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Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States

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In response to court action in a number of states, the United States federal government and a number of state legislatures passed or attempted to pass legislation either prohibiting or allowing same-sex marriage or other types of same-sex unions.

On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.

Federal level[edit]

In 1996, the United States Congress passed and President Bill Clinton signed Public Law 104–199, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Section 3 of DOMA defines "marriage" and "spouse" for purposes of both federal law and any ruling, regulation, or interpretation by an administrative bureau or agency of the United States government.[1] The impact of Section 2 of DOMA, which relieves jurisdictions within the United States of any obligation to recognize same-sex relationships legally established in any other jurisdiction, is less clear.[2]

In United States v. Windsor, the Supreme Court was asked to determine the constitutionality of Section 3 of DOMA, which defines marriage for federal purposes as the union of a man and a woman.[3] On June 26, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5–4 vote that the Section 3 of DOMA is unconstitutional.[4]

The State Marriage Defense Act, introduced in the House of Representatives on January 9, 2014, would require the federal government to recognize the validity of a marriage based on a person's legal residence (place of domicile), rather than on the validity of the marriage when and where it was solemnized (place of celebration). The Obama administration has generally used the latter standard. Its sponsors described it as a way to clarify the federal government's response to Windsor and restore the ability of the a state to control the definition of marriage within its borders.[5][6]

In Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court was asked to determine the constitutionality of state bans on same-sex marriage licenses as well as state bans on recognition of same-sex marriages from other states. On June 26, 2015, the court ruled by a 5–4 vote that the Fourteenth Amendment obliges states to license same-sex marriages and to recognize same-sex marriages from other states.[7]

In the 111th, 112th, 113th, 114th, and 117th Congresses, the Respect for Marriage Act (RFMA) was introduced by House and Senate Democrats to repeal DOMA.[8] These efforts eventually prevailed in 2022, with the bill passing the House 267–157 and the Senate 61–36. President Joe Biden signed the bill into law on December 13, 2022.[9]

State level[edit]

List of U.S. state and territorial statutes and codes, along with the Code of the District of Columbia, recognizing or prohibiting same-sex marriage, civil unions and domestic partnerships
  Statute recognizes same-sex marriage, civil unions and/or domestic partnerships
  Statute recognizes same-sex marriage and domestic partnerships
  Statute recognizes same-sex marriage
  Statute neither recognizes or prohibits same-sex marriage, civil unions and domestic partnerships
  Statute prohibits same-sex marriage (not enforceable)
  Statute prohibits same-sex marriage, civil unions and domestic partnerships (not enforceable)

Efforts to enable same-sex unions[edit]

Votes by state legislatures to recognize various types of same-sex unions, sorted by date:

