Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland
Same-sex marriage in the Republic of Ireland has been legal since 16 November 2015. A referendum on 22 May 2015 amended the Constitution of Ireland to provide that marriage is recognised irrespective of the sex of the partners. The measure was signed into law by the President of Ireland as the Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland on 29 August 2015. The Marriage Act 2015, passed by the Oireachtas on 22 October 2015 and signed into law by the Presidential Commission on 29 October 2015, gave legislative effect to the amendment. Marriages of same-sex couples in Ireland began being recognised from 16 November 2015, and the first marriage ceremonies of same-sex couples in Ireland occurred on 17 November 2015.
Civil partnerships, granted under the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010, gave same-sex couples rights and responsibilities similar, but not equal, to those of civil marriage.
- 1 Background
- 2 Civil partnership
- 3 Marriage
- 4 Public debate
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Law Reform Commission (2000–06)
In December 2000, as part of the Second Programme of Law Reform, the Government requested the Law Reform Commission of Ireland to examine the rights and duties of cohabitees. In April 2004, the commission published a consultation paper with provisional recommendations on legal issues related to cohabiting relationships. The report included an analysis of issues for same-sex couples. Following responses, the final report was launched in December 2006 by Justice Minister Michael McDowell.
The consultation proposals called for legal 'presumed' recognition of qualifying cohabiting relationships. Qualifying cohabitees were defined as unmarried same-sex or opposite-sex cohabiting couples in a 'marriage-like' relationships of 2 years (or 3 years in some cases), to be determined by the courts.
The commission reviewed such areas as property, succession, maintenance, pensions, social welfare and tax and recommended some changes in the law to provide rights for qualifying cohabitees. These rights would be applied by the court on application as distinct from the 'automatic' rights of legal marriage. The commission took care not to propose anything which would equate co-habitation with marriage due to concerns that such a proposal might violate the constitutional protection of the family.
The paper also included recommendations on other steps that cohabiting couples should take such writing wills, defining power of attorney, etc.
Constitutional review (2004–06)
The all-party Oireachtas Committee on the Constitution, re-established in December 2002, was conducting a review of the entire Constitution. In October 2004, it invited submissions on the Articles related to the family. Chairman Denis O'Donovan stated that it was examining these Articles to ascertain the extent to which they are serving the good of individuals and the community, with a view to deciding whether changes in them would bring about a greater balance between the two. Among the many issues raised by the committee were the definition of the family and the rights of same-sex couples to marry.
The relevant provisions are Articles 40.3, 41 and 42
- Article 41
- 1° The State pledges itself to guard with special care the institution of marriage, on which the family is founded, and to protect it against attack.
The committee held oral hearings in Spring 2005 and received an unexpectedly large volume of written submissions with at least 60% being opposed to any constitutional changes to marriage or the family, including from members of Pro Life Campaign, Family Solidarity and Mother and Child Campaign. The final report, the Tenth interim report of the committee, was launched by Taoiseach Bertie Ahern on 24 January 2006. It recommended no change to the constitutional definitions, as it expected such a referendum to fail. It suggested that there should instead be legislation for a civil partnership registration open to same-sex or opposite-sex couples which would confer succession, maintenance and taxation rights. Controversially, it also recommended that the 'presumed' recognition of cohabiting partners by the courts, as recommended by the Law Reform Commission, should also be legislated for, but only for opposite-sex couples. The basis for the limitation was that it would be easy for the courts to determine the validity of an opposite-sex relationship if there were children.
Colley Report (2005–06)
On 20 December 2005, Minister for Justice Michael McDowell announced that he was creating a working group in the Department of Justice to provide options for government consideration. This announcement came on the day after Belfast in Northern Ireland held the first of the new UK civil partnership registration ceremonies. The Government said that it would legislate following the report, but Taoiseach Bertie Ahern also said there might not be time to do so before the then upcoming election.
Chaired by former TD Anne Colley, this working group included GLEN, the gay rights lobby organisation, who said they expected a recommendation for civil marriage. The group facilitated a conference on the topic in May 2006, as input to its reports which was attended by experts from other countries which have introduced civil unions and same-sex marriage. During his speech, McDowell was interrupted by members of the Ancient Order of Hibernians opposed to the Government plans.
Initially to report by March 2006, the group presented its report to the Government in November 2006. They recommended that a civil partnership scheme would resolve most of the issues for same-sex and cohabiting couples, while providing less benefits than marriage. Offering civil marriage to same-sex couples would be open to constitutional challenge. They also recommended a legal presumption of partnership for couples which have lived together for three years, or have children together. No recommendations were made for couples in non-conjugal relationships due to lack of research. The cabinet reviewed the report, but no legislation was introduced before the 2007 general election, and in the intervening period the Government rejected opposition legislation, saying that legislation should await the Supreme Court appeal in Zappone v. Revenue Commissioners.
Other statutory bodies and NGOs
Since 2002, various statutory bodies have issued reports calling for recognition of homosexual and de facto heterosexual relationships.
Equality Authority: In January 2001, the authority produced a report on same-sex partnerships in Ireland, which it had commissioned to inform its own debate. In May 2002, the Equality Authority issued its formal report on equality for lesbians, gays and bisexuals, which highlighted the lack of recognition for same-sex couples in Irish law. In a departure from the norm, the report recommended legislative changes. These were to give legal recognition to same-sex couples, to provide equality with married couples in the areas of adoption, inheritance and taxation to eliminate discrimination.
NESF: In April 2003, the National Economic and Social Forum (NESF) published Report 27. The implementation of equality policies for gay, lesbian and bisexual people. The recommendations included calls for the Law Reform Commission to consider models to achieve equal rights for same-sex couples in its then upcoming report.
