Same-sex marriage in Spain
Same-sex marriage in Spain has been legal since July 3, 2005. In 2004, the nation's newly elected government, led by Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero of the Socialist Workers' Party, began a campaign to legalize same-sex marriage, including the right of adoption by same-sex couples. After much debate, a law permitting same-sex marriage was passed by the Cortes Generales (the Spanish Parliament, composed of the Senate and the Congress of Deputies) on June 30, 2005 and published on July 2. The law took effect the next day, making Spain the third country in the world to allow same-sex couples to marry on a national level, after the Netherlands and Belgium, and 17 days ahead of the right being extended across all of Canada.
Roman Catholic authorities were adamantly opposed, criticising what they regarded as the weakening of the meaning of marriage, despite support from 66% of the population. Other associations expressed concern over the possibility of lesbian and gay couples adopting children. After its approval, the conservative People's Party challenged the law in the Constitutional Court.
Approximately 4,500 same-sex couples married in Spain during the first year of the law. Shortly after the law was passed, questions arose about the legal status of marriage to non-Spaniards whose country did not permit same-sex marriage. A decision from the Justice Ministry stated that the country's same-sex marriage law allows a Spanish citizen to marry a non-Spaniard regardless of whether that person's homeland recognizes the union. At least one partner must be a Spanish citizen in order to marry, although two non-Spaniards may marry if they both have legal residence in Spain.
The November 2011 general election delivered a landslide victory to the People's Party, whose leader Mariano Rajoy said that he opposed same-sex marriage, but any decision about repealing the law would be made only after the ruling of the Constitutional Court. On November 6, 2012, the law was upheld by the Court with 8 support votes and 3 against. Minister of Justice Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón announced that the government will abide by the ruling and the law will not be repealed.
During the 1990s and early 2000s, several city councils and autonomous communities had opened registers for de facto unions (Spanish: unión de hecho, pareja de hecho or pareja estable)[a] that allow benefits for unmarried couples of any sex, although the effect is mainly symbolic. Registries were eventually created in all 17 of Spain's autonomous communities; in Catalonia (1998), Aragon (1999), Navarre (2000), Castile-La Mancha (2000), Valencia (2001), the Balearic Islands (2001), Madrid (2001), Asturias (2002), Castile and León (2002), Andalusia (2002), the Canary Islands (2003), Extremadura (2003), the Basque Country (2003), Cantabria (2005), Galicia (2008), La Rioja (2010), and Murcia (2018), and in both autonomous cities; Ceuta (1998) and Melilla (2008). Spanish law already allowed single people to adopt children; thus, a same-sex couple could undertake a de facto adoption, but the partner who was not the legal parent had no rights if the relationship ended or if the legal parent died. Same-sex marriages were not legal in the autonomous communities, because the Spanish Constitution gives the State the sole power to legislate marriage.
The Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) manifesto for the 2004 general election included the pledge of amending the Civil Code to introduce same-sex marriage, granting it the same status as heterosexual marriage in order to "ensure full social and legal equality for lesbians and gays". After the Socialists' victory in the election, Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero promised at his inauguration address to bring this change forward: "The moment has finally arrived to end once and for all the intolerable discrimination which many Spaniards suffer because of their sexual preferences. ... As a result, we will modify the Civil Code to recognize their equal right to marriage with the resulting effects over inheritance, labor rights and social security protection". On June 30, 2004, Minister of Justice Juan Fernando López Aguilar announced that the Congress of Deputies had provisionally approved a government plan for legislation to extend the right of marriage to same-sex couples. López Aguilar also announced two propositions, introduced by the regional Convergence and Union party of Catalonia: one introduced legal status for both opposite-sex and same-sex common-law unions (parejas de hecho, "de facto unions"), while the other permitted transgender people to legally change their name and sex designation without the requirement of surgery. The bill regarding same-sex marriage was approved by the Council of Ministers on October 1, 2004, submitted to Parliament on December 31, and passed by the Congress of Deputies on April 21, 2005. However, it was rejected on June 22, 2005 by the Senate, where the opposition People's Party held a plurality of the seats. The bill was returned to the lower house, which holds the power to override the Senate, and final approval was given to the bill on June 30, 2005 with 187 "yes" votes, 147 "no" votes, and 4 abstentions.
With the final approval and enactment of the bill on July 2, 2005, Spain became the third country in the world to formally legalize same-sex marriages nationwide, after the Netherlands and Belgium.
