Same-sex marriage in Germany
Same-sex marriage in Germany has been legal since 1 October 2017. A bill for legalisation passed the Bundestag on 30 June 2017 and the Bundesrat on 7 July. It was signed into law on 20 July by President Frank-Walter Steinmeier and published in the Federal Law Gazette on 28 July 2017.
Previously, from 2001 until 2017, registered life partnerships (German: Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft)[a] had been available for same-sex couples. The benefits granted by these partnerships were gradually extended by the Federal Constitutional Court (German: Bundesverfassungsgericht) throughout several rulings until they provided for most but not all of the rights of marriage.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Registered life partnerships
- 1.2 Same-sex marriage
- 2 Public opinion
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Registered life partnerships
First and second Schröder governments (1998–2005)
The Act on Registered Life Partnerships of 2001 (German: Gesetz über die Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft) was a compromise between proponents of same-sex marriage and conservatives from the two major conservative parties, whose MPs' interpretation of marriage excluded gay people. The act grants a number of rights enjoyed by married, opposite-sex couples. It was drafted by Volker Beck of the Greens and was approved under the Green/Social Democratic Coalition Government. The Bundestag approved it in November 2000 with the government parties voting in favour and the opposition parties CDU/CSU and FDP voting against. President Johannes Rau signed the law on 16 February 2001 and it entered into force on 1 August 2001.
On 17 July 2002, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany upheld the act. The Court found, unanimously, that the process leading to the law's enactment was constitutional. The 8-member Court further ruled, with three dissenting votes, that the substance of the law conforms to the Basic Law (Grundgesetz, the German Constitution), and ruled that these partnerships could be granted equal rights to those given to married couples. (The initial law had deliberately withheld certain privileges, such as joint adoption and pension rights for widows and widowers), in an effort to observe the "special protection" which the Constitution provided for marriage and the family. The court determined that the "specialness" of the protection was not in the quantity of protection, but in the obligatory nature of this protection, whereas the protection of registered partnerships was at the Bundestag's discretion.)
On 12 October 2004, the Registered Life Partnership Law (Revision) Act (German: Gesetz zur Überarbeitung des Lebenspartnerschaftsrechts) was passed by the Bundestag, increasing the rights of registered life partners to include, among other things, the possibility of stepchild adoption and simpler alimony and divorce rules, but excluding the same tax benefits as in a marriage. It took effect on 1 January 2005.
First Merkel Government (2005–2009)
In July 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled that a transsexual person who transitioned to female, after having been married to a woman for more than 50 years, could remain married to her wife and change her legal gender to female. It gave the Bundestag one year to effect the necessary change in the relevant law.
On 22 October 2009, the Constitutional Court ruled that a man whose employer had given him and his registered partner inferior pension benefits on account of him not being married was entitled to the same benefits he would receive were he and his partner married and of opposite sexes. The court's decision mandated equal rights for same-sex registered couples not just in regard to pension benefits, but in regard to all rights and responsibilities currently applying to married couples.
Second Merkel Government (2009–2013)
On 25 October 2009, the Government Programme of the new Christian Democratic-Free Democratic coalition was released. It stipulated that tax inequality between (same-sex) life partners and (opposite-sex) married couples would be removed and would codify into law the Constitutional Court's ruling of 22 October 2009. However, the Government Programme did not mention adoption rights.
On 17 August 2010, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the surviving partners of registered partnerships are entitled to the same inheritance tax rules as the survivors of mixed-sex marriages. Surviving marital partners paid 7–30% inheritance tax while surviving registered partners paid 17–50%.
On 18 February 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court broadened the adoption rights for registered partners. A partner must be allowed to adopt the other partner's adopted child, a so-called "successive adoption", and not only a partner's biological child. However, the Government did not bring up a vote in Parliament to change the adoption laws before it adjourned in June 2013. The Court gave the Parliament the deadline of 30 June 2014 to change the laws.
On 6 June 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that registered partnerships should have joint tax filing benefits equal to those of married (opposite-sex) couples. The Parliament had to change the law retroactively, and did so within a month.
Third Merkel Government (2013–2017)
While the new CDU/CSU-SPD Government had to allow successive adoption by June 2014 as required by the 2013 Federal Constitutional Court ruling, the Court was expected to rule in 2014 whether registered partners must be allowed to jointly adopt children as well, but dismissed the case in February 2014 on procedural grounds.