Human Rights Commission: In a report on de facto couples presented to the Justice Minister in May 2006, the Irish Human Rights Commission evaluated international standards in dealing with unmarried couples, and assessed the changes needed in Irish law from a human rights perspective. The Commission called for legal recognition of all de facto relationships, but did not call for civil marriage to be made available to same-sex couples. The IHRC has also released a report on the civil partnership scheme in January 2009.
Irish Council for Civil Liberties: Legal recognition of partnership rights and addressing inequalities in family law are a strategic objective of the ICCL for 2004–2009. In a December 2004 submission, they welcomed the Law Reform proposals, but said that registered unions were necessary. In a 2005 radio interview, the partnerships officer said that full civil marriage would not be likely to succeed in a referendum. However, their May 2006 report on the issue, "Equality for All Families" launched by ICCL founder Kader Asmal, called for legislated partnership registration and revisions to the constitutional provisions on civil marriage and the family, to give improved protection to children. This revision, which might require a referendum, should include a right to marry irrespective of sexual orientation.
Civil partnerships, introduced by the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010, gave same-sex couples rights and responsibilities similar, but not equal to, those of civil marriage. The ability to enter into a civil partnership ended on 16 November 2015. Constitutional protections granted to spouses, such as the spouse of a witness not being compelled to give evidence against their spouse in most cases, is one example of protections granted under civil partnerships. Spouses may further claim privilege in so far as necessary to protect the constitutional right to marital privacy. No such constitutional protections exist for civil partnerships. Further inequalities in relation to the family, immigration and other types of Irish law exist. The legislation provides rights for participants in long-term cohabiting relationships (opposite- or same-sex) who have not entered into a civil partnership or marriage. The following entry focuses primarily on the same-sex civil partnership aspect of the Act, as opposed to the cohabitation aspect.
The Civil Partnership Act came into effect on 1 January 2011. It had been expected that the first ceremonies would not take place until April 2011 due to a three-month waiting period required by law for all civil ceremonies. However, the legislation does provide a mechanism for exemptions to be sought through the courts, and the first partnership, which was between two men, was registered on 7 February 2011. While this ceremony was carried out publicly in the Civil Registration Office in Dublin, the mainstream media were not present.
It was not until 5 April 2011, the date originally anticipated as the date for the first ceremonies, that the media covered a civil partnership. This partnership ceremony, which was between Hugh Walsh and Barry Dignam, also took place in Dublin
Tax codes were amended in July 2011 under the Finance (No. 3) Act to take account of civil partnership. The Act, in the main, is retrospective to 1 January 2011 and it creates virtual parity, in taxation matters, between civil partners on the one hand and married people on the other hand. The Social Welfare Code had already been amended in December 2010 to take account of civil partnership.
Civil partnerships discontinued on the day same-sex marriage legislation came into effect in November 2015, though civil partners are permitted to retain their relationship status, as there is no automatic upgrade from a civil partnership to marriage.
Recognition of foreign partnerships
Certain foreign partnerships and same-sex marriages are recognised as civil partnerships since 13 January 2011. While Glenn Cunningham and Adriano Vilar are often cited as the first same-sex couple to have their civil partnership formally recognised in Ireland, in fact several hundred couples were recognised together at the exactly the same time. The couple formed a civil partnership at a ceremony in Northern Ireland in 2010.
Section 5 of the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 states the criteria used to govern which classes of relationships can be recognised. They are:
- the relationship is exclusive in nature
- the relationship is permanent unless the parties dissolve it through the courts
- the relationship has been registered under the law of that jurisdiction, and
- the rights and obligations attendant on the relationship are, in the opinion of the Minister, sufficient to indicate that the relationship would be treated comparably to a civil partnership.
The recognition is formally authorised by a statutory instrument, four of which in been passed: in 2010, listing 33 relationship types in 27 jurisdictions; in 2011, adding 6 relationships; in 2012, adding 4; and in 2013, adding 14.
The French PACS is not included, nor are some other legal relationships – for example, the Dutch civil partnership and some of the domestic partnerships in the United States. The reason is that these kinds of relationships can be dissolved by agreement between the parties (that is by both parties signing a document with a lawyer), not through the courts.
Legal position before civil partnerships
In March 2004, there was controversy in the Dáil surrounding a definition of 'spouse' when it was claimed that the Minister for Social and Family Affairs, Mary Coughlan was seeking to exclude non-married partners from social welfare legislation. The exclusion was a government response to a finding by the Equality Tribunal that a same-sex couple was discriminated against in travel privileges.
In 2004, the Civil Registration Act, which included a prohibition of same-sex marriage was passed. The act explicitly declared that there was an "impediment to a marriage" if "both parties are of the same sex".
In December 2006, the Irish High Court held in Zappone v. Revenue Commissioners that marriage as defined in the Irish Constitution was between a man and a woman and that there was no breach of rights in the refusal of the Revenue Commissioners to recognise foreign same-sex marriages.
Norris bill (2004)
|Life in Ireland|
In December 2004, Independent Senator David Norris, who had been central to the 1970s and 1980s Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform tabled a private member's bill on civil partnerships in the Seanad. The bill provided for the recognition of unmarried partnerships, both same-sex and opposite-sex cohabiting couples. It defined eligibility for a civil partnership and the process of registering a civil partnership. Rather than listing all the rights of a civil partner, it specified that all the rights of marriage would apply to anyone in a civil partnership. However, it specifically defined the dissolution process and the process for recognising foreign civil partnerships.
Norris said the bill was initiated "to protect the rights of adults who find themselves in relationships outside the conventional bonds of marriage" and "to meet the requirements of those who are making arrangements in their personal lives outside the formalities of marriage" and who also "need to be supported in the creation of mature stable relationships". Norris said he had done substantial research in order to achieve consensus on a moderate bill which took on board stated reservations.