The first same-sex wedding took place eight days after the bill became law, and was celebrated in the council chamber in the Madrid suburb of Tres Cantos by Carlos Baturín and Emilio Menéndez. The first same-sex marriage between women took place in Barcelona eleven days later.
In spite of these steps toward equal treatment, a legal flaw remained: if children were born within a lesbian marriage, the non-biological mother was not legally regarded as a parent; she still had to undergo the lengthy financial process of adoption. This right was granted to heterosexual couples (married or not), where a stepfather could declare his wife's children to be his without further process. On November 7, 2006, the Spanish Parliament amended the law on assisted reproduction, allowing the non-biological mother to be regarded as a parent alongside her female spouse who is the birth-mother.
Ratification of Law 13/2005
The projected bill announced on June 30, 2004 by the Minister of Justice was studied by the General Council of the Judiciary. Although the General Council admitted that the existing discrimination against homosexuals could not be condoned, it was quite critical about extending marriage toward same-sex couples (including collateral adoption). It argued that the extension was not demanded by the Constitution, and that ending discrimination could be achieved through other legal means, such as the extension of civil unions.
Despite this negative report, the Zapatero Government presented the bill to Congress on October 1, 2004. With the exception of the People's Party and members of the Democratic Union of Catalonia, the different parliamentary parties favoured the reform. On April 21, 2005, Congress approved the bill, with 183 "yes" votes (including a member of the People's Party) and 136 "no" votes and 6 abstentions. The bill to allow same-sex marriage in Spain was short: it added a new paragraph to Article 44 of the Civil Code, saying that Matrimony shall have the same requisites and effects regardless of whether the persons involved are of the same or different sex.[b]
In accordance with constitutional provisions, the text approved by the Congress was then submitted to the Senate for final approval, change or veto. On June 21, 2005, experts were called to the Senate to debate the issue. The expert's opinions were diverse; some stated that same-sex adoption had no effect on a child's development, except for perhaps a higher tolerance towards homosexuality. However, psychiatrist Aquilino Polaino, called by the People's Party as an expert, called homosexuality a pathology and emotive disorder. Among other assertions that generated debate, he claimed that "many homosexuals have rape abuse antecedents since childhood" and that homosexuals generally come from families with "hostile, alcoholic and distant" fathers, and mothers who were "over protective" toward boys and "cold" toward girls. Prominent People's Party members later rejected Polaino's assertions.
|Same-sex marriage in Spain|
|Enacted||June 30, 2005|
|Signed||July 1, 2005|
|Introduced by||Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)|
|Spanish Civil Code|
The Senate vetoed the text submitted by the Congress. The veto was proposed by the People's Party, which held the plurality of the seats, and by the Democratic Union of Catalonia, and was approved by 131 "yes" votes and 119 "no" votes and 2 abstentions. As a result, the text was sent back to the Congress. On June 30, 2005, it was approved by Congress, which, in accordance with constitutional provisions, overrode the Senate veto. This was achieved with 187 "yes" votes (including a member of the People's Party, Celia Villalobos), 147 "no" votes, and four abstentions. The veto override implied its approval as law. The vote was held after Zapatero unexpectedly took the floor to speak in its support, saying We are expanding the opportunities for happiness of our neighbors, our colleagues, our friends and our relatives. At the same time, we are building a more decent society. Mariano Rajoy, the leader of the opposition People's Party, was denied the opportunity to address Congress after Zapatero's appearance, and accused Zapatero of dividing Spanish society.
When the media asked King Juan Carlos I if he would sign the bill that was being debated in the Cortes Generales, he answered that he was the King of Spain, not of Belgium – a reference to King Baudouin of Belgium, who refused to sign the Belgian law legalising abortion. For the King to withhold his royal assent, it would effect a veto of the legislation. However, the King gave his royal assent to the law on July 1, 2005, and the law was gazetted in the Boletín Oficial del Estado on July 2, and came into effect on July 3. The King received criticism by Carlist and other far-right conservatives for signing the legislation.
The bill's passage was met with concern by Catholic authorities, including Pope John Paul II—who warned of a weakening of family values—and his successor Pope Benedict XVI. Cardinal López Trujillo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, said the Church was making an urgent call for freedom of conscience for Catholics and appealing to them to resist the law. He said every profession linked with implementing same-sex marriages should oppose it, even if it meant losing their jobs. Gay rights supporters argued that while the Catholic Church also formally opposed opposite-sex, non-religious marriage, its opposition was not as vocal; for example, the Church did not object to the marriage of Prince Felipe to Letizia Ortiz, who had divorced from a previous civil marriage. The church was unable to gather enough support to derail the bill, even though more than 60% of Spaniards identify as members of the Catholic faith. Sociologists believe this may be due to the significant increase of liberalism in the realm of individual rights in recent years, where the Church traditionally had most influence, especially on family issues. A poll showed that three quarters of Spaniards believed the church hierarchy was out of touch with social reality. A complementary explanation might be that the Church's influence on Spaniards declined after the death in 1975 of the dictator General Francisco Franco, whose regime was closely linked to the Church.