In March 2014, the Government approved the proposed law to allow successive adoption, with discussion on whether or not to implement full adoption equality. The Bundesrat recommended full adoption equality, and a Bundestag Committee held a hearing on the topic. On 22 May, the Bundestag passed the law while rejecting proposals by The Greens for full adoption equality. Another law to grant full tax equality passed unanimously in the Bundestag, finishing the required legal changes following the June 2013 court ruling.
In October 2015, the Bundestag approved a government bill modifying a series of laws concerning registered partnerships. It gave the same rights as married couples in several legal areas; there were, however, no noteworthy changes. The bill passed the Bundesrat in November.
Entering into life registered partnerships is no longer possible after the law allowing marriage for same-sex couples took effect on 1 October 2017. Existing partnerships can retain their status or be converted into marriage.
The Registered Life Partnership Act went into effect on 1 August 2001. By October 2004, 5,000 couples had registered their partnerships. By 2007, this number had increased to 15,000, two thirds of these being male couples. By 2010, this number had increased to 23,000. By 9 May 2011, 68,268 people reported being in a registered partnership.
By the end of 2016, 44,000 registered partnerships had been conducted in Germany. Approximately 25,000 (56.8%) were between men, while 19,000 were between women (43.2%).
CDU/CSU, the senior member parties of Germany's Coalition Government since 2005, have historically been opposed to the legalisation of same-sex marriage. The Green Party, the Social Democratic Party, and the Left Party support same-sex marriage and voted in July 2012 for a defeated bill to legalise it. The Free Democratic Party supports same-sex marriage, though the party rejected same-sex marriage legislation when they were part of a coalition government with the CDU/CSU between 2009–2013. Similarly, the Social Democratic Party agreed to oppose same-sex marriage when in government with the CDU/CSU between 2013–2017. All other parties made agreement on same-sex marriage a condition for joining a coalition government with the CDU/CSU after the 2017 election.
Second Merkel Government (2009–2013)
The Greens, in opposition, released a draft law on same-sex marriage in June 2009. In March 2010, the Senate of Berlin announced its intention to introduce a same-sex marriage bill in the Bundesrat, the federal representation of the German states. According to the Senate, this law would best fit the Constitutional Court's ruling that same-sex couples must be equally treated as heterosexual ones. The Bundesrat rejected the law in September 2010. Only Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen and North Rhine-Westphalia voted in favour of the same-sex marriage bill; the other 12 Länder did not.
On 28 June 2012, a Green Party motion in the Bundestag (Federal Diet) to legalise same-sex marriage was defeated by a vote of 309 to 260, with 12 abstentions. The motion was meant to give parity to same-sex couples in adoption and for tax purposes. Members of the ruling coalition of Union parties and Free Democratic Party voted against the proposal while opposition parties Social Democratic Party, Greens, and The Left supported it.
On 22 March 2013, the Bundesrat passed an initiative proposed by 5 states (Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate and Schleswig-Holstein) which would open marriage to same-sex couples. The bill was sent to the Bundestag for a vote, however, the ruling coalition was still the same as in 2012 when the previous proposal was defeated.
Third Merkel Government (2013–2017)
Federal elections were held on 22 September 2013, after which a new government coalition was formed. The new Bundestag, which started on 22 October, again consisted of a theoretical majority of parties in favour of same-sex marriage (SPD, Die Linke and The Greens). Die Linke immediately introduced a bill to legalise same-sex marriage, but SPD did not support it, in order to not jeopardise the negotiations of the government formation. Even though the SPD had campaigned on "100% equality" for LGBT people, the coalition agreement between CDU, CSU and SPD did not contain any significant change regarding LGBT rights. Die Linke's bill had its first reading on 19 December 2013 and was subsequently sent to the committees.
On 5 June 2015, nine states (Baden-Württemberg, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein and Thuringia) submitted a same-sex marriage bill to the Bundesrat (Federal Council). On 12 June 2015, it had its first reading and was sent to the committees. In the Bundestag, the opposition party Alliance '90/The Greens submitted a further bill on 10 June 2015. It had its first reading on 18 June 2015 and was sent to the committees. On 25 September 2015, the Bundesrat voted to approve the bill legalising same-sex marriage. The bill moved to the Bundestag, where the governing parties (CDU/CSU and SPD) blocked the consideration of all three pending same-sex marriage bills in the Legal Affairs Committee.