The debate, including contributions from Justice Minister Michael McDowell, took place on 16 February 2005. The majority of speakers supported the principles behind the bill and complimented Senator Norris on his work. Some expressed reservations due to the constitutional protection of the family.
A government amendment designed to postpone a vote attracted much acrimony. This postponement was to allow for input from then ongoing investigations: the Law Reform Commission, the High Court Zappone v. Revenue Commissioners case on a Canadian marriage and the Constitutional Review Committee. Eventually, it was agreed to debate the bill but adjourn a vote indefinitely.
Labour Party bills (2006, 2007)
Similar to the Norris bill in its provisions, this bill defined a civil union as providing all the rights and duties as defined for marriage, but specifically limited civil unions to same-sex couples. It also provided for adoption by couples in such unions.
The debate, again including contributions from Justice Minister Michael McDowell, took place in February 2007. All speakers supported civil unions for same-sex couples and complimented Deputy Howlin on the bill. One expressed reservations about adoption. Minister McDowell claimed that the bill violated the constitutional provisions on marriage and the family. Government speakers said that civil unions needed to be introduced but that more time was needed to take account of the ongoing Supreme Court case and investigation work in the Department of Justice.
The Government amended the bill to delay debate for six months. As expected, the bill then fell when the Dáil was dissolved in the intervening period for the 2007 general election. Deputy Howlin said that the real reason for the delay was that the Government did not want to enact this type of social legislation in the face of an election.
Labour again brought their bill before the new house on 31 October 2007 but the Government again voted the bill down. The Green Party, now in Government also voted in opposition to the bill, with spokesperson Ciarán Cuffe arguing that the bill was unconstitutional but without giving a reasoning. The Government committed itself to introducing its own bill for registered civil partnerships by 31 March 2008, a date it failed to meet.
Government legislation (2008–10)
With the entering of the Green Party into Government in 2007, a commitment to legislation introducing civil partnerships was agreed in the Programme for Government in June of that year. On 24 June 2008, the Government announced the Heads of its Civil Partnership Bill. The bill was expected to take approximately 6 months to pass, with the legislation expected to come into effect by June 2009.
In response to the legislation, Government Senator Jim Walsh put forward a party motion to counter the bill. The Irish Times reported that around 30 unidentified backbenchers had signed the motion. One anonymous Senator was quoted as claiming that the motion "would have considerable support from the more conservative sections of the parliamentary party". Taoiseach Brian Cowen, responded by insisting that the registration of same-sex couples would not interfere with the constitutional status of marriage. Cowen noted that the bill had been drawn up in close consultation with the Attorney General and had been included in the programme for the Government. The motion was referred to the parliamentary party's justice committee on 1 July 2008 but a Fianna Fáil spokesperson was quoted as saying that there was "broad support" within the party for the legislation, while the Taoiseach and the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform Dermot Ahern reaffirmed the constitutional compatibility of the law.
The announcement of the Heads was denounced as inadequate by the opposition parties Labour and Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin spokesperson Aengus Ó Snodaigh commented that "the Government must do better".
The Government published the full Civil Partnership Bill on 26 June 2009 and said that it would be operational before the end of 2009. Dermot Ahern, the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform, introduced the bill's second stage on 3 December 2009. He said that consequent modifications to the finance and social welfare provisions would come into effect when the bill was passed. There was further second stage debate on the bill on 21 January 2010. The second stage finished on 27 January 2010. The committee stage of the bill was completed on 27 May 2010. The bill was passed in the final stage by the Dáil without a vote on 1 July 2010. The bill was passed in the final stage in the Seanad by a vote of 48–4, on 8 July 2010 and was signed by the President of Ireland on 19 July 2010. The Minister for Justice and Law Reform Dermot Ahern said: "This is one of the most important pieces of civil rights legislation to be enacted since independence. Its legislative advance has seen an unprecedented degree of unity and support within both Houses of the Oireachtas."
The Minister for Justice signed a commencement order for the Act on 23 December 2010. The Act came into force on 1 January 2011. The date of commencement of the Act was dependent on further legislation in the areas of taxation and social welfare, which was enacted separately. The Social Welfare and Pensions Bill 2010 was passed by the Dáil on 14 December and the Seanad on 17 December 2010.
End of civil partnerships
Following Ireland's legalisation of same-sex marriage in 2015 (see below), the ability to enter into a civil partnership was closed off. As of 16 November 2015, no further civil partnerships are granted in Ireland and existing civil partners only retain that status if they do not marry. Any civil partnership converted into a marriage is dissolved.
In November 2004, Katherine Zappone and Ann Louise Gilligan were granted leave by the Ireland's High Court to pursue a claim to have their September 2003 Vancouver marriage recognised for the filing of joint tax returns in Ireland. The case was heard in October 2006. The judgment was delivered in December 2006 and found that the Irish Constitution had always meant for marriage to be between a man and a woman.
The case was appealed to the Supreme Court in February 2007. It came before the Supreme Court in 2012, although returned to the High Court to challenge different elements of law, specifically the Civil Registration Act of 2004 and Civil Partnership Act of 2010.
Preparation for the referendum
The coalition Government which took office in March 2011 convened a Constitutional Convention to discuss proposed amendments to the Constitution of Ireland, including plans to introduce same-sex marriage. On 10 July 2012, the Dáil, referred the issue of whether to make provision for same-sex marriage to the Constitutional Convention, to report back in a year. On 14 April 2013, the convention approved provisions allowing for same-sex marriage, to be discussed by the Oireachtas and be put to a public referendum. On 2 July 2013, the Constitutional Convention delivered the formal report to the Oireachtas, which had four months to respond.
