, Kazakhstan
 Russia 27 27
30 2006 30 September – 2 October
3–5 November
Uzbekistan Tashkent, Uzbekistan (Combat Sambo)
Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria
 Russia 27 33
31 2007 7–11 November Czech Republic Prague, Czech Republic  Russia 27 43
32 2008 13–17 November Russia St. Petersburg, Russia  Russia 27 48
33 2009 5–9 November Greece Thessaloniki, Greece  Russia 27 46
34 2010 4–8 November Uzbekistan Tashkent, Uzbekistan  Russia 27 26
35 2011 10–14 November Lithuania Vilnius, Lithuania  Russia 27 65
36 2012 8–12 November Belarus Minsk, Belarus  Russia 27 64
37 2013 7–11 November Russia St. Petersburg, Russia  Russia 27 70
38 2014 20–24 November Japan Narita, Japan  Russia 27 82
39 2015 12–16 November Morocco Casablanca, Morocco  Russia 27 80
40 2016 10–14 November Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria  Russia 27 77
41 2017 9–13 November Russia Sochi, Russia  Russia 27 90
42 2018 8–12 November Romania Bucharest, Romania  Russia 27 80
43 2019 7–11 November South Korea Cheongju, South Korea  Russia 27 80
44 2020 6–8 November Turkmenistan Ashgabat, Turkmenistan TBD TBD TBD

FIAS World Cup[edit]

Sambo World Cup and Supercup have been contested since 1969, initially held by FILA, and since 1985 by FIAS.

Sambo World Cup editions
Year Dates Location
1969 Soviet Union Riga, Soviet Union
1970 Soviet Union Sochi, Soviet Union
1975 Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union
1976 Japan Tokyo, Japan
1977 9–12 June Spain Oviedo, Spain[37]
1980 Spain Madrid, Spain
1981 18–20 September Spain Pontevedra, Spain
1982 11 June Spain Bilbao, Spain
1983 France Lyon, France
1984 12–14 October Venezuela Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela
1985 22 September Spain San Sebastián, Spain
1986 Japan Tokyo, Japan
1987 4–5 April Morocco Casablanca, Morocco
1988 June Soviet Union Moscow, Soviet Union
1990 Venezuela Caracas, Venezuela
1992 Spain Spain
1993 Russia Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
1994 May Russia Kstovo, Russia
1999 28 November France Nice, France
2000 27–29 November France Nice, France
2001 Russia Moscow, Russia
2006 26 November France Nice, France
2012 Russia Kazan, Russia
Sambo Supercup editions
Year Dates Location
1982
2014

United States National Sambo Championships[edit]

United States National Sambo Championships known initially as the National AAU Sambo Wrestling Championships are the annual championships held in the United States. American enthusiasts of martial arts took up Sambo shortly before it was contested at the 1973 World Wrestling Championships and was rapidly making its way to become an Olympic sport in 1980.[18]

Year Dates Location Venue Events
1975 10 May Mesa, Arizona Community College 10
1976 5 June Chandler, Arizona Chandler High School gym 10
1977 23 April Southeast San Diego, California Jackie Robinson Memorial YMCA 10
1978 20 May Chula Vista, California Southwestern College 10[38]
1979 21 April Walnut, California 10
1980 2 August Kansas City, Missouri 20
1984 3 March Kansas City, Missouri Kansas City North Community Center
1984 30 March Washington, D.C.
1987 28 March Kansas City, Missouri Bishop Ward High School
1988 9 April Newark, New Jersey Essex County College 29+3(t)[39]
1989 10 November Newark, New Jersey
1990 13 May Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 27
1991 31 March Covington, Kentucky
1992 28 March Cincinnati, Ohio
1993 27 March Norman, Oklahoma Norman High School
1994 26 March Chula Vista, California Southwestern College
1996 South Annville, Pennsylvania Annville-Cleona High School
1998 11 April Washington, D.C.
2006 19-20 August North Palm Beach, Florida North Palm Beach Community Center
Note: (t) stands for team events.

Sambo at the National Wrestling Championships[edit]

The national Sambo competition also was held along with Greco-Roman and Freestyle events at the 1987 and 1988 AAU/USA Grand National Wrestling Championships on July 1, 1987, and July 6, 1988, respectively, both held at Market Square Arena in Indianapolis, Indiana.[40] Next year it was contested at the 1989 AAU/Carrier Grand National Wrestling Championships on July 5 at Metra in Billings, Montana.[41] 1990 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships also hosted a national Sambo competition at Market Square Arena in Indianapolis, Indiana on July 10.[42] 1992 AAU Grand National edition hosted a national Sambo competition in July in Amarillo, Texas. 1994 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships also hosted a national Sambo competition at Kellogg Arena in Battle Creek, Michigan on July 13.[43] 1995 AAU Grand National edition hosted a national Sambo competition in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The 1999 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships also offered Sambo to competitors on June 30 at Metra in Billings, Montana.[44] The 2002 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships saw Sambo competition on June 19 at Hirsch Coliseum in Shreveport, Louisiana.[45]

USA Wrestling has added Sambo as a style since the 2007 U.S. National Wrestling Championships in Las Vegas, Nevada.[46]

Notable practitioners[edit]

See List of Sambo practitioners

Name controversy[edit]