On 14 August 2016, despite the lack of legal recognition for same-sex marriage, two men were married in Berlin's Marienkirche by two Protestant pastors, the first same-sex marriage performed in a German church.
In March 2017, the SPD, the junior partner in the Coalition Government, announced they would press the CDU to legalise same-sex marriage in the face of overwhelming public support. SPD's leader in the Bundestag Thomas Oppermann said his party would introduce a bill, in addition to the long-pending bills of the Greens, The Left and the one referred from the Bundesrat, but did not do so. On 20 June 2017, the Federal Constitutional Court rejected an application by the Greens for an injunction ordering a parliamentary committee to send bills legalising same-sex marriage to lawmakers for a vote in Parliament's last pre-election session.
On 17 June 2017, the Greens pledged not to participate in any governing coalition after the 2017 elections, unless the legalisation of same-sex marriage was part of the agreement. On 24 June, FDP leader Christian Lindner said that he would recommend that his party makes a similar commitment, and the following day, the SPD made a similar pledge.
Bundestag vote & Bundesrat approval (2017)
On 27 June 2017, answering audience questions at a public forum in Berlin, Chancellor Angela Merkel unexpectedly stated that she hoped the matter would be put to a conscience vote in the Bundestag in the near future. The next day, several politicians called for a vote to be held later that week, in the last session before summer recess. SPD chairman Martin Schulz promised that his party would arrange for a vote to take place. Later that day, both Union parties announced that they would allow their MPs a conscience vote, although they opposed a vote on the issue before the next election. Also that day (28 June), SPD, Green and Left members of the Legal Affairs Committee voted to schedule a plenary vote on the bill proposed by the Bundesrat in 2015, outvoting CDU/CSU members. The Greens and The Left withdrew their own respective bills.
On 30 June, the Bundestag debated and passed the bill by 393–226, with 4 abstentions and 7 absentees. Merkel herself, whose change of position had led to the vote being held, voted against the legislation, but said that she hoped the result "not only promotes respect between the different opinions but also brings more social cohesion and peace". On 7 July, the Bundesrat approved the bill without a vote, because there were no requests for reconciliatory sessions (German: Vermittlungsausschuss). The bill was signed into law on 20 July 2017 by President Frank-Walter Steinmeier, thus officially becoming the Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts. The law was published on 28 July 2017 in the Federal Law Gazette and came into force the first day of the third month after publication (i.e.: 1 October 2017). Same-sex couples started to get married all over Germany that day, with the first same-sex wedding taking place in Schöneberg, Berlin between Karl Kreile and Bodo Mende.
|Party||Voted for||Voted against||Abstention||Did not vote|
|Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union (CDU/CSU)||75||225||4||5|
|Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)||192||–||–||1|
|The Left (Die Linke)||63||–||–||1|
|Alliance 90/The Greens (B90/Grüne)||63||–||–||–|
|Erika Steinbach (independent)||–||1||–||–|
Several legal experts, including MPs and party leaders, raised doubts about the legality of the law, with former President of the Federal Constitutional Court Hans-Jürgen Papier arguing that same-sex marriage is inconsistent with previous definitions of marriage espoused by the court. Article 6(1) of the Constitution, places "marriage and family" under the "special protection of the state order". An amendment to the Constitution requires a two-thirds majority in both houses. These concerns were dismissed by Federal Justice Minister Heiko Maas, who argued that Article 6(1) neither defines the term marriage nor rules out a wider definition.
Following the passage of the law, the Bavarian Government and Alternative for Germany (AfD) party both said they would consider petitioning the court for a judicial review (German: abstrakte Normenkontrolle), however, the AfD lacks legal standing to bring a challenge, as it is not part of the Federal Government or any state government, nor does it have the necessary quarter of MPs in the Bundestag. On 6 March 2018, the Bavarian Government announced it would not challenge the law, after commissioned assessments found its chances to be successful as low.
In September 2018, nearly a year after same-sex marriage was legalised, the AfD introduced a petition to abolish same-sex marriage. The motion was debated in the Bundestag on 11 October, and failed. Every other political party opposed the motion. Greens and CDU/CSU lawmakers instead congratulated the 10,000 or so same-sex couples who had married in Germany in the past year, while others took time to criticise the AfD for their proposal, calling it "undemocratic", "wrong", "a cheap political trick at the expense of free society" (ein billiger Wahlkampf auf Kosten der freien Gesellschaft) or even "lazy as hell" (stinkfaul).