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper house Lower house Governor Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
District of Columbia June 1992 Domestic partnership[10] Passed Signed Yes Yes
California September 1994 Domestic partnership[11][12] 21 17 41 26 Vetoed No No
Hawaii March 1996 Domestic partnership[13] 14 11 Failed No No
Hawaii June 1997 Reciprocal beneficiary relationship[14] 24 7 43 27 Signed Yes Yes
California September 1998 Domestic partnership[15] 21 17 41 36 Vetoed No No
California October 1999 Domestic partnership[16] 23 13 41 38 Vetoed No No
California October 1999 Domestic partnership[17] 22 14 41 36 Signed Yes Yes
Vermont April 2000 Civil union[18] 19 11 79 68 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2001 Domestic partnership[19] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
California August 2001 Domestic partnership (expansion)[20] 22 12 41 27 Signed Yes Yes
California October 2001 Domestic partnership (expansion)[21] 23 11 41 32 Signed Yes Yes
New York August 2002 Domestic partnership[22] Passed 147 0 Signed Yes Yes
New York August 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[23] Passed 147 0 Signed Yes Yes
California September 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[24] 26 11 41 31 Signed Yes Yes
California September 2002 Domestic partnership (expansion)[25] 23 13 43 27 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia April 2003 Domestic partnership (expansion)[26] Passed Signed Yes Yes
California September 2003 Domestic partnership (expansion)[27] 23 14 41 33 Signed Yes Yes
New Jersey January 2004 Domestic partnership[28] 23 9 41 28 Signed Yes Yes
Maine April 2004 Domestic partnership[29] 18 14 84 58 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia May 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[30] Passed Signed Yes Yes
California September 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[31] 23 12 46 29 Signed Yes Yes
New York September 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[32] Passed 141 1 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia December 2004 Domestic partnership (expansion)[33] Passed Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia January 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[34] Passed Signed Yes Yes
Connecticut April 2005 Civil union[35] 27 9 85 63 Signed Yes Yes
Maryland May 2005 Domestic partnership[36] 31 16 83 50 Vetoed No No
California June 2005 Marriage[37] Failed No No
Rhode Island June 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[38][39] Passed No No
Rhode Island July 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[40][41] Passed No No
California September 2005 Marriage[42] 21 15 41 35 Vetoed No No
California September 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[43] 23 15 47 28 Signed Yes Yes
California September 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[44] 21 14 47 32 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia December 2005 Domestic partnership (expansion)[45] Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Jersey January 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[46] 39 0 67 8 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia January 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[47] Passed Signed Yes Yes
New York March 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[48] Passed 96 25 Signed Yes Yes
Maine April 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[49] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New York June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[50] 114 27 No No
New York June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[51] 116 27 No No
Rhode Island June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[52][53] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
Rhode Island June 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[54][53] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[55][56] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[57][56] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[58][59] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
California September 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[60] 24 15 46 29 Signed Yes Yes
California September 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[61] 23 15 47 31 Signed Yes Yes
New Jersey December 2006 Civil union[62] 23 12 56 19 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia December 2006 Domestic partnership (expansion)[63] Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire April 2007 Civil union[64] Failed No No
Washington April 2007 Registered domestic partnership[65] 28 19 63 35 Signed Yes Yes
Oregon May 2007 Domestic partnership[66] 21 9 34 26 Signed Yes Yes
Maine May 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[67] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire May 2007 Civil union[68] 14 10 243 129 Signed Yes Yes
Maine June 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[69] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Maine June 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[70] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New York June 2007 Marriage[71] 85 61 No No
Rhode Island July 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[72][73] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
California September 2007 Marriage[74] 22 15 42 34 Vetoed No No
California October 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[75] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island October 2007 Domestic partnership (expansion)[76][73] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
New Hampshire January 2008 Contractual cohabitation[77] Failed No No
New York January 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[78] Passed No No
New Mexico February 2008 Domestic partnership[79] 33 31 No No
Washington March 2008 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[80][81]' 29 20 62 32 Signed Yes Yes
Maine March 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[82] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Maryland April 2008 Domestic partnership[83] 86 51 No No
Maryland May 2008 Domestic partnership[84] 30 17 88 46 Signed Yes Yes