Although sambo is a Russian acronym, exponents of the sport in the English-speaking world have faced problems concerning the linguistically unrelated racist term. Sambo representatives have opted to use the alternative spelling Sombo to avoid offence.[47] In Swedish, "sambo" is the term for an unmarried couple living together on permanent basis. To avoid confusion, FIAS also references the sport with its acronym spelling: SAMBO.[48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sombo wrestling history and basic rules BY JOSH HENSON | MAY 01, 2006 | United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Official Website.
  2. ^ a b Schneiderman, R. M. (19 June 2010). "Once-Secret Martial Art Rises in Ring's Bright Lights". the New York Times.
  3. ^ "Once-secret KGB martial art fights for recognition". The Independent. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
  4. ^ The final report of the President's Commission on Olympic Sports, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977, p. 261.
  5. ^ Combs, Steve ; Frank, Chuck. Winning Wrestling, Contemporary Books, Chicago, 1980, p. 3.
  6. ^ "Black Belt". Active Interest Media, Inc. 2 November 1964. p. 13 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ "Борьба САМБО — ИСТОРИЯ — Михаил ЛУКАШЕВ, Сотворение САМБО". sambo.spb.ru. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b Andavolu, Krishna (4 February 2013). "Sambo's Gulag Past and MMA Future | FIGHTLAND". Fightland.vice.com. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  9. ^ Виктор Афанасьевич Спиридонов (Viktor Spiridonov) – biography at peoples.ru (in Russian).
  10. ^ "Sambo Ranking System (Approved on XVI FIAS Congress in Astana, Kazakhstan, 2005) | SAMBO.COM - Federation Internationale de Sambo". Sambo.Com. 31 July 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  11. ^ Classic Sambo – Get the Upper Hand on Your Opponent With Nasty Leglocks Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine by Stephen Koepfer, in Grappling magazine
  12. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM SAMBO ASSOCIATION". Mixed Martial Arts - Knucklepit. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  13. ^ T.P. Grant (8 August 2013). "MMA Fan's Guide to Grappling: Sambo". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  14. ^ Adams, Andy (26 March 2013). "Classic Black Belt Article From 1967: Russia Prepares to Export Sambo (Part 3) – - Black Belt". Blackbeltmag.com. Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  15. ^ Adams, Andy (22 March 2013). "Classic Black Belt Article From 1967: Russia Prepares to Export Sambo (Part 2) – - Black Belt". Blackbeltmag.com. Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  16. ^ T.P. Grant (8 March 2013). "MMA Origins: Russian Revolution". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  17. ^ Adams, Andy (21 March 2013). "Classic Black Belt Article From 1967: Russia Prepares to Export Sambo (Part 1) – - Black Belt". Blackbeltmag.com. Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  18. ^ a b Nishioka, Hayward (July 1977). "Can America "Sambo" Its Way to the 1980 Olympics". Black Belt. 15 (7): 23–27.
  19. ^ "Curtis has a few ideas". The Argus: 19. 10 August 1975.
  20. ^ National Sports Festival Schedule By The Associated Press
  21. ^ COLORADO (UPI). Results from Saturday's events at the fifth National Sports Festival
  22. ^ SOMBO NEWS, AAU News, 1979, p. 8.
  23. ^ National Sombo Group Being Formed, Black Belt, January 1985, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 116.
  24. ^ Sambo a demo sport in 1980 Olympics? Archived 2008-01-07 at the Wayback Machine (Worldwide Grappling Forums)
  25. ^ Games of the XXIII Olympiad (Volume 3 – Participants and Results) (640 pages)
  26. ^ Part judo, part wrestling, Sombo has CV resident captivated By Phillip Brents, The Star-News, Chula Vista, California, August 31- Sept 1, 1991, Page D4.
  27. ^ Schneiderman, R.M. (19 July 2008). "Once-Secret Martial Art Rises in Ring's Bright Lights". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  28. ^ Struggling To Survive – Can FILA End Sambo's Civil War? Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine – in Grappling magazine
  29. ^ FILA/USAW Drops Sambo (Again) – (Wide Grappling Forums)
  30. ^ Talanoa, Simione (23 July 2014). "FILA and FIAS sign a memorandum of cooperation". sportspromedia.com.
  31. ^ Long, Michael (2 September 2014). "INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONS OF JUDO AND SAMBO SIGNED COOPERATION AGREEMENT". sportspromedia.com.
  32. ^ "27th Summer Universiade in Kazan, July 6-17 2013". Kazan2013.ru. 14 July 1990. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  33. ^ "The International Sambo Federation (FIAS)". Sambo-fias.org. 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  34. ^ "Официальный сайт Международной Федерации САМБО". sambo-fias.org.
  35. ^ "FKE.RU - Федерации Комплексных Единоборств". fke.ru.
  36. ^ "ASA Rankings". Ussambo.com. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  37. ^ Initially has been planned to be contested in the programme of the 1977 Wrestling World Cup along with freestyle wrestling event. See: "Olympic Calendar". Olympic Review (115): 343. May 1977.
  38. ^ AAU Sambo Nationals: Southland WC Romps, AAU News, 1978, Volume 49, pp. 6-7.
  39. ^ Sombo Championships, Info AAU, 1988, Volume 59, p. 20.
  40. ^ Wrestling, Info AAU, 1988, Volume 59, p. 19.
  41. ^ Wrestling, Info AAU, 1989, Volume 60, p. 20.
  42. ^ Wrestling, Info AAU, 1990, Volume 61, p. 21
  43. ^ A Russian import By Todd Schulz, Battle Creek Enquirer, July 14, 1994 · Page 4C.
  44. ^ SCOREBOARD, The Billings Gazette, June 19, 1999 · Page 2C.
  45. ^ AAU equals attention By Brian Vernellis, The Times, Shreveport, Louisiana, June 21, 2002, Page 4C.
  46. ^ Sombo to be included at U.S. National Championships in Las Vegas Nev April 6-7 BY GARY ABBOTT | DEC. 12, 2006 | United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Official Website
  47. ^ Who runs International Sombo? by Martin Clarke Archived 5 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "The International Sambo Federation (FIAS)". Sambo-fias.org. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Organizations[edit]

(Wayback Machine copy)

Others[edit]

(Wayback Machine copy)