In September 2018, the AfD in the Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein presented a petition to force the state Government to sue the same-sex marriage law at the Federal Constitutional Court. All other political parties voted against the motion, because a majority of legal experts see same-sex marriage as compatible with federal laws.
In December 2018, the German Parliament passed the Gesetz zur Umsetzung des Gesetzes zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts, amending several other laws to reflect the legalisation of same-sex marriage.
From October to the end of December 2017, 680 same-sex couples got married in Berlin. Of these, 181 wed in Tempelhof-Schöneberg, 100 in Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and 97 in Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, while the remaining couples married in the 9 other boroughs. During these three months, same-sex marriages accounted for 18.4% of all Berlin marriages.
In Mannheim, 135 same-sex couples got married between October 2017 and February 2018. All but 16 of these were conversions from partnerships. In Freiburg im Breisgau, the number of same-sex marriages was 46.
By the end of March 2018, more than 1,000 same-sex marriages had taken place in Berlin (four boroughs did not published their marriage statistics, leaving incomplete data), 900 in Hamburg, 644 in Cologne, 477 in Münich, 216 in Frankfurt, 192 in Düsseldorf, 180 in Dortmund and 158 in Hannover. Most of these were conversions from partnerships.
By the end of September 2018, about a year after the legalisation of same-sex marriage, more than 10,000 same-sex couples had gotten married, about two-thirds of whom had converted their partnerships into marriages.
In December 2006, a poll conducted by the Angus-Reid Global Monitor, seeking public attitudes on economic, political, and social issues for member-states of the European Union found that Germany ranked seventh supporting same-sex marriage with 52% popular support. German support for same-sex marriage was above the European Union average of 44%.
In January 2013, a poll conducted by the YouGov found that German support for same-sex marriage was 66% for, 24% opposed and 10% didn't know. Support for same-sex adoption was 59% for, 31% opposed and 11% didn't know.
A February 2013 poll conducted by RTL Television and Stern magazine found that 74% of the German people were supportive of same-sex marriage, with 23% against. Support was recorded to be strongest among Greens and Social Democratic (SPD) voters, but even among voters of Chancellor Angela Merkel's governing Christian Democrats (CDU) almost two-thirds were in favour, the poll showed.
A May 2013 Ipsos poll found that 67% of respondents were in favour of same-sex marriage and another 12% supported other forms of recognition for same-sex couples.
According to the Ifop poll, conducted in May 2013, 74% of Germans supported allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children.
According to an October 2013 poll by TNS Emnid, 70% supported full legal equality of registered partnerships and marriage.
According to a May 2015 poll by YouGov, 65% supported same-sex marriage (by party: 57% of CDU voters, 79% of SPD voters, 68% of Die Linke voters and 94% of Green voters). Another 28% opposed same-sex couples to marry and 7% didn't know. Support rose to 75% among 18- to 24-year-olds, but fell to 60% among those aged 55 and over, 64% among Catholics and 63% among Protestants. Support for same-sex adoption was 57% for, 35% opposed and 8% didn't know.
The 2015 Eurobarometer found that 66% of Germans thought that same-sex marriage should be allowed throughout Europe, 29% were against.
Another May 2015 poll by TNS Emnid found out that 64% of Germans supported same-sex marriage (by party: 63% of CDU/CSU voters, 77% of SPD voters, 63% of FDP voters, 62% of The Left voters, 89% of Green voters and 14% of AfD voters). Another 31% were opposed and 5% didn't know.
A June 2015 poll by INSA showed that 65% of Germans supported same-sex marriage (by party: 58% of CDU voters, 75% of SPD voters, 72% of Die Linke voters, 79% of Green voters, 65% of FDP voters, and 42% of AfD voters).
In January 2017, a study by Germany's Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency indicated that 83% of Germans were in favour of same-sex marriage.
A June 2017 poll found that 73% of Germans supported same-sex marriage, including 95% of Green voters, 82% of SPD voters, 81% of Die Linke voters, 64% of CDU voters, 63% of FDP voters, and 55% of AfD voters.
A Pew Research Center poll, conducted between April and August 2017 and published in May 2018, showed that 75% of Germans supported same-sex marriage, 23% were opposed and 2% didn't know or refused to answer. When divided by religion, 86% of religiously unaffiliated people, 82% of non-practicing Christians and 53% of church-attending Christians supported same-sex marriage. Opposition was 15% among 18-34-year-olds.