Maryland May 2008 Domestic partnership[85] 27 20 86 47 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia May 2008 Domestic partnership (expansion)[86] Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Mexico February 2009 Domestic partnership[87] 17 25 No No
Vermont April 2009 Marriage[88] 23 5 100 49 Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Colorado April 2009 Designated beneficiary agreement[89] 23 10 41 24 Signed Yes Yes
Connecticut April 2009 Marriage (codification)[90] 28 7 100 44 Signed Yes Yes
Maine May 2009 Marriage[91] 21 14 89 58 Signed No No2
District of Columbia May 2009 Marriage (recognition only)[92][93] Passed Signed Yes Yes
Washington May 2009 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[94] 30 18 62 35 Signed Yes Yes3
District of Columbia May 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[95] Passed Signed Yes Yes
Maine May 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[96] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Nevada May 2009 Domestic partnership[97][98] 14 7 28 14 Vetoed1 Yes Yes
New Hampshire June 2009 Marriage[99] 14 10 198 176 Signed Yes Yes
Oregon June 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[100] 27 0 41 8 Signed Yes Yes
Wisconsin June 2009 Domestic partnership 17 16 50 48 Signed Yes Yes
New York August 2009 Domestic partnership (expansion)[101] Passed 142 0 Signed Yes Yes
California October 2009 Out-of-state pre-proposition 8 marriage recognition[102] 24 14 44 27 Signed Yes Yes
New York December 2009 Marriage[103] 24 38 89 52 No No
District of Columbia December 2009 Marriage[104] 11 2 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[105][106] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
Rhode Island January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[107][108] Passed Passed Vetoed 1 Yes Yes
New York January 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[109][110] 61 0 142 0 Signed Yes Yes
New Jersey January 2010 Marriage[111] 14 20 No No
New York March 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[112] 119 20 No No
New York March 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[113][114] Passed 137 5 Signed Yes Yes
New York April 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[115][116] 132 9 No No
Minnesota May 2010 Domestic partnership (only 1 entitlement)[117] 41 24 78 55 Vetoed No No
Hawaii July 2010 Civil union[118] 18 7 31 20 Vetoed No No
New York August 2010 Committed partnership[119][120] 50 11 107 26 Signed Yes Yes
California September 2010 Domestic partnership (expansion)[121] 23 12 53 24 Signed Yes Yes
Illinois January 2011 Civil union[122][123][124] 32 24 61 52 Signed Yes Yes
Hawaii February 2011 Civil union[125] 18 5 31 19 Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire March 2011 Domestic union[126] Failed No No
Maryland March 2011 Marriage[127][128] 25 21 No No
Colorado March 2011 Civil union[129][130] 23 12 No No
Washington April 2011 Recognition of out-of-state union as registered domestic partnership[131] 28 19 58 39 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada May 2011 Recognition of out-of-state union as domestic partnership[132] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Washington May 2011 Registered domestic partnership (expansion)[133] 27 21 57 40 Signed Yes Yes
Delaware May 2011 Civil union[134] 13 6 26 15 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada May 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[135] 11 10 No No
New York June 2011 Marriage[136] 33 29 80 63 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2011 Civil union[137] 21 16 62 11 Signed Yes Yes
California September 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[138] 22 13 52 25 Signed Yes Yes
California October 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[139] 25 15 Passed Signed Yes Yes
California October 2011 Domestic partnership (expansion)[140] 24 13 Passed Signed Yes Yes
Washington February 2012 Marriage[141] 28 21 55 43 Signed Yes Yes3
New Jersey February 2012 Marriage[142] 24 16 42 33 Vetoed No No
Maryland March 2012 Marriage[143] 25 22 72 67 Signed Yes Yes3
New York April 2012 Domestic partnership (expansion)[144] 129 10 No No
Colorado May 2012 Civil union[145] 23 12 No No
New Jersey August 2012 Civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[146] 21 11 41 33 Vetoed No No
Wyoming January 2013 Domestic partnership[147] 24 35 No No
Colorado March 2013 Civil union[148] 21 14 39 26 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island May 2013 Marriage[149][150] 26 12 56 15 Signed Yes Yes
Delaware May 2013 Marriage[151] 12 9 23 18 Signed Yes Yes
Minnesota May 2013 Marriage[152] 37 30 75 59 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada June 2013 Domestic partnership (expansion)[153] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
Hawaii November 2013 Marriage[154] 19 4 30 19 Signed Yes Yes
Illinois November 2013 Marriage[155][156] 32 21 61 54 Signed Yes Yes
New York February 2014 Marriage (codification)[157][158] 125 10 No No
Wyoming February 2014 Marriage[159] 17 41 No No
New York April 2014 Domestic partnership (expansion)[160][161] 124 14 No No
California July 2014 Marriage (statutory codification)[162][163][164] 25 10 51 11 Signed Yes Yes
Virginia February 2015 Marriage (statutory codification)[165][166][167] 20 18 No No
Utah March 2015 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[168] 26 0 39 30 Signed Yes Yes
New Mexico April 2015 Marriage (partial codification)[169][170] 35 5 37 10 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada June 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[171] 21 0 42 0 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada June 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[172] 19 0 41 1 Signed Yes Yes
New Jersey June 2015 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[173] 21 13 43 25 Vetoed No No
Maine June 2015 Marriage (expansion)[174] 35 0 141 0 Vetoed1 Yes Yes
Oregon July 2015 Marriage (statutory codification)[175] 18 11 40 18 Signed Yes Yes
Guam August 2015 Marriage (codification)[176][177][178] 13 2 4 Yes Yes
New York September 2015 Marriage (codification)[179][180] 60 0 146 1 Signed Yes Yes
District of Columbia December 2015 Domestic partnership (expansion)[181] Passed Signed Yes Yes
Oregon March 2016 Marriage (statutory codification)[182][183] 18 11 43 13 Signed Yes Yes
New York March 2016 Marriage (codification)[184][185] 129 12 No No