On 5 November 2013, it was announced that a referendum to legalise same-sex marriage would be held in the first half of 2015. On 1 July 2014, Taoiseach Enda Kenny announced that the same-sex marriage referendum would take place in Spring 2015. The referendum was held on 22 May 2015.
With the signing into law of the Children and Family Relationships Act 2015 on 6 April 2015, same-sex couples have the ability to jointly adopt children and stepchildren, as well as be able to obtain parental recognition in assisted reproduction methods of child creation. On 18 January 2016, key provisions of the law (including spouses, stepparents, civil partners and cohabiting partners being able to apply to become guardians of a child or for custody) went into effect, following the signing of a commencement order by the Minister for Justice and Equality. Portions of the Act allowing for joint adoption have not yet come into effect.
Marriage Equality referendum
Marriage may be contracted in accordance with law by two persons without distinction as to their sex.
In March 2015, the Department of Justice and Equality published the general scheme of a Marriage Bill 2015. The bill set out the changes to be made to legislation if the proposed amendment was approved. These changes included removing the existing legislative bar on same-sex couples marrying (though the wording of the amendment is self-executing and designed to invalidate it irrespective of legislative delay), addressing the situation of civil partnership, and updating terminology of existing legislation to reflect the new provision.
|Wikinews has related news: Ireland legalises same-sex marriage|
The Marriage Equality referendum was held on 22 May 2015. With votes from all 43 constituencies counted, the 62.07% "yes" vote assured the passage of the referendum. In the aftermath of the result, Minister for Justice Frances Fitzgerald stated that legislation would be brought through the Oireachtas by summer (i.e.: sometime in June or July 2015) to make same-sex marriage a reality. However, an unsuccessful legal challenge contesting the validity of the referendum delayed the legislation from going to Cabinet and the Oireachtas.
|Invalid or blank votes||13,818||0.71|
|Registered voters and turnout||3,221,681||60.52|
Marriage Act 2015
On 16 September 2015, following the High Court's rejection of the legal challenge contesting the validity of the referendum result, Fitzgerald brought the Marriage Bill before cabinet. A spokesperson for the minister's department stated that "the aim is to have the bill enacted as quickly as possible, subject to the legislative process, so that the first same-sex marriages can take place this year." Under the legislation, the first same-sex marriages will be those of couples who convert a notification of their intention to register a civil partnership into a notification of their intention to marry. The Marriage Bill passed all stages of the legislative process in the Oireachtas on 22 October 2015. On 29 October 2015, the bill was signed into law by Presidential Commission, thus becoming the Marriage Act 2015.
Though most same-sex couples seeking to marry are required to give three months notice (as is the case for opposite-sex couples), same-sex couples already in a civil partnership are allowed to make use of a 5-day fast track provision in the legislation.
As of 16 November 2015, same-sex couples who married abroad have their marriages recognised in Ireland. The first marriage ceremonies of same-sex couples occurred the following day, on 17 November 2015.
On 5 May 2016, James Reilly, then Minister for Children and Youth Affairs, announced that the Irish Government had approved the publication of the Adoption (Amendment) Bill 2016. The bill would amend the Adoption Act 2010 and the Children and Family Relationships Act 2015 and give legislative effect to the Thirty-first Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland (the children referendum). The purposes of the bill are to allow children to be adopted by their foster carers, where they have cared for the child for at least 18 months, and to allow two people regardless of marital status to adopt children, thus granting married same-sex couples the right to adopt. The bill also allows for the adoption of a child by civil partners and cohabiting couples and gives children a greater say in the adoption process, among many other reforms to the adoption system. The bill passed the Dáil on 30 November 2016, and received approval by the Seanad on 13 June 2017. The bill was signed into law by President Michael D. Higgins on 19 July 2017, becoming the Adoption (Amendment) Act 2017. The commencement order was signed by the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs, Katherine Zappone, on 18 October and the law went into effect the following day.
A few days ahead of the anniversary of the Marriage Equality referendum on 22 May 2016, the Department of Social Protection released statistics on the number of same-sex marriages that had taken place since November 2015. A total of 412 same-sex marriages were performed in those six months.
1,082 same-sex couples wed in Ireland in the one year following the Marriage Act's entry into force, averaging 21 same-sex weddings a week. 450 of these marriages were performed in Dublin, 93 in Cork, 56 in Wicklow and 48 in Kildare. The counties with the fewest same-sex marriages were Longford with two, followed by three in Roscommon and five in Leitrim.
Following the decriminalisation of "buggery" in 1993, gay rights was not a high-profile issue in Ireland. From 2001 however, Irish media increasingly covered international developments in the same-sex partnerships issue. This has included coverage of reports on the issue, legal cases taken by Irish same-sex couples, surrogate parenthood, adoption, extra-legal same-sex unions, blessings and the foreign partnerships of Irish politicians. There was extensive coverage of the 2005 introduction of civil partnerships by the British Government, which applies to Northern Ireland.
Irish legislators began to comment publicly from 2003, some tentatively suggesting legislation, and some referring to Catholic teachings. Among the general public, reaction was favourable, with a 2005 online poll showing most respondents seeing some recognition as inevitable and acceptable. More rigorous public polls taken during 2006 showed an increasing majority of the population, up to 80%, supporting the introduction of some partnership rights for same-sex couples, with a slim majority favouring full marriage. The numbers in favour of adoption by same-sex couples were lower but less clear.
At the 2002 general election only the manifestos of the Green Party and the Labour Party explicitly referred to the rights of same-sex couples, but from 2004 all political parties, including the then Fianna Fáil/Progressive Democrat Government, produced policies or made statements in favour of varying forms of recognition. In 2004, Fine Gael was the first party to launch an explicit policy document supporting civil partnerships.