- (in Upper Sorbian) Jenož 0.9 procentow? Spodźiwne přispomnjenje k spěchowanju Serbow w Sakskej
- Terminologija Wěcneje wědy, Terminologie für den Sachkundeunterricht
- (in German) Leitsätze zum Urteil des Ersten Senats vom 17. Juli 2002 Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Lifetime Partnership Act of Germany".
- (in German) Gesetz zur Überarbeitung des Lebenspartnerschaftsrechts
- Current Legal Framework: Transgender Issues in Germany
- "High court backs equal rights for gay marriages". Thelocal.de. 2009-10-25. Retrieved 2010-12-13.
- (in German) Verfassungsgericht zu Homo-Ehe - Ehe, Partner, Kinder
- (in German) DER KOALITIONSVERTRAG ZWISCHEN CDU, CSU UND FDP
- (in German) Die FDP hat ihre Wahlversprechungen gehalten! Archived 28 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "German court: gay couples entitled to equal treatment on inheritance tax". The Canadian Press. Associated Press. 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
- "Court Ruling: Germany Strengthens Gay Adoption Rights". Spiegel. 2013-02-19.
- (in German) Decision by the Federal Constitutional Court
- "High Court Ruling: Germany Grants Tax Equality to Gay Couples". Spiegel. 2013-06-06.
- "Bundesrat beschließt Ehegattensplitting für Homo-Paare" (in German). Queer.de. 5 July 2013.
- "Sukzessivadoption: Maas erledigt Hausaufgaben von Schwarz-Gelb" (in German). Queer.de. 16 January 2014.
- "Karlsruhe: Vorerst kein Urteil zum Adoptionsrecht" (in German). Queer.de. 21 January 2014.
- "Bundesrat für volles Adoptionsrecht für Homo-Paare" (in German). Queer.de. 11 April 2014.
- "Bundestag: Öffentliche Anhörung zum Adoptionsrecht" (in German). Queer.de. 30 April 2014.
- "Homo-Paare erhalten Recht auf Sukzessivadoption" (in German). Die Welt. 22 May 2014.
- "Weitere Gleichstellung im Steuerrecht" (in German). Queer.de. 7 May 2014.
- ""Bereinigungsgesetz": Bundesrat nickt Mini-Reform durch" (in German). Queer.de. 6 November 2015.
- "Das ändert sich für homosexuelle Paare" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Civil partnership
- (in German) 68 000 gleichgeschlechtliche Lebensgemeinschaften in Deutschland Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- (in German) Deutschlandweit rund 23 000 eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaften
- (in German) Gleichgeschlechtliche Lebensgemeinschaften in Deutschland In absoluten Zahlen, 1996 bis 2009
- "ZENSUS2011 - Homepage - 2011 Census: just under a quarter of foreigners originate from Turkey". www.zensus2011.de.
- (in German) Destatis: Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaften – Ergebnisse des Mikrozensus und des Zensus
- (in German) Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts
- (in German) Öffnung der Ehe für Lesben und Schwule Archived 20 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Bundestag stimmt für Beibehaltung der Diskriminierung" (in German). Queer.de. June 28, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Germany: Merkel paves way for gay marriage vote". BBC News. 27 June 2017. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017.
- (in German) Berliner Senat für Öffnung der Ehe
- (in German) Bundesrat lehnt Gleichstellung ab
- (in German) Hamburg beschließt Bundesratsiniative für Ehe-Öffnung
- "Bundestag lehnt Entwurf für Homo-Ehen ab" [Federal Diet declines motion for gay marriages]. Rheinische Post (in German). 28 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Bundesrat stimmt für Ehe-Öffnung" (in German). Queer.de. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
- (in German) Bill opening marriage to same-sex couples
- "Bundestag: Linke beantragt Ehe-Öffnung" (in German). Queer.de. 9 October 2013.
- "Linksfraktion bringt Gesetzentwurf zur Ehe-Öffnung ein" (in German). Queer.de. 25 October 2013.
- "Große Koalition vertagt die Gleichstellung" (in German). Queer.de. 27 November 2013.
- (in German) Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts (18/8)
- Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts (18/6665)
- Gesetz zur Abschaffung des Eheverbots für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare (18/5098)
- "Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Abschaffung des Eheverbots für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare" (PDF) (in German). Bundestag. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- (in German)Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts (273/15)
- "Bundesrat stimmt für Öffnung der Ehe für Schwule und Lesben" (in German). Queer.de. 25 September 2015.