New York April 2016 Domestic partnership (expansion)[186] 120 15 No No
Colorado June 2016 Conversion of civil union into marriage[187][188] 34 0 52 13 Signed Yes Yes
North Carolina June 2016 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[189] Passed No No
California July 2016 Marriage and domestic partnership (statutory codification)[190][191] 34 0 63 1 Signed Yes Yes
North Dakota January 2017 Marriage (statutory codification)[192][193] 15 31 No No
New Mexico February 2017 Marriage (partial codification)[194][195] 63 0 No No
Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[196] 26 0 74 0 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[197] 29 0 69 3 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[198] 27 0 68 0 Signed Yes Yes
Maryland May 2017 Domestic partnership (expansion)[199] 138 2 45 0 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada May 2017 Marriage (statutory codification)[200] 20 1 28 10 Signed Yes Yes
Nevada June 2017 Domestic partnership (expansion)[201] 21 0 41 0 Signed Yes Yes
New York June 2017 Marriage (codification)[202] 62 0 139 0 Signed Yes Yes
New Jersey June 2017 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[203] 22 15 No No
North Carolina July 2017 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[204] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Maine July 2017 Marriage (codification)[205] Passed Passed 4 Yes Yes
Maryland January 2018 Domestic partnership (expansion)[206] 135 2 45 1 Vetoed No No
New Mexico February 2018 Marriage (partial codification)[207] 60 2 No No
New York March 2018 Marriage (codification)[208] 129 6 No No
Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[209] 27 0 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[210] 23 0 73 0 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[211] 23 4 44 24 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2018 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[212] 25 3 45 26 Signed Yes Yes
New York April 2018 Domestic partnership (expansion)[213] 114 17 No No
Minnesota May 2018 Marriage (codification)[214] 34 33 78 50 Vetoed No No
New Jersey May 2018 Marriage, civil union and domestic partnership (expansion: surrogacy)[215] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New York June 2018 Marriage (codification)[216] 57 4 No No
New Hampshire June 2018 Marriage (equalization of marriageable age)[217] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Arkansas March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[218] 35 0 96 0 Signed Yes Yes
Nebraska March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[219] 38 6 Signed Yes Yes
New Mexico March 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[220] 53 2 No No
Virginia March 2019 Marriage (expansion: surrogacy)[221] 28 12 63 36 Signed Yes Yes
New Mexico March 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[222] 32 8 40 25 Signed Yes Yes
Nebraska March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[223] 45 0 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[224] 22 2 55 6 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[225] 29 0 69 4 Signed Yes Yes
New Mexico April 2019 Marriage (partial codification)[226] 39 0 62 0 Signed Yes Yes
Maryland May 2019 Marriage (expansion)[227] 34 10 121 15 Signed Yes Yes
Maryland May 2019 Marriage (expansion)[228] 31 14 133 6 Signed Yes Yes
Oklahoma May 2019 Marriage (expansion: surrogacy)[229] 33 10 84 6 Signed Yes Yes
Nebraska May 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[230] 40 3 Signed Yes Yes
Nebraska May 2019 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[231] 33 8 Vetoed No No
Minnesota May 2019 Marriage (codification)[232][233] 52 15 74 50 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island June 2019 Marriage (expansion)[234] 35 0 No No
Maine June 2019 Marriage (codification)[235] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Delaware July 2019 Marriage (codification)[236] 20 1 37 4 Signed Yes Yes
New York October 2019 Marriage (codification)[237] 61 0 121 23 Signed Yes Yes
Hawaii December 2019 Marriage and civil union (codification)[238] Passed No No
New York December 2019 Domestic partnership (expansion)[239][240] 59 0 122 24 Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire January 2020 Marriage (codification)[241] Failed No No
New Mexico February 2020 Marriage (partial codification)[242] 42 0 64 0 Signed Yes Yes
Nebraska February 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[243] 47 0 Signed Yes Yes
New Mexico February 2020 Marriage (partial codification)[244] 40 0 67 0 Signed Yes Yes
Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[245] 28 12 63 34 Signed Yes Yes
Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[246] 25 13 62 38 Signed Yes Yes
Virginia March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[247] 33 6 58 42 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[248] 24 1 70 0 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[249] 27 0 71 0 Signed Yes Yes
Virginia April 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[250] 39 1 91 6 Signed Yes Yes
New York April 2020 Marriage (expansion)[251][252] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Virginia April 2020 Marriage (statutory codification)[253] 24 16 53 43 Signed Yes Yes
New York April 2020 Domestic partnership (expansion)[254][255] 62 0 131 11 Signed Yes Yes
Puerto Rico June 2020 Marriage (codification)[256][257] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
North Carolina June 2020 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[258] 47 0 Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire July 2020 Marriage (codification)[259] Passed 209 119 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2020 Marriage (expansion)[260] 34 1 64 1 Signed Yes Yes
Rhode Island July 2020 Marriage (expansion)[261] 36 1 67 1 Signed Yes Yes
Indiana 2023 Marriage (codification)[262] Pending
Michigan 2023 Marriage (codification)[263] Pending
North Carolina 2023 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[264] Pending
Pennsylvania 2023 Marriage (codification)[265] Pending
North Carolina 2023 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[266] 50 0 Pending
Nebraska September 15, 2023 Marriage (partial statutory codification)[267] Pending
Kansas January 8, 2024 Marriage (codification)[268] Pending