In the run-up to the 2007 general election, the manifestos of all parties supported civil unions for same-sex couples with Sinn Féin and the Green Party supporting full civil marriage. All parties ran advertisements in GCN (Gay Community News) with commitments to same-sex couples. In 2012, Sinn Féin sought to provide opportunities to bring to the fore same-sex marriage at local political level by introducing motions in support of same-sex marriage at city and county councils level.
Existing and new gay organisations such as GLEN, GLUE and Noise began specifically campaigning for recognition in 2006.
As of November 2013, all parties in the Dáil support same-sex marriage: the Labour Party, the Green Party, the Socialist Party, Sinn Féin, Fianna Fáil, and Fine Gael.
A survey carried out in 2008 showed that 84% of Irish people supported civil marriage or civil partnerships for same-sex couples, with 58% (up from 51%) supporting full marriage rights in registry offices. The number who believed same-sex couples should only be allowed to have civil partnerships fell in the same period, from 33% to 26%.
A public survey in October 2008 revealed 62% of adults would vote "Yes" in a referendum to extend civil marriage to same-sex couples. A breakdown of the results showed that support was strongest among younger people and in urban areas. Women were more supportive at 68% compared to 56% of men. There was slightly less support for same-sex couples being given the right to adopt. A total of 58% of those under 50 believed same-sex couples should be able to adopt, falling to 33% among the over-50s. A total of 54% believed the definition of the family unit in the Irish Constitution should be changed to include same-sex families.
A survey commissioned by MarriagEquality in February 2009 indicated that 62% of Irish people supported same-sex marriage and would vote in favour of it if a referendum were held.
In September 2010, an Irish Times/Behaviour Attitudes survey of 1,006 people showed that 67% felt that same-sex couples should be allowed to marry. This majority extended across all age groups, with the exception of the over-65s, while 66% of Catholics were in favour of same-sex marriage. Only 25% disagreed that same-sex couples should be allowed to marry, opposition that was concentrated among older people and those in rural areas. In terms of same-sex adoption, 46% were in support of it and 38% opposed. However, a majority of females, 18- to 44-year-olds, and urban dwellers supported the idea. The survey also showed that 91% of people would not think less of someone who came out as homosexual, while 60% felt the recent civil partnership legislation was not an attack on marriage.
A poll in March 2011 (by the Sunday Times/RED C) showed that 73% of people supported allowing same-sex marriage (with 53% "agreeing strongly" with the idea), while 60% felt that same-sex couples should be allowed to adopt children.
A poll in January 2012 (by RED C for the Department of Public Expenditure and Reform) showed that 73% of voters supported the idea of same-sex marriages being recognised in the Irish Constitution.
A late 2012 poll by Millward Brown Lansdowne showed that 75% would vote in favour of extending marriage to same-sex couples.
A poll in November 2013 (by RED C for Paddy Power) showed that 76% of voters intended to support the introduction of same-sex marriage in any referendum, with 18% opposed and 6% undecided (with the undecideds excluded the ratio was 81% support, 19% against). Support was highest among women (85%), those under 44 (87%), Labour supporters (96%) and those living in Dublin and commuter counties (83%).
A poll in April 2014 by The Irish Times and Ipsos MRBI found that 67% would vote in favour of same-sex marriage and 21% against, with 12% undecided. When the undecided were excluded, 76% were in favour and 24% against.
The 2015 Eurobarometer found that 80% of Irish people thought that same-sex marriage should be allowed throughout Europe, 15% were against.
A Pew Research Center poll, conducted between April and August 2017 and published in May 2018, showed that 66% of Irish people supported same-sex marriage, 27% were opposed and 7% didn't know or refused to answer. When divided by religion, 87% of religiously unaffiliated people, 80% of non-practicing Christians and 43% of church-attending Christians supported same-sex marriage.
Recent polls, tabulated
|Polling org.||Commissioned by||References|
|25 April 2015||72||20||8||Red C||Sunday Business Post|||
|17 April 2015||77||14||9||Amárach Research||RTÉ - Claire Byrne Live|||
|27 March 2015||74||26||N/A[n 2]||IPSOS/MRBI||The Irish Times|||
|24 January 2015||77||22||Red C||Sunday Business Post|||
|8 December 2014||71||17||12||IPSOS/MRBI||The Irish Times|||
|October 2014||76||24||N/A[n 2]||IPSOS/MRBI||The Irish Times|||
|April 2014||67||21||12||IPSOS/MRBI||The Irish Times|||
|20 February 2014||76||19||5||Red C||Sunday Business Post / Prime Time|||
|7 November 2013||76||18||6||Red C||Paddy Power|||
|November 2012||53||30||17||IPSOS/MRBI||The Irish Times|||
- Don't know, undecided, or refused to answer
- Yes:No percentages excluding respondents refusing to answer or uncertain.
Support is strongest among younger voters. Sinn Féin and Labour voters are somewhat more in favour than Fine Gael and Fianna Fáil. Among those intending to vote "Yes" in January 2015, 33/77 had "some reservations about same-sex marriage", and 29/77 had "some reservations about adoption by gay couples". A poll conducted a week before the referendum by The Irish Times showed that women supported same-sex marriage more than men.
- LGBT rights in the Republic of Ireland
- LGBT history in Ireland
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe
- "Same-sex couples can marry from today". RTÉ News. Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ). 16 November 2015.
- "Ireland says Yes to same-sex marriage". RTÉ News. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "President signs same-sex marriage into Constitution".
- "Marriage Bill 2015 (Number 78 of 2015) - Tithe an Oireachtais".
- O'Regan, Michael (22 October 2015). "Same-sex marriage legislation passes all stages in Oireachtas". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
- "Bill allowing for same-sex marriage signed into law". The Irish Times. 29 October 2015.
- Patsy McGarry (31 October 2015). "Same-sex marriage will be possible from November 2016". Irish Times.