- "Germany's Bundesrat passes equal marriage bill despite Merkel's opposition". Pink News. 26 September 2016. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015.
- "Ehe für alle: Koalition blockiert Abstimmung im Bundestag". Queer.de. 19 December 2015.
- Pongratz-Lippitt, Christa (16 August 2016). "Same-sex couple married in German Protestant church, a first". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- Bleiker, Carla (6 March 2017). "Merkel's conservatives under pressure to allow gay marriage". dw.com. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- "Oppermann: SPD-Gesetzentwurf zur Ehe für alle noch im März". Queer.de. 11 March 2017.
- "German Opposition Party Fails to Force Gay Marriage Vote". Associated Press. NBC News. 20 June 2017.
- "German Greens make same-sex marriage guarantee condition of coalition". Deutsche Welle. 17 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Martin, Michelle; Busemann, Hans-Edzard (17 June 2017). "Germany's Greens open to almost all coalitions but price is gay marriage". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Lindner will Ehe für alle zur Koalitionsbedingung machen" (in German). Die Zeit. 24 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "FDP soll "Ehe für alle" zur Koalitionsbedingung machen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 24 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Bundesparteitag der SPD Schulz macht Ehe für alle zur Koalitionsbedingung". DPA (in German). Berliner Zeitung. 25 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Schulz: Ohne Homo-Ehe keine Koalition mit SPD". Saarbrücker Zeitung (in German). 25 June 2017. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- "Is Angela Merkel about to shift her party's position on gay marriage?". Deutsche Welle. 27 June 2017.
- "Ehe für alle: SPD kündigt Bundestags-Abstimmung noch in dieser Woche an". queer.de (in German). 27 June 2017.
- "Bundestag vote on gay marriage expected in coming days". dw.com. 27 June 2017.
- "Merkel gibt Abstimmung über Ehe für alle frei". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 27 June 2017.
- "Rechtsausschuss beschließt: Bundestag stimmt über 'Ehe für alle' ab" [Parliamentary committee decides: Bundestag shall vote on 'marriage for all']. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 28 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "German parliament paves way for gay marriage vote Friday". Agence-France Presse. Yahoo. 28 June 2017.
- "Gay Marriage Nears Legalization". Handelsblatt Global. 28 June 2017.
- "Gay marriage bill to be voted on Friday, despite government feud over timing". The Local Germany. 28 June 2017.
- "Bundestag entscheidet möglicherweise über die "Ehe für alle"" (in German). Bundestag. 28 June 2017. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Entwurf eines Gesetzes zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts" (PDF) (in German). Bundestag. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Bundestag: Große Mehrheit stimmt für Ehe für alle" [Bundestag: large majority votes in favour of 'marriage for all']. Die Zeit (in German). 30 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Smale, Alison; Shimer, David (30 June 2017). "Parliament in Germany Approves Same-Sex Marriage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "Germany's Bundestag passes bill on same-sex marriage". Deutsche Welle. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- "German parliament votes to legalise same-sex marriage". Agence-France Presse. The Guardian. 30 June 2017.
- "Why Angela Merkel, known for embracing liberal values, voted against same-sex marriage". Washington Post. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017.
- "German lawmakers approve same-sex marriage in landmark vote". Reuters. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- "Länderkammer: Bundesrat stimmt Öffnung der Ehe zu". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). 7 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Arab, Adrian (6 July 2017). "Ehe für alle: Im Bundesrat ergibt sich die CSU kampflos" [Marriage for all: CSU gives up without a fight in the Bundesrat]. Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Same-sex marriage bill clears German upper house". Deutsche Welle. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Duffy, Nick (7 July 2017). "Germany's upper house gives green light to equal marriage". PinkNews. Archived from the original on 8 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Germany's first same-sex marriages expected in October". The Local. 21 July 2017. Archived from the original on 21 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "German president signs gay marriage bill into law". Deutsche Welle. 21 July 2017. Archived from the original on 21 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Gesetz zur Ehe für alle unterzeichnet". Die Zeit. 21 July 2017. Archived from the original on 21 July 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts" (PDF) (in German). Bundesgesetzblatt. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- "Ehe für alle gilt ab 1. Oktober" (in German). n-tv. 28 July 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
- "Germany's first same-sex "I do"'s as marriage equality dawns". Reuters. 1 October 2017. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- "Germany gay marriage: Couple are first to marry under new law". BBC News. 1 October 2017. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- Jordans, Frank (1 October 2017). "Germany celebrates 1st same-sex weddings after law change". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts, 30 June 2017, Bundestag
- "Ehe für alle: So haben die Abgeordneten abgestimmt – die Namensliste" (PDF). Abgeordnetenwatch (in German). 30 June 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Ehe für alle - überall? (Das Abstimmungsverhalten der 630 Bundestagsabgeordneten)". Public Tableau (in German). 8 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
- "Hans-Jürgen Papier: Ex-Verfassungsrichter hält Ehe für alle für grundgesetzwidrig" [Hans-Jürgen Papier: former justice of the Constitutional Court considers 'marriage for all' unconstitutional]. Der Spiegel (in German). 2 July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- "Germany Approves Gay Marriage: Next Stop Constitutional Court?". focus-fen.net. 2 July 2017.