Notes:

Efforts to prohibit same-sex unions[edit]

Votes by state legislatures to prohibit recognition of various types of same-sex unions, sorted by date:

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Governor Final
outcome1
Yes No Yes No
Maryland May 1973 Marriage[269] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Texas June 1973 Marriage[270][271][272][273][274] 30 1 113 17 Signed Yes Yes
Oklahoma February 1975 Marriage[275] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Arizona April 1975 Marriage[276] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Virginia August 1975 Marriage[277] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Utah April 1977 Marriage[278] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Florida June 1977 Marriage[279][280][281] 37 0 101 11 Signed Yes Yes
Illinois June 1977 Marriage[282] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
California August 1977 Marriage[283] 23 5 68 2 Signed Yes Yes2
Wyoming October 1977 Marriage[284] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Wisconsin July 1979 Marriage[285] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire July 1987 Marriage[286][287] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Louisiana 1987 Marriage Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire March 1994 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[288] 11 12 No No
Guam May 1994 Marriage[289] Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Hawaii June 1994 Marriage[290] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Utah March 1995 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[291] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Dakota January 1996 Marriage[292][293][294] 26 8 49 18 Signed Yes Yes
Idaho February 1996 Marriage[293][295] 24 6 66 4 Signed Yes Yes
Idaho March 1996 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[296] 28 4 59 6 Signed Yes Yes
Colorado March 1996 Marriage[297] Passed Passed Vetoed No No
Kansas April 1996 Marriage[293][298] 39 1 87 38 Signed Yes Yes
Georgia April 1996 Marriage[292][293][299] 47 0 135 10 Signed Yes Yes
Arizona May 1996 Marriage[292][293][300] 21 9 50 5 Signed Yes Yes
Alaska May 1996 Marriage and civil union[293][301][302] 16 3 31 9 3 Yes Yes
Illinois May 1996 Marriage[303][304] 42 9 87 17 Signed Yes Yes2
Tennessee May 1996 Marriage[292][293] 31 0 90 1 Signed Yes Yes
South Carolina May 1996 Marriage[305][306] 45 0 82 0 Signed Yes Yes
Michigan June 1996 Marriage[307][308] 31 2 88 14 Signed Yes Yes
Michigan June 1996 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[307][308] 32 2 74 28 Signed Yes Yes
Delaware June 1996 Marriage[309] 17 3 39 0 Signed Yes Yes2
North Carolina June 1996 Marriage and recognition of out-of-state marriage[310][311][312] 41 4 98 10 Signed Yes Yes
Missouri July 1996 Marriage[313][314] 29 2 131 10 Signed Yes Yes
California August 1996 Marriage[315] 20 21 Passed No No
Oklahoma September 1996 Marriage[292][293] 42 2 99 0 Signed Yes Yes
Pennsylvania October 1996 Marriage[316][317] 43 5 189 13 Signed Yes Yes
Mississippi February 1997 Marriage[318] 50 0 118 3 Signed Yes Yes
Arkansas February 1997 Marriage[292][319] 34 0 92 2 Signed Yes Yes
North Dakota February 1997 Marriage[292][320] 43 6 73 18 Signed Yes Yes
Texas February 1997 Marriage[318][321][322][323] 31 0 143 0 Signed Yes Yes
Washington February 1997 Marriage[324] 33 15 63 35 Vetoed No No
Virginia March 1997 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[292][325] 40 0 87 9 Signed Yes Yes2
Maine March 1997 Marriage[326] 24 10 106 39 3 Yes Yes2
Indiana April 1997 Marriage[327][328] 38 10 85 9 Signed Yes Yes
Montana April 1997 Marriage and civil union[292][329] 45 5 73 23 Signed Yes Yes
Florida May 1997 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[292][330] 33 5 97 19 3 Yes Yes
Minnesota June 1997 Marriage[293][331] 64 0 108 20 Signed Yes Yes2
Colorado June 1997 Marriage[332] Passed Passed Vetoed No No
Washington February 1998 Marriage[333][334] 34 11 65 28 Vetoed 4 Yes Yes2
Kentucky April 1998 Marriage and recognition out-of-state marriage[293][335] 32 2 84 9 Signed Yes Yes
Alabama May 1998 Marriage[336] 30 0 79 12 Signed Yes Yes
Hawaii November 1998 Marriage[292] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes2
Puerto Rico March 1999 Marriage[337] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Louisiana July 1999 Marriage and recognition of out-of-state marriage[338] 32 0 95 0 Signed Yes Yes
West Virginia March 2000 Marriage[339] Passed 96 3 Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire March 2000 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[340] 128 232 No No
Vermont April 2000 Marriage[18] 19 11 79 68 Signed Yes Yes
Connecticut April / May 2000 Marriage[341][342] 31 5 96 51 Signed Yes Yes
Colorado May 2000 Marriage[343] 33 32 37 28 Signed Yes Yes
New Hampshire March 2001 Recognition of out-of-state civil union[344] 88 276 No No
Missouri July 2001 Marriage[345][346] 31 0 124 20 Signed Yes Yes
American Samoa March 2003 Marriage[347] Failed No No
Texas May 2003 Recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriage and civil union[348][349][350] 22 9 118 9 Signed Yes Yes
Wisconsin November 2003 Marriage[351][352] 22 10 68 29 Vetoed No No
Ohio February 2004 Marriage, recognition of out-of-state marriage, and civil union[292][353] 18 15 72 22 Signed Yes Yes
Utah March 2004 Civil union[292] 24 4 62 12 Signed Yes Yes
Virginia April 2004 Civil union[292][354] 27 12 69 30 3 Yes Yes2
New Hampshire May 2004 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[355] 16 7 215 137 Signed Yes Yes2
Connecticut April 2005 Marriage[356] 27 9 85 63 Signed Yes Yes
Wyoming February 2007 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[357] 21 8 No No
New Hampshire March 2009 Civil union[358] 136 205 No No
New Hampshire February 2010 Marriage[359] 109 210 No No
Wyoming March 2011 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[360] 14 16 31 28 No No
New Hampshire March 2012 Marriage[361] 116 211 No No
Wyoming February 2014 Recognition of out-of-state marriage[159] 29 31 No No

Notes:

  • 1 On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges that a fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by the Fourteenth Amendment, and that states must allow same-sex marriage.
  • 2 Subsequently, repealed.
  • 3 The bill was allowed to lapse into law.
  • 4 Veto overridden.