Prime Minister Zapatero responded to Church criticism by saying:
There is no damage to marriage or to the family in allowing two people of the same sex to get married. Rather, these citizens now have the ability to organize their lives according to marital and familial norms and demands. There is no threat to the institution of marriage, but precisely the opposite: this law recognizes and values marriage.
Aware that some people and institutions profoundly disagree with this legal change, I wish to say that like other reforms to the marriage code that preceded this one, this law will not generate bad results, that its only consequence will be to avoid senseless suffering of human beings. A society that avoids senseless suffering of its citizens is a better society.
In any case, I wish to express my deep respect to those people and institutions, and I also want to ask for the same respect for all of those who approve of this law. To the homosexuals that have personally tolerated the abuse and insults for many years, I ask that you add to the courage you have demonstrated in your struggle for civil rights, an example of generosity and joy with respect to all the beliefs.
On June 19, 2005, a public protest against the law was held. Protesters—led by People's Party members, Spanish bishops and the Spanish Family Forum (Foro Español de la Familia)—said they had rallied 1.5 million people against what they considered an attack on the traditional family and Spanish values; the Government's Delegation in Madrid counted 166,000 at the same event. Two weeks after this protest, coinciding with Gay Pride Day, FELGT (Federación Estatal de Lesbianas, Gays, Transexuales y Bisexuales, the "National Federation of Lesbians, Gays, Transsexuals and Bisexuals") estimated two million people marched in favour of the new law; police sources counted 97,000. Both marches took place in Madrid, at the time governed by the conservative People's Party.
Spanish Roman Catholic bishops also claimed that the government, by extending the right of marriage to same-sex couples, weakened the meaning of marriage, which they defined as the union of a heterosexual couple. The Spanish Family Forum expressed concern over the possibility of same-sex couples adopting and raising children, and argued that adoption is not a right for the parents, but for the adopted. Gay associations replied that de facto adoption by same-sex couples had existed for a long time in Spain, since many couples were rearing minors adopted by one of the partners. Adoption by same-sex couples was already legal in Navarre (2000), the Basque Country (2003), Aragon (2004), Catalonia (2005) and Cantabria (2005) before the same-sex marriage law legalized same-sex adoption nationwide. Furthermore, in Asturias (2002), Andalusia (2002) and Extremadura (2003), same-sex couples could jointly begin procedures to temporarily or permanently take children in care. These associations also argued that there was no scientific basis for the claim that the parents' sexual orientation would cause developmental problems for their adopted children. This view is officially supported by the Spanish School of Psychology, which also states that homosexuality is not a pathology.
In a 2008 biography, Queen Sofía of Spain revealed that she preferred the term "civil union" to "marriage" for committed same-sex relationships. This and other alleged comments by the Queen opened the Spanish monarchy to rare criticism in 2008, with the Zarzuela palace issuing an apology on behalf of the Queen for the "inexact" quotes attributed to her. Antonio Poveda, president of FELGT, said his organization accepted the Queen's apology, but added that there remains ill feelings by the gay community towards the Queen over the comments. King Juan Carlos, known to be far more liberal than his wife, was reportedly incensed by the biography, with reporters stating the King will fire palace officials who allegedly approved official royal endorsement of the book.
In late 2017, the Socialist Workers' Party began calling for reforms to the Spanish Constitution to explicitly state the right of couples – opposite-sex and same-sex – to marry. At present, the Constitution, specifically Article 32, notes the right of men and women to marry.
Opposition court challenges
On July 21, 2005, a judge from the city of Dénia refused to issue a marriage license to a lesbian couple. The judge filed a challenge against the same-sex marriage law before the Constitutional Court based on Article 163 of the Constitution, which allows judges to challenge constitutional changes. In August 2005, a judge from Gran Canaria refused licenses to three same-sex couples and mounted another constitutional challenge. In December 2005, the Constitutional Court rejected both challenges owing to both judges' lack of standing to file them. On September 30, 2005, the opposition People's Party decided to initiate a separate constitutional challenge, causing division within the party. The outcome was published on November 6, 2012, seven years after the challenge was presented. The Court decided to uphold the same-sex marriage law with 8 support votes and 3 against.