- "First same-sex marriages take place". RTÉ News. 17 November 2015.
- Marriage Equality. "Marriage v Civil Partnership FAQs". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- [TheJournal.ie] (2012). "Census shows family sizes are still declining". Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Law Reform Commission (2004). "The Law Reform Recommendations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2005. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- "Release of the Law Reform Commission Recommendations". RTÉ News. 27 April 2004.
- "Prime Time report on the Law Reform Commission Recommendations". RTÉ News. 6 May 2004. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
- Law Reform Commission (2006). "The Law Reform Final Recommendations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2006.
- "Law Reform:Report seeks improved rights for unregistered couples". BreakingNews.ie. 1 December 2006. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Constitution Review Committee Website". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2006.
- "The constitutional Review Launch". The Irish Times. 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012.
- "Day 2 Contributions the Oireachtas committee on the constitution". Irish Examiner. 21 April 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008.
- "Day 4 Contributions to the Oireachtas committee on the constitution". Irish Examiner. 23 April 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008.
- Beelsey, Arthur (11 March 2005). "Thousands join call for no change in status of family". The Irish Times. p. 1.
- Constitution Review Committee (2006). "Report on the Constitution and the Family" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2006.
- "Launch of the Oireachtas Constitution Report". RTÉ News. 24 January 2006.
- "Launch of the Justice Ministry Working Group". RTÉ News. 20 December 2005.
- "Minister for Justice Heckled by Protesters". RTÉ News. 26 May 2006.
- DOJ Working Group (2006). "Options Paper on Domestic Partnership" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2006.
- "Report calls for same-sex partnership scheme". RTÉ News. 28 November 2006.
- Equality Authority (2001). "Report on same-sex couples" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2005. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- Equality Authority (2002). "Report on LGB Equality" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2003. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- NESF (2003). "Report 27 – LGB Rights" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2006.
- Human Rights Commission (2006). "Report on deFacto couples" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2006.
- "Release of the ICHR Report". RTÉ News. 12 May 2006. Archived from the original on 5 May 2007.
- "Discussion Document on the Scheme of the Civil Partnership Bill 2008". Irish Human Rights Commission. Archived from the original (DOC) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- Irish Council for Civil Liberties (2005). "Initiative on Relationships Equality". Archived from the original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
- Irish Council for Civil Liberties (2004). "December 2004 Submission on Law Reform Commission partnerships proposals" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2005.[dead link]
- Irish Council for Civil Liberties (2006). "ICCL – Equality for all Families" (PDF). Retrieved 7 October 2009.[dead link]
- "ICCL Pushes for gay equality". Pink news. 24 May 2006.
- McGarry, Patsy (31 October 2015). "Same-sex marriage will be possible from November". The Irish Times.
- "Marriage Equality's Missing Pieces Audit: Full List of Provisions Examined". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "Partnership laws come into force". Irishtimes.com. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Ahern announces commencement of Civil Partnership and Cohabitants Act". Justice.ie. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Millar, Scott (21 February 2011). "First civil partnership ceremony for same-sex couple". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- The certificate of the first civil partnership, as registered by the Civil Registration Service. Available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
- "First Irish public civil partnership services". RTÉ News. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011.
- "Church in Ireland needs 'reality check' after gay marriage vote". BBC. 24 May 2015.
- O'Brien, Carl (17 January 2011). "First gay couple to have civil partnership recognised". The Irish Times.
- "Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 (S5)". Irishstatutebook.ie. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "S.I. No. 649/2010 - Civil Partnership (Recognition of Registered Foreign Relationships) Order 2010". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "S.I. No. 642/2011 - Civil Partnership (Recognition of Registered Foreign Relationships) Order 2011". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "S.I. No. 505/2012 - Civil Partnership (Recognition of Registered Foreign Relationships) Order 2012". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- "S.I. No. 490/2013 - Civil Partnership (Recognition of Registered Foreign Relationships) Order 2013" (PDF). Attorney General of Ireland. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
- Geen, Jessica (13 January 2011). "Ireland recognises foreign gay marriage and partnerships". Pink News.
- "Government accused of bid to withdraw gay rights". RTÉ News. 11 March 2004.
- "Dáil Debates on 2004 Social Welfare Legislation". Oireachtas Debate Transcripts. 11 March 2004. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011.
- "§2 Interpretation (2)(e)". Civil Registration Act 2004. Irish Statute Book. 27 February 2004. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- Oireactas Publications (2004). "Norris 2004 Civil Partnerships Bill" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2007.
- Oireactas Publications (2005). "Norris 2004 Civil Partnerships Bill Debates". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
- The Labour Party (2006). "Civil Unions Bill – Description". Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- "Press Release on Civil Unions Bill". Labour Party. 14 December 2006. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007.
- Oireactas Publications (2006). "Labour 2006 Civil Unions Bill" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2007.
- Oireactas Publications (2007). "Labour 2006 Civil Unions Bill Debates". Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2007.
- "Irish Parliament Rejects Gay Unions Bill". 365Gay. 22 February 2007. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Irish Govt accused on Civil Unions defeat". PinksNews.co.uk. 27 February 2007.
- Grew, Tony (1 November 2007). "Irish Government to introduce civil partnerships". Pink News. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
- "Heads of Civil Partnership (Same-Sex Partnership) Bill Published". Irish Election. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "The Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform: General Scheme of Civil Partnership Bill". Justice.ie. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- Collins, Eoin (26 June 2008). "Proposed civil partnership is a great achievement" (PDF). Gay and Lesbian Equality Network. The Irish Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "FF Senator leads move to deny gay couples right to register".
- "How gay marriage went mainstream".
- "Taoiseach defends civil partnership plans". RTÉ News. 27 June 2008.