Attempts to establish same-sex unions via initiative or statewide referendum[edit]

State Intended date Same-sex union Description Outcome
Maine November 2012 Marriage Initiative to establish same-sex marriage.[362] Yes Yes

Efforts to enable ban amendment[edit]

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Hawaii 1996 Marriage ban permitted Passed Placed on Ballot
1997
November 3, 1998 Referendum (69.18%) Yes Yes
Alaska April 17, 1998

May 12, 1998

Same-sex marriage 14 6 28 12 Placed on Ballot
November 3, 1998 Referendum (68.1%) Yes Yes
Indiana February 3, 2004 Same-sex marriage[363] 42 7 No No
Georgia February 16, 2004

February 26, 2004


March 31, 2004

Same-sex marriage and civil unions 40 14 117 50 No No
122 52 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (76.2%) Yes Yes
Missouri March 1, 2004

May 14, 2004

Same-sex marriage 26 6[364] 130 26 Placed on Ballot
August 3, 2004 Referendum (70.6%) Yes Yes
Mississippi March 1, 2004

April 7, 2004

Same-sex marriage 51 0 97 17 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (86.01%) Yes Yes
Utah March 3, 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[365] 20 7 58 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (65.86%) Yes Yes
Louisiana May 17, 2004

May 18, 2004


June 6, 2004


June 15, 2004

Same-sex marriage and civil unions 31 6 64 29 No No
87 11 Placed on Ballot
88 13
September 18, 2004 Referendum (77.79%) Yes Yes
Kentucky April 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[366][367] 33 5 85 11 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (74.55%) Yes Yes
Oklahoma April 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 26 19 92 4 Placed on Ballot
November 2004 Referendum (75.58%) Yes Yes
Kansas January/February 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 28 11 86 37 Placed on Ballot
April 2005 Referendum (69.94%) Yes Yes
Texas May 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[368] 21 8 101 29 Placed on Ballot
November 2005 Referendum (76.25%) Yes Yes
Alabama March 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 30 0 85 7 Placed on Ballot
June 2006 Referendum (81.2%) Yes Yes
South Carolina March 1, 2005

April 14, 2005

Same-sex marriage and civil unions 96 3 42 1 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (77.97%) Yes Yes
January 25, 2007

February 27, 2007

92 7 41 1
South Dakota February 2005 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 20 14 55 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (51.83%) Yes Yes
Wisconsin March 2004 Same-sex marriage and civil unions 20 13 68 27 Advanced
February 2006 19 14 62 31 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (59.4%) Yes Yes
Tennessee May 2004 Same-sex marriage 28 1 85 5 Advanced
March 2005 29 3 88 7 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (81.25%) Yes Yes
Idaho February 2006 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[369] 26 9 53 17 Placed on Ballot
November 2006 Referendum (63.4%) Yes Yes
Virginia February 26, 2005

January 15, 2006


March 7, 2006

All types of same-sex unions[370] 30 10 79 17 Placed on Ballot
28 11 85 12
November 2006 Referendum (57.06%) Yes Yes
Pennsylvania June 2006 Same-sex marriage[370] 38 12 136 61 Advanced
2007/2008 No No
Arizona May/June 2008 Same-sex marriage 16 4 35 25 Placed on Ballot
November 2008 Referendum (56.2%) Yes Yes
Wyoming February 2009 Same-sex marriage[371] 25 35 No No
West Virginia March 2009 Same-sex marriage[372] 30 67 No No
Indiana January 2010 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[373] 38 10 No No
New Hampshire February 2010 Same-sex marriage[374] 135 201 No No
Wyoming January 2011 Same-sex marriage[375] 20 10 No No
Iowa February 2011 Same-sex marriage 62 37 No No
North Carolina September 2011 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[376] 30 16 75 42 Placed on Ballot
May 2012 Referendum (61.04%) Yes Yes
Minnesota May 2011 Same-sex marriage[377] 37 27 70 62 Placed on Ballot
November 2012 Referendum (47.44%) No No
Indiana March 2011 Same-sex marriage and civil unions[363] 40 10 70 26 No No, Bill was amended
Indiana February 2014 Same-sex marriage[378][379] 32 17 57 40 Advanced
2015 No No

Notes:

  • 1 Subsequently, repealed.

Efforts to ban same-sex unions by constitutional amendment[edit]

The following table shows all popular vote results regarding state constitutional amendments concerning same-sex marriage, and in some cases civil unions and domestic partnerships. The Hawaii amendment is different in that it granted the legislature authority to "reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples" (which the legislature had already done).