On February 27, 2007, the Spanish Family Forum presented an initiative signed by 1.5 million people to legislate marriage as the union of a man and a woman only (thus effectively prohibiting same-sex marriage). The initiative was rejected by the Spanish Congress. On May 30, 2007, the aforementioned judge of Dénia was condemned by the Disciplinary Committee of the General Council of the Judiciary to pay 305 euros for refusing to marry the couple and was also strictly warned against doing it again. She attributed this action to government "propagandistic machinery".
Shortly after the law was passed, questions arose about the legal status of marriage to non-Spaniards, after a Spaniard and an Indian national living in Catalonia were denied a marriage license on the grounds that India did not permit same-sex marriage. However, on July 22, another judge in Catalonia married a Spanish woman and her Argentinian national partner (the first same-sex marriage between women in Spain). This judge disagreed with his colleague's decision and gave preference to the right of marriage over Argentinian law, which at the time did not allow same-sex marriage.
On July 27, the Junta de Fiscales de Sala – a body within the Public Prosecutor's Office that advises the Ministry of Justice – issued an opinion that LGBT Spaniards can marry foreigners from countries that do not permit same-sex marriage. These marriages would be valid according to Spanish law, but did not imply automatic validity according to the foreigner's national law. A ruling published in the Official State Gazette stated:
a marriage between a Spaniard and a foreigner, or between foreigners of the same sex resident in Spain, shall be valid as a result of applying Spanish material law, even if the foreigner's national legislation does not allow or recognize the validity of such marriages.
According to the instructions from the Ministry of Justice, Spanish consulates abroad may carry out the preliminary paperwork for a same-sex marriage. At least one of the marrying partners must be a Spanish citizen, residing in the consular demarcation. However, the marriage itself can only take place at the consulate if local laws recognize same-sex marriages. In all other cases, the partners must marry in Spanish territory. Two non-resident foreigners cannot marry in Spain, as at least one of the partners must be a Spanish resident, although they both may be non-Spanish citizens.
According to the Spanish National Statistics Institute (INE), more than 57,000 same-sex marriages took place up to the end of 2019: 1,269 in 2005, 4,313 in 2006, 3,193 in 2007, 3,149 in 2008, 3,082 in 2009, 3,193 in 2010, 3,540 in 2011, 3,455 in 2012, 3,071 in 2013, 3,275 in 2014, 3,738 in 2015, 4,320 in 2016, 4,637 in 2017, 4,870 in 2018, 5,108 in 2019, and 3,112 in 2020.
|Year||Marriages between men||Marriages between women||Same-sex marriages||Total marriages||% same-sex marriages|
|2005 (since July)||914||355||1,269||119,459||1.06|
In 2018, Catalonia saw the most same-sex marriages at 987, followed by Madrid at 956, Andalusia at 774, Valencia at 589, the Canary Islands at 333, the Balearic Islands at 194, the Basque Country at 191, Murcia at 145, Castilla-La Mancha at 135, Galicia at 124, Castile and León at 92, Aragon at 68, Extremadura at 66, Asturias and Navarre at 50 each, Cantabria at 41, La Rioja at 24, Melilla at 7 and Ceuta at 2. Another 42 were performed overseas.
Figures for 2020 are much lower than previous years because of the restrictions in place due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Since its legalization in 2005, couples from across sections of Spanish society have entered into same-sex marriages. Within the first year the law received royal assent, influential Socialist member and Madrid City Councilor Pedro Zerolo married Jesús Santos in October, and popular television presenter Jesús Vázquez married Roberto Cortés in November. In October 2005, Spain's prominent anti-terrorism judge Fernando Grande-Marlaska married his fiancé Gorka Gómez. In August 2006, PP Ourense City Councilor Pepe Araujo, whose party originally opposed the law, married his fiancé Nino Crespo. In September 2006, Alberto Linero Marchena and Alberto Sánchez Fernández, both army soldiers assigned to the Morón Air Base near Seville, became Spain's first military personnel to marry under the new law. In August 2008, Doña Luisa Isabel Álvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia and three-time Grandee of Spain (branded the Red Duchess for her socialist activism) became the highest ranking Spanish noble to marry in an articulo mortis (deathbed) wedding to longtime companion Liliana Maria Dahlmann, now the Dowager Duchess of Medina Sidonia by right of her late wife.