- "FF refers civil partnership motion to cttee". RTÉ News. 2 July 2008.
- "Press releases » Media centre » The Labour Party on Same Sex Marriage". Labour.ie. 26 June 2008. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Government must do better than Civil Partnership Bill". Sinn Féin. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Civil Partnership Bill 2009" (PDF). Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- McGee, Harry (27 June 2009). "Partnership rights in place for gay couples by end of year". The Irish Times. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
- "Dáil Debate Vol. 696 No. 5". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 3 December 2009.[dead link]
- "Dáil debates Civil Partnership Bill". RTÉ News. 21 January 2010. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012.
- "Dáil debates civil unions Bill". The Irish Times. 21 January 2010.
- "Partnership Bill includes five-year cohabitation rule". Irishtimes.com. 28 May 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Dáil passes Civil Partnership Bill". Irishtimes.com. 18 June 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- 08/07/2010 – 18:55:14. "Civil Partnership Bill passes all stages". Breakingnews.ie. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Ahern Welcomes Coming Into Law of Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010". Department of Justice and Law Reform. 17 July 2010.
- "Social Welfare and Pensions Bill, 2010". Oireachtas.ie. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Marriages and Civil Partnerships 2011 - CSO - Central Statistics Office".
- "Marriages and Civil Partnerships 2012 - CSO - Central Statistics Office".
- "Marriages and Civil Partnerships 2013 - CSO - Central Statistics Office".
- "Marriages and Civil Partnerships 2014 - CSO - Central Statistics Office".
- "Marriages and Civil Partnerships 2015 - CSO - Central Statistics Office".
- "Launch of the Gilligan/Zappone tax case". RTÉ News. 9 November 2004.
- "Landmark case by lesbian couple under way". RTÉ News. 3 October 2006.
- KalCase.org (2006). "Judgment of the Case of Ann-Louise Gilligan and Katherine Zappone". Archived from the original (DOC) on 2007-01-05.
- "Lesbian couple lose marriage recognition case". RTÉ News. 14 December 2006.
- "Lesbian couple take case to Supreme Court". RTÉ News. 23 February 2007.
- "Gay couple in Supreme Court over right to wed". The Irish Times. 9 May 2012.
- "Fresh Marriage Equality Challenge for High Court". Marriage Equality. 6 June 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013.
- Dáil debates Vol.728 No.3 p.5 22 March 2011
- "Constitutional Convention recommends referendum on same-sex marriage". RTÉ News. 14 April 2013.
- "Amending the Constitution to provide for same - sex marriage". Third Report. Convention on the Constitution. June 2013. p. 6. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "The Countdown begins: Constitutional Convention lodges report on Marriage Equality for same-sex couples". Marriage Equality. 2 July 2013. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
- "Govt will 'actively support' same-sex marriage referendum in 2015". RTÉ News. 5 November 2013.
- "Same-sex marriage referendum in spring 2015". RTÉ News. 1 July 2014.
- "Ireland Sets Date For Same Sex Marriage Vote".
- Mary Minihan (31 March 2015). "What happens next to the Children and Family Relationships Bill?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- Presidential signing of legislation: 2015
- "Minister Fitzgerald signs order for commencement of landmark family law reform". Department of Justice and Equality. 18 January 2016.
- "Irish Statute Book".
- "The Department of Justice and Equality: Government announces wording for Marriage Equality referendum". Justice.ie. 2015-01-21. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
- "Bill as introduced" (PDF). Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill 2015. Oireachtas. January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Same-sex marriage referendum: a legal review". Irishtimes.com. 2015-05-25. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
- DRAFT of GENERAL SCHEME OF MARRIAGE BILL 2015
- "Religious solemnisers will not be obliged to perform same-sex marriage".
- "Referendum 2015 Results". The Irish Times. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
- "Same-sex marriage legislation due this summer, says Fitzgerald". RTÉ. 23 May 2015.
- "Legislation enacting Irish gay marriage vote delayed". Reuters. 30 June 2015.
- "Court of Appeal dismisses two challenges against Same Sex Marriage Referendum result". independent.ie. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- "Same-sex marriage: First Irish ceremonies expected within months". BBC. 16 September 2015.
- O'Brien, Carl (26 October 2015). "Same-sex civil partners to be able to wed with five days' notice". The Irish Times.
- "Same-sex couple ties the knot in Donegal". Irish Times. 17 November 2015.
- An Bille Uchtála (Leasú), 2016 ; Adoption (Amendment) Bill 2016
- "Minister Reilly publishes Adoption (Amendment) Bill 2016". Department of Children and Youth Affairs. 5 May 2016.
- "Civil partners can adopt following new bill". UTV Ireland. 6 May 2016. Archived from the original on 5 June 2016.
- Chubb, Laura (7 May 2016). "New adoption bill published in Ireland gives same-sex couples right to adopt". Gay Star News.
- Adoption (Amendment) Bill 2016: Report and Final Stages
- "Adoption (Amendment) Bill 2016 (Number 23 of 2016) - Tithe an Oireachtais".
- Adoption reform bill is signed into law by President Higgins
- "Unmarried gay and heterosexual couples can now adopt a child". independent.ie. 18 October 2017.
- Adoption amendments come into force on Thursday. Minister Zappone signs the Commencement Order for the Adoption (Amendment) Act 2017
- Holland, Kitty (15 April 2016). "CSO figures show 91 same-sex marriages since referendum". Irish Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- "Only one Irish county did not have a gay marriage since vote". The Irish Times. 20 May 2016.
- Figures show over a thousand same-sex marriages have occurred a year after same-sex marriage was legalised Irish Mirror
- Marriages and Civil Partnerships 2016
- Same-sex couples account for one in 20 Irish marriages
- Marriages 2017
- "Introduction of gay marriage in the Netherlands". RTÉ News. 1 April 2001.