- "Ehe für alle: Könnte eine Klage gegen die Ehe für alle erfolgreich sein?" [Marriage for all: could a constitutional complaint be successful?]. Die Zeit (in German). 2 July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- "Ehe für alle: Kauder rechnet mit Verfassungsklage" [Marriage for all: Kauder expects constitutional complaint]. Die Zeit (in German). 1 July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- "AfD will gegen Ehe für alle klagen". Der Spiegel (in German). 2 July 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Kiiver, Philipp; Kornet, Nicole, eds. (2010). Selected National, European and International Provisions from Public and Private Law. Europa Law Publishing. p. 27.
- "Gleichstellung: Seehofer prüft Verfassungsklage gegen Ehe für alle". Die Zeit (in German). 4 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Germany's AfD threatens law suit over gay marriage". Politico Europe. 2 July 2017.
- Hipp, Dietmar (3 July 2017). "Ehe für alle: Sie wollen klagen - aber sie können nicht" [Marriage for all: they want to sue, but they can't]. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Bericht aus der Kabinettssitzung vom 6. März 2018" (in German). Government of Bavaria. 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- "Bayern klagt nicht gegen die Ehe für alle". Deutsche Presse-Agentur (in German). Die Welt. 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- Wareham, Jamie (8 March 2018). "German state drops gay marriage legal challenge as they have 'no chance of winning'". Gay Star News. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
- Klein, Dennis (15 June 2018). "AfD will Eheverbot für Schwule und Lesben wieder einführen". Queer.de.
- "Bundestag: AfD bringt Antrag zur Abschaffung der Ehe für alle ein". Queer.de. 27 September 2018.
- (in German) Antrag gegen Ehe für alle: Bundestag nimmt AfD auseinander
- Klein, Dennis (14 September 2018). "AfD macht im Landtag Stimmung gegen die Ehe für alle". Queer.de.
- "AfD will Ehe für alle wieder abschaffen". The Huffington Post. 1 October 2018.
- (in German) Gesetz zur Umsetzung des Gesetzes zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts
- (in German) "Ehe für alle": 680 homosexuelle Paare haben geheiratet
- (in German) Viele gleichgeschlechtliche Paare trauen sich
- (in German) Über 1.000 Ehe-Schließungen unter Schwulen und Lesben in Berlin
- Tausende schwule und lesbische Paare haben geheiratet
- One year of 'Marriage for all' in Germany: How many couples have tied the knot?, The Local.de, 28 September 2018
- "Eight EU Countries Back Same-Sex Marriage". Angus-reid.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
- "Same-Sex Marriage in Europe Poll 2013". Retrieved 2013-01-11.
- "Most Germans support gay marriage, poll shows". Reuters. 27 February 2013.
- "Same-Sex Marriage". Ipsos. 7–21 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
- (in French) Enquête sur la droitisation des opinions publiques européennes Archived 1 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- TNS Emnid poll on 15–16 October 2013, 1010 respondents
- "Mehrheit der Deutschen für Homo-Ehe".
- Special Eurobarometer 437 Archived 22 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "May 2015 Poll".
- "BILD-Umfrage: Zwei Drittel der Deutschen sind für die "Homo-Ehe"".
- "Germans not opposed to same sex marriage". 12 January 2017.
- Politbarometer: Deutliche Mehrheit für die Homo-Ehe
- Religion and society, Pew Research Center, 29 May 2018
- Being Christian in Western Europe, Pew Research Center, 29 May 2018
- Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues, Pew Research Center, 2017