In June 2015, Mayor Javier Maroto from the Basque capital of Vitoria-Gasteiz announced his engagement to longtime partner Josema Rodríguez. The wedding was held on September 18, 2015 at Vitoria's city hall. Maroto, a member of the conservative People's Party's national board, is known for his views contrary to the stance of his own party pertaining to same-sex marriage in Spain. Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, who had challenged the law approving same-sex marriage when he was opposition leader, attended the wedding celebrations as a guest.
Marriage in Spain may be contracted via religious or civil authorities. Religious marriages are recognised by the State and have the same status as civil marriages.
Most major religious organisations in Spain do not perform same-sex marriages in their places of worship. Some smaller Christian churches such as the Metropolitan Community Church and the Spanish Evangelical Church bless same-sex marriages.
A poll by the government-run Centre for Sociological Investigations (Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas), published in April 2005, reported that 66% of Spaniards favoured legalising same-sex marriage. Another poll taken by Instituto Opina a day before the bill passed placed support of the same-sex marriage bill at 62.1% and support of adoption by same-sex couples at 49.1%. An Instituto Opina poll taken nine months after the bill had passed said that 61% agreed with the legalization.
On July 25, 2007, the BBVA Foundation published their report Social portrait of Spanish people, which reported that 60% of Spain's population supported same-sex marriage. This support occurred mainly among the younger population, between 15 and 34 years old (75%), people with higher education (71%), people not attached to any religion (75.5%), and those identified by left and centre-left political views (71.9%). However, only 44% of the population favored the right of adoption by same-sex couples, in contrast to 42% opposition.
A Pew Research Center poll, conducted between April and August 2017 and published in May 2018, showed that 77% of Spaniards supported same-sex marriage, 13% were opposed and 10% did not know or refused to answer. When divided by religion, 90% of religiously unaffiliated people, 79% of non-practicing Christians and 59% of church-attending Christians supported same-sex marriage. Opposition was 7% among 18–34-year-olds.
The 2019 Eurobarometer found that 86% of Spaniards thought same-sex marriage should be allowed throughout Europe, while 9% were opposed.
- First same-sex marriage in Spain
- LGBT rights by country
- LGBT rights in Spain
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe
- Catalan: unió de fet, parella de fet, or parella estable; Galician: unión de feito, parella de feito, or parella estable; Basque: izatezko bikote, or bikote egonkorra; Asturian: unión de fechu, or pareya estable; Aragonese: parella de feito; Occitan: coble estable.
- In Spanish: El matrimonio tendrá los mismos requisitos y efectos cuando ambos contrayentes sean del mismo o de diferente sexo.
In Catalan: El matrimoni tindrà els mateixos requisits i efectes quan ambdós contraents siguin del mateix o de diferent sexe.
In Basque: Ezkontzak betekizun eta ondore berberak izango ditu, bi ezkongaiak sexu berdinekoak izan zein desberdinekoak izan.
In Galician: O matrimonio terá os mesmos requisitos e efectos cando ambos os contraentes sexan do mesmo ou diferente sexo.
In Occitan: Eth matrimòni aurà es madeishi requisits e efèctes quan ambdús contraents siguen deth madeish o de diferent sèxe.
- "Spain's new government to legalize gay marriage". SignonSanDiego.com. Reuters. April 15, 2004. Archived from the original on October 13, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law". St. Petersburg Times. July 1, 2005. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- Giles, Ciaran (April 21, 2005). "Spain: Gay marriage bill clears hurdle". Planetout.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Spanish bishops decry legislation weakening marriage". Catholic World News. July 20, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- "Manifiesto del Foro de la Familia" (in Spanish). 20 Minutos.es. June 18, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
- Thornberry, Malcolm (October 28, 2005). "Spain's Highest Court Agrees To Hear Gay Marriage Challenge". 365gay.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2005. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "Conservative mayor presides over gay wedding". Euronews. July 30, 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
- "Spain's same-sex marriage law applies to foreigners". Advocate.com. Reuters. August 9, 2005. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Spain gay rights and abortion activists fear backlash". BBC. November 25, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- "Factbox: Policies of Spain's People's Party". Reuters. November 20, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- "Mariano Rajoy, New Spain Prime Minister, Opposes Same-Sex Marriage Law". Huffington Post. November 28, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Morris, Iciar Reinlein (November 6, 2012). "Same-sex marriage upheld by Spain's highest court". Reuters – via uk.reuters.com.
- Internet, Unidad Editorial. "Amplio respaldo del Tribunal Constitucional al matrimonio homosexual". www.elmundo.es.
- "SENTENCIA" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2012.