- "FiveSevenLive – Vatican Condemns same sex unions". RTÉ News. 31 July 2003. Archived from the original on 13 September 2005.
- "Massachusetts sanctions gay marriage". RTÉ News. 17 May 2005.
- "Legalisation of gay marriage in Canada". RTÉ News. 29 June 2005.
- "Surrogate Parenthood". Irish Examiner. 7 August 2001. Archived from the original on 15 May 2005.
- "Gay Adoption". RTÉ TV – Question and Answers. 24 June 2002. Archived from the original on 22 October 2002.
- "Irish politicians – Partnerships". Irish Examiner. 14 May 2004. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008.
- "Paisley censured for homophobic remarks". RTÉ News. 3 February 2005.
- "Introduction of Civil Partnerships in the United Kingdom". Irish Examiner. 20 December 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008.
- "Debate on gay marriage". RTÉ TV – Prime Time. 7 August 2003. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010.
- "Discussion on gay marriage". RTÉ News – Morning Ireland. 1 August 2003. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008.
- Should gay marriages be recognised in Ireland? Archived 5 December 2004 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Irish Ponder Same-Sex Unions, Adoption". Angus Reid. 22 February 2006. Archived from the original on 27 February 2010.
- "Report on national survey on same-sex partnerships". Irish Examiner. 21 February 2006.
- "Sunday Tribune poll on same-sex partnerships". RTÉ News. 21 October 2006.
- "80% believe gay couples deserved legal recognition – Survey". BreakingNews.ie. 24 November 2006.
- "Catholic Bishop on gay partnerships". RTÉ News. 16 November 2004. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012.
- "Church of Ireland Bishop on gay partnerships". RTÉ News. 10 March 2004.
- "Labour Party (Ireland) 2002 general election Manifesto" (PDF). Labour Party (Ireland). 2002.
- "Fine Gael Same-sex partnership proposal". RTÉ News. 24 June 2004.
- "Taoisearch Ahern on Better Rights for Couples". BBC News. 15 November 2004.
- Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform Michael McDowell of the Progressive Democrats said in 2004 that Ireland should pursue civil partnerships.
- "Labour launches civil union Bill". The Irish Times. 14 December 2006.
- "Green Party policy on partnership rights and gay marriage". Green Party. 12 October 2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007.
- "Cork City Council unanimously backs gay marriage in landmark vote". Irish Examiner. 10 July 2012.
- "Labour's goal is full equality for gay citizens, Gilmore tells symposium" (Press release). Labour Party. 7 May 2009. Archived from the original on 16 September 2010.
- "Providing for Same-Sex Marriage". Green Party. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Pride 09 – Full Same Sex Marriage Rights Now!". Socialist Party. 30 June 2009.[dead link]
- "Recognition of same sex marriage long overdue". Sinn Féin. 31 March 2004.
- "FF delegates back equal marriage and adoption rights for same-sex couples". Irish Examiner. 3 March 2012.
- "Fianna Fail Passes Motion On Same Sex Marriage". 98fm.com. 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- Sheahan, Fionnan (5 November 2013). "Government to call for Yes vote for gay marriage". Irish Independent. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "Increased support for gay marriage – Survey". BreakingNews.ie. 31 March 2008.
- "''Same-sex marriage gets poll support''". Irish Times. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Irish gay marriage advocates claim massive public support". PinkNews. 26 February 2009.
- "Yes to gay marriage and premarital sex: a nation strips off its conservative values". Irish Times. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Nearly three-quarters of Irish people in favour of gay marriage". TheJournal.ie. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Poll finds Irish support for gay marriage at 73%". PinkNews. 23 February 2012.
- The Department of Public Expenditure and Reform (January 2012). "Report on Reasons Behind Voter Behaviour in the Oireachtas Inquiry Referendum 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "75% support same-sex marriage: poll". The Irish Times. 28 January 2013.
- RED C - General Election Opinion Poll 7th November 2013 Archived 9 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- RTÉ News - Poll finds strong support for same-sex marriage
- "Support for same-sex marriage increasing, poll finds". The Irish Times. 7 April 2014.
- Special Eurobarometer 437 Archived 17 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
- Religion and society, Pew Research Center, 29 May 2018
- Being Christian in Western Europe, Pew Research Center, 29 May 2018
- "Poll suggests drop in Govt parties support". RTÉ News. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- "Are we on course for a record referendum turnout?". RTÉ News. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Collins, Stephen (27 March 2015). "Poll shows same-sex marriage referendum could be close". The Irish Times. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Poll shows reservations on same-sex marriage remain". RTÉ. 25 January 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Opinion Poll" (PDF). Red C. 25 January 2015. pp. 11–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- O'Connell, Hugh (8 December 2014). "First poll finds large majority in favour of same sex marriage". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Quann, Jack (1 July 2014). "Ireland will hold same-sex marriage referendum in Spring 2015". Newstalk. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- "Poll finds strong support for same-sex marriage". RTÉ. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- "Same-Sex Marriage Poll" (PDF). Red C. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Bohan, Christine (7 November 2013). "First poll finds large majority in favour of same sex marriage". Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- 58 per cent say they will vote for Irish same sex marriage 25 per cent oppose Irish Central, 16 May 2015
- Zappone & Anor -v- Revenue Commissioners & Ors  IEHC H404 (14 December 2006)
- "Civil Partnership Bill 2009". Bills 1997–2009. Dublin: Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 3 December 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- "Recognition of Relationships: Major Policy Developments". Ireland: Gay and Lesbian Equality Network. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010.
- lgbtNOISE | Gay Civil Marriage Now!
- MarriagEquality Campaign group for civil marriage for gay and lesbian people
- Support group for Irish Pink Adoptions