State Initiated or legislatively referred ballot measure Ban on Date Yes Yes vote No No vote Total votes Voter turnout Electorate Final
outcome
Votes % Votes %
Alaska Measure 2 Marriage November 3, 1998 152,965[380] 68.11% 71,631 31.89% 224,596 49.54% 453,332 Yes Yes
Hawaii Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage ban
permitted
285,384[381] 69.18% 117,827 28.56% 412,520 67.19% 601,404 Yes Yes
Nebraska Initiative Measure 416 All types of same-sex unions November 7, 2000 477,571[382] 70.1% 203,667 29.9% 681,238 62.77% 1,085,217 Yes Yes
Nevada Ballot Question 2 Marriage 412,688[383] 69.62% 180,077 30.38% 592,765 67.8% 874,304 Yes Yes
November 5, 2002 337,197[384] 67.2% 164,573 32.8% 501,770 57.68% 869,859 Yes Yes
Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 August 3, 2004 1,055,771[385][386] 70.61% 439,529 29.39% 1,495,300 42.93% 3,483,481 Yes Yes
Louisiana Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
September 18, 2004 619,908[387][388] 77.78% 177,067 22.22% 796,975 27.91% 2,855,561 Yes Yes
Kentucky Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 2, 2004 1,222,125[389][390] 74.56% 417,097 25.44% 1,639,222 58.7% 2,794,286 Yes Yes
Georgia Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
2,454,930[391][392][390] 76.15% 768,716 23.85% 3,223,646 75.87% 4,248,837 Yes Yes
Ohio State Issue 1 Marriage and
civil union
3,329,335[393] 61.71% 2,065,462 38.29% 5,394,797 67.66% 7,972,826 Yes Yes
Mississippi Amendment 1 Marriage 957,104[394][395][390] 86.01% 155,648 13.99% 1,112,752 53.78% 2,068,766 Yes Yes
Oklahoma State Question 711 Marriage and
civil union
1,075,216[396][397] 75.59% 347,303 24.41% 1,422,519 66.35% 2,143,978 Yes Yes
Arkansas Constitutional Amendment 3 Marriage and
civil union
753,770[398][399] 74.95% 251,914 25.05% 1,053,399 62.47% 1,686,124 Yes Yes
Michigan State Proposal - 04-2 All types of same-sex unions 2,698,077[400][401] 58.62% 1,904,319 41.38% 4,602,396 64.24% 7,164,047 Yes Yes
Montana Constitutional Initiative 96 Marriage 295,070[402] 66.56% 148,263 33.44% 443,333 69.44% 638,474 Yes Yes
Utah Constitutional Amendment 3 Marriage and
civil union
593,297[403] 65.86% 307,488 34.14% 900,785 70.47% 1,278,251 Yes Yes
North Dakota Constitutional Measure 1 Marriage and
civil union
223,538[404] 73.23% 81,708 26.77% 305,246 62.68% 487,010 Yes Yes
Oregon State Measure 36 Marriage 1,028,546[405][406] 56.63% 787,556 43.37% 1,816,102 84.82% 2,141,249 Yes Yes
Kansas Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
April 5, 2005 417,627[407][408] 69.95% 179,432 30.05% 597,059 35.35% 1,688,926 Yes Yes
Texas Proposition 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 8, 2005 1,723,782[409][410] 76.25% 536,913 23.75% 2,260,695 17.97% 12,577,545 Yes Yes
Alabama Amendment 774 Marriage and
civil union
June 6, 2006 697,591[411][412] 81.18% 161,694 18.82% 859,285 35.61% 2,413,279 Yes Yes
South Carolina Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
November 7, 2006 829,360[413][414] 77.97% 234,316 22.03% 1,063,676 43.37% 2,452,714 Yes Yes
Virginia Question 1 All types of same-sex unions 1,328,537[415][416] 57.06% 999,687 42.94% 2,328,224 51.12% 4,554,683 Yes Yes
Tennessee Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage 1,419,434[417][418] 81.25% 327,536 18.75% 1,746,970 46.73% 3,738,703 Yes Yes
Wisconsin Referendum 1 Marriage and
civil union
1,264,310[419][420] 59.43% 862,924 40.57% 2,127,234 49.97% 4,256,721 Yes Yes
South Dakota Amendment C All types of same-sex unions 172,305[421][422][423] 51.83% 160,152 48.17% 332,457 65.56% 507,132 Yes Yes
Colorado Amendment 43 Marriage 855,206[424] 55.02% 699,030 44.98% 1,554,236 62.6% 2,533,058 Yes Yes
Arizona Proposition 107 Marriage and
civil union
721,789[425] 48.21% 775,498 51.79% 1,496,987 58.28% 2,568,401 No No
Idaho Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage and
civil union
282,386[426] 63.35% 163,384 36.65% 445,770 58.27% 764,880 Yes Yes
Florida Constitutional Amendment 2 Marriage and
civil union
November 4, 2008 4,890,883[427][428] 61.92% 3,008,026 38.08% 8,456,329 75.18% 11,247,634 Yes Yes
Arizona Proposition 102 Marriage 1,258,355[429] 56.2% 980,753 43.8% 2,239,078 74.95% 2,987,451 Yes Yes
California Proposition 8 7,001,084[430][431] 52.24% 6,401,482 47.76% 13,743,177 79.42% 17,304,091 Yes Yes
North Carolina Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage and
civil union
May 8, 2012 1,317,178[432][433] 61.04% 840,802 38.96% 2,157,980 34.27% 6,296,759 Yes Yes
Minnesota Constitutional Amendment 1 Marriage November 6, 2012 1,399,916[434][435] 47.44% 1,510,434 51.19% 2,950,780 76.42% 3,861,043 No No

Post-Obergefell attempts to repeal constitutional amendments banning same-sex unions[edit]