- Internet, Unidad Editorial. "Gallardón no tocará la ley vigente". www.elmundo.es.
- País, El (November 7, 2012). "Gallardón: "No modificaré la ley y la dejaré exactamente como está"". El País – via elpais.com.
- "El Gobierno mantendrá el matrimonio homosexual tal y como lo ha validado el TC". cuatro. November 6, 2012.
- "Soŀlicitud d'inscripció d'una unió de fet en el Registre Administratiu d'Unions de Fet de la Comunitat Valenciana". Generalitat Valenciana (in Catalan). Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Parellas estables". Generalitat de Catalunya (in Catalan). Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Rexistro de parellas de feito". Xunta de Galicia (in Galician). Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "Izatezko bikoteak". Euskadi.es (in Basque). March 30, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- "6/2000 Foru Legea, uztailaren 3koa, bikote egonkorrentzako berdintasun juridikoari buruzkoa". Iusplaza (in Basque).
- "Registre de cobles estables de Catalonha". gencat.cat (in Occitan).
- "World legal survey:Spain". The International Lesbian and Gay Association. Archived from the original on March 28, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- Galán, José Ignacio Pichardo. "Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. Retrieved December 30, 2012.
- "Ley 1/2001, de 6 de abril, por la que se regulan las uniones de hecho". Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
- "Llei 18/2001 de 19 de desembre, de parelles estables" (in Catalan). Govern de les Illes Balears. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "LEY 4/2002, de 23 de mayo, de Parejas Estables" (PDF) (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "DECRETO 117/2002, de 24 de octubre, por el que se crea el Registro de Uniones de Hecho en Castilla y León y se regula su funcionamiento" (PDF) (in Spanish). Junta de Castilla y León. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Ley de Cantabria 1/2005, de 16 de mayo, de Parejas de Hecho de la Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria" (in Spanish). Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Decreto 248/2007, de 20 de diciembre, por el que se crea y se regula el Registro de Parejas de Hecho de Galicia" (in Spanish). Noticias Juridicas. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "Decreto 30/2010, de 14 de mayo, por el que se crea el Registro de Parejas de Hecho de La Rioja" (in Spanish). El Gobierno de La Rioja. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
- "9L/PPL-0018 | Asamblea Regional de Murcia". www.asambleamurcia.es.
- "Murcia será en junio la última comunidad en regular por ley las parejas de hecho". La Verdad. May 25, 2018.
- Reglamento regulador del Registro de Uniones de Hecho
- "REGLAMENTO REGULADOR DEL REGISTRO DE PAREJAS DE HEC HO DE LA CIUDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MELILLA" (PDF).
- Bernardo, Ángela (June 9, 2015). "Pedro Zerolo: el legado del activista político". Hipertextual.
- Merecemos una España mejor. Programa Electoral Elecciones Generales 2004 (PDF) (in Spanish). Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE). 2004. p. 32. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "Spanish lawmakers approve bill to let transsexuals change gender without surgery". Advocate.com. November 9, 2006. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- Goodman, Al (October 1, 2004). "Spain moves closer on gay marriage". CNN. Archived from the original on May 8, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- Thornberry, Malcolm (April 21, 2005). "Same-Sex Marriage Passes First Big Hurdle In Spain". 365GAY.com Inc. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- "Spain paves way for gay marriage". BBC News. April 21, 2005.
- "Spain Senate rejects same-sex marriage bill". Planetout Inc. June 23, 2005. Archived from the original on September 21, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- "Spain Becomes Third Country To Legalize Gay Marriage". 365GAY.com. Associated Press. June 30, 2005. Archived from the original on July 3, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Woolis, Daniel (June 2, 2005). "Spain's Gay Marriage Law Goes Into Effect". 365GAY.com. Archived from the original on July 6, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Goodman, Al (July 11, 2005). "First gay couple marries in Spain". CNN. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
- "La primera boda entre dos mujeres se celebra en Cataluña" (in Spanish). CADENASER.COM. June 22, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- De Cózar, Álvaro (October 18, 2006). "El Gobierno revisará la discriminación de las lesbianas con bebés 'in vitro'". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "Lesbianas podrán ser madres de los hijos "in vitro" de sus parejas" (in Spanish). Terra. November 7, 2006. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- "El Consejo de Ministros aprobará el matrimonio homosexual" (in Spanish). Agencia Pulsar. December 29, 2004. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "El CGPJ pide que se paralice la reforma que permitirá los matrimonios entre homosexuales". El Mundo (in Spanish). January 15, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- "El Congreso aprueba el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). El Mundo. April 22, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- "El Congreso aprueba la ley que permite casarse a los homosexuales" (in Spanish). 20 minutos. April 22, 2005. Retrieved January 29, 2007.
- "Codi Civil" (PDF). Department of Justice (in Catalan).
- "Kode Zibila". Iusplaza (in Basque).
- "Código Civil" (PDF). University of Santiago de Compostela (in Galician).
- "CONGRESO DE LOS DIPUTADOS (DICTAMEN DE COMISIÓN) – PROYECTO DE LEY por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio (Dictamen con la incorporación del las correcciones técnicas)" (PDF) (in Spanish). April 21, 2005. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "Psicólogos y juristas avalan adopción y correcto desarrollo del niño" (in Spanish). Web de Hogar. June 20, 2005. Archived from the original on November 11, 2006. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "Dirigentes del PP discrepan del experto citado por su partido que tachó de enfermos a los gays" (in Spanish). El Mundo. June 21, 2005. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- "Spanish Senate vetoes gay marriage law". Catholic News Agency. June 23, 2005. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- Green, Jennifer (July 1, 2005). "Spain Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
- "CONGRESO DE LOS DIPUTADOS (VOTACIÓN EN RELACIÓN CON EL VETO DEL SENADO) – PROYECTO DE LEY por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio" (PDF) (in Spanish). June 30, 2005. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
- "Don Juan Carlos, sobre el matrimonio gay: 'Soy el Rey de España y no el de Bélgica'" (in Spanish). El Mundo. May 13, 2006. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- "Disposiciones Generales" (PDF) (in Spanish). Boletin Oficial del Estado. June 2, 2005. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- "Vatican condemns Spain gay bill". BBC News. April 22, 2005. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- McLean, Renwick (June 1, 2005). "Spain Legalizes Gay Marriage; Law Is Among the Most Liberal". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- Tremlett, Giles (June 17, 2005). "Bishops to lead gay law protest". The Guardian. Retrieved January 26, 2007.
- "Spain approves gay marriage bill". BBC. October 1, 2004. Retrieved January 30, 2007.
- "Organize marriage in Spain". SpainWeddings Editor.
- "Freedom and Equality". Partners Task Force. June 30, 2005. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
- Arroyo, Marta (June 20, 2006). "Una multitud pide que se retire la ley del Matrimonio Homosexual" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
- "La marcha del Orgullo Gay celebra la Ley del Matrimonio Homosexual" (in Spanish). Telefónica de España, S.A.U. February 7, 2005. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Multitudinaria marcha del Orgullo Gay festeja Matrimonio Homosexual" (in Spanish). Terra. February 7, 2005. Retrieved December 27, 2006.
- "Homosexual Families: Adoption and Foster Care" (PDF). Institute of Childhood and Urban World. November 6, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2011.
- "CATALONIA OKs GAY ADOPTION". Just Out. 22 (12): 21. April 2005.
- Lantigua, Isabel F (June 21, 2005). "Los psicólogos niegan que la homosexualidad sea una enfermedad" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- Burnett, Victoria (November 27, 2008). "Queen Sofia Unamused by a Book Quoting Her". nytimes.com. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- "Queen of Spain's Gay Marriage Comment Ignites Controversy". FoxNews.com. October 31, 2008. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- "Spanish Queen alone in anti-gay comments". .expatica.com Dutch News. October 31, 2008. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- Rhodes, Matt (August 31, 2008). "Spain: Gay Anger Over Spanish Queen Book". sky.com. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- Morris and Larraz, Sarah and Theresa (October 31, 2008). "Queen draws ire over gay marriage comment". reuters.com. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
- "El PSOE plantea que la reforma constitucional consagre la laicidad de Estado y el matrimonio homosexual". ABC Spain. December 5, 2017.
- Thornberry, Malcolm (July 22, 2005). "Spanish Judge: Gay Marriage Possibly Unconstitutional". 365GAY.com. Archived from the original on April 10, 2007.
- Thornberry, Malcolm (August 13, 2005). "New Threat To Spain's Gay Marriage Law". 365GAY.com. Archived from the original on December 9, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Spain's High Court Upholds Gay Marriage Law". 365GAY.com. December 15, 2005. Archived from the original on December 18, 2005. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- Remirez DeGanuza, Carmen (September 22, 2005). "Aguirre critica el recurso contra el matrimonio gay y Rajoy la desautoriza" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
- García Pedraz, Javier (November 6, 2012). "22.442 matrimonios homosexuales, pendientes hoy del Constitucional" (in Spanish). El País. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Peral, María (November 6, 2012). "Sí al matrimonio homosexual" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- De Benito, Emilio (February 28, 2007). "El Congreso rechaza la iniciativa para prohibir el matrimonio homosexual" (in Spanish). El País. Retrieved February 28, 2007.
- "305 euros de multa por no querer oficiar bodas homosexuales" (in Spanish). El País. May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- Woolls, Daniel (June 6, 2005). "Spain's Gay Marriage Law Hits Snag Over Foreigners". 365Gay.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Drago, Tito (2005). "ESPAÑA:Matrimonio gay se internacionaliza" (in Spanish). I.P.S. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "Fiscalía acuerda apoyar los matrimonios gays entre españoles y extranjeros" (in Spanish). naciongay. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- "Sobre la tramitación del matrimonio / BOE con la circular del Ministerio de Justicia" (in Spanish). FELGT. Archived from the original on November 2, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- Peral, María (July 27, 2005). "La Fiscalía apoya el matrimonio homosexual con extranjeros aunque sus países lo prohíban" (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved January 25, 2007.
- "Estadística de matrimonios. Movimiento natural de la población". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish).
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2006. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2010. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2012. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2013.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2014.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2015.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2016.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2017.
- "Movimiento Natural de la Población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2018.
- "Movimiento natural de la población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2019.
- "Movimiento natural de la población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2020.
- "Movimiento natural de la población" (PDF) (in Spanish). INE. 2021.
- "Matrimonios de mismo sexo por Comunidad Autónoma de residencia del matrimonio y mes de celebración". INE (in Spanish).
- Rubio Hancock, Jaime. "La historia de amor de Elisa y Marcela, que se casaron en 1901 por la iglesia". Retrieved March 2, 2018.
- "El concejal socialista Zerolo se casa con su novio por todo lo alto" (in Spanish). 20minutos.es. January 10, 2005. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- "Jesús Vázquez se casa con su novio Roberto". El Mundo (in Spanish). March 11, 2005. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Motero, Rosa (June 11, 2006). "Fernando Grande-Marlaska: En el ojo del huracán". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- "Un concejal del PP de Ourense protagoniza la primera boda gay de un cargo de su partido" (in Spanish). 20minutos. August 4, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- "Dos militares homosexuales se casan hoy en la primera boda gay del Ejército español" (in Spanish). 20minutos. September 15, 2006. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Nash, Elizabeth (February 5, 2008). "Red Duchess a rebel to the last as she snubs family and leaves all to wife". The Independent. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Keeley, Graham (March 16, 2008). "Red Duchess wed lesbian lover to snub children". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 19, 2008. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Algorri, Luis (March 28, 2008). "Liliana, el poder de la nueva duquesa" (in Spanish). Tiempo. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- Maroto, el alcalde de Vitoria, se casa con su novio, El Diario Montañés, June 3, 2015.
- Mariano Rajoy sí irá a la boda de Javier Maroto y su novio 'Josema', El Mundo, September 15, 2015.
- Maroto: «El PP dice hoy aquí que el derecho al matrimonio es para todos», El Diario Vasco, September 18, 2015.
- A same-sex wedding sparks a political furor in Spain, CNN By Tim Lister and Helena de Moura, September 17, 2015.
- "Los anglicanos se solidarizan con la Iglesia Evangélica Española". Periodista Digital (in Spanish). March 22, 2017.
- "Same-Sex Marriage Legislation OK in Spain". Angus Reid Global Monitor. July 2, 2005. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Spaniards Back Government on Same-Sex Marriage". Angus Reid Global Monitor. April 20, 2006. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Un 44% de los españoles acepta la adopción por parejas del mismo sexo frente a un 42% que se opone". July 25, 2007 – via elpais.com.
- "Same-Sex Marriage". Ipsos. May 7–21, 2013. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016.
- "Enquête sur la droitisation des opinions publiques européennes" (PDF). IFOP. Archived from the original on February 1, 2016.
- "Special Eurobarometer 437" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 22, 2016.
- "Religion and society", Pew Research Center, May 29, 2018
- "Being Christian in Western Europe", Pew Research Center, May 29, 2018
- "Eastern and Western Europeans Differ on Importance of Religion, Views of Minorities, and Key Social Issues", Pew Research Center, 2017
- "Eurobarometer on Discrimination 2019: The social acceptance of LGBTI people in the EU". TNS. European Commission. p. 2. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Same-sex marriage in Spain.|
- Same-Sex Marriage: A Selective Bibliography of the Legal Literature (includes Spanish case)