State Date Type of same-sex union Upper House Lower house Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Nevada 2017 Same-sex marriage 19 2 27 14 Advanced
March/May 2019 19 2 37 2 Placed on Ballot
November 2020 Referendum (62.4%) Yes Yes
Virginia February 2021 Same-sex marriage, civil union and any marriage-like contract between unmarried persons 24 12 60 33 Advanced
2022 25 14 - - Failed No
California 2023 Same-sex marriage 31 0 67 0 Placed on Ballot
Pending Referendum Pending
November 2024
Oregon June 2023 Same-sex marriage 22 0 - - Failed No
Hawaii March/April 2024 Legislative authority to enact same-sex marriage ban 24 1 43 6 Placed on Ballot
November 2024 Pending Referendum Pending
Colorado April/May 2024 Same-sex marriage 29 5 46 14 Placed on Ballot
November 2024 Pending Referendum Pending

Proposed attempts to constitutionally block same-sex unions[edit]

State 2000s 2010s Details
Delaware 2009 A proposed constitutional amendment, Senate Bill 27, to ban same-sex marriage failed.[436] Failed Failed
Indiana 2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2014

On February 15, 2011, the Indiana House approved a ban on civil unions and marriage (70–26). The bill passed the Indiana Senate by a 40–10 vote. According to state law, the bill must now be approved by the next, separately elected legislature before voters will see the measure on the 2014 ballot.[437] On January 27, 2014, the Indiana House voted 52–43 to remove the ban on civil unions from the proposed measure.[438] On January 28, 2014, the Indiana House voted 57–40 in favor of the amended measure.[439] On February 17, 2014, the Indiana Senate voted 32–17 approving the House-amended version of the ban on gay marriage. The measure will now need to be approved by the next, separately elected legislature before voters are allowed to decide its fate in 2016.[440] Failed Failed
Iowa 2004
2005
2010
2011
After the Iowa Supreme Court made same-sex marriage legal in 2009, a backlash quickly developed that resulted in three of the justices losing their seats in the 2010 election. Additionally, Republicans took control of the House and fell one seat short of taking over the Senate. For a proposed constitutional amendment to come before Iowa voters, it has to be approved in exactly the same form by two consecutive general assemblies.[441] Failed Failed
Minnesota 2004
2005
2006
2007
2009
2011 A bill was sponsored in 2009 but failed to be brought up for a vote. An amendment was introduced again in 2011. The House and Senate bills passed.[442][443] Both are referred to other area.[clarification needed] The bill would have been approved by majority by both the Senate and house by May 23, 2011.[clarification needed] On May 11, 2011, the Senate passed the bill 38–27.[444] On May 22, 2011, an amendment was passed in the house by a vote of 70–62, and was placed on the ballot in the November 2012 election.[445] Failed Failed
New Hampshire 2006
2007
2010 On February 17, 2010, a proposed constitutional amendment failed in the house by a 201–135 margin.[446][447] Constitutional amendments in New Hampshire require two-thirds approval from voters. Failed Failed
New Jersey 2006
2007
2008
2010 Bills to place an amendment on the ballot have all failed in the House or Senate Judiciary Committee. Failed Failed
New Mexico 2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2013

2014

A joint resolution was prefiled in the New Mexico legislature for the 2014 session.[448] The resolution would define marriage as one man and one woman for the state of New Mexico.[449] Failed Failed
Pennsylvania 2006
2008
2009
2010
2011
2013
A joint resolution was introduced in the house of representatives with record low sponsorship on May 8, 2013. The bill would ban same-sex marriages and civil unions. Pennsylvania would become the first northeastern state with a marriage amendment. According to state law, the amendment must receive a majority vote from both chambers of the legislature in two consecutive sessions before voters are allowed to decide its fate. The soonest voters could see the measure is in 2015.[450][451] Failed Failed
West Virginia 2009 2010
2011
West Virginia senators proposed a constitutional amendment for the 2010 ballot that would have defined marriage as "a union between and man and a woman". The amendment was defeated.[452][453] Another proposition was introduced in January 2011[454] but failed to advance. Failed Failed
Wyoming 2009 2011 In 2009, the house of representatives considered an amendment to the state constitution, House Joint Resolution 17 (also known as the "Defense of Marriage" resolution), defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman. The measure was defeated in the house on February 6, with 35 votes against and 25 in favor. On January 27, 2011, the Senate approved an amendment,[455] but it died in the house.[456] Failed Failed

Efforts to ban same-sex unions by statute[edit]

The following consists of votes by statutory initiatives that ban same-sex marriage and/or civil unions and domestic partnerships:

State Date Yes Yes vote No No vote Description Final outcome
California March 2000 61% (4,618,673) 39% (2,909,370) Proposition 22. Amend the Family Code to say: Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.[457]1 Yes Yes2 3

Notes:

  • 1 There is a debate as to whether the adoption of Prop 22 only prohibited California from recognizing same-sex marriages performed in other states.
  • 2 In March 2005, Judge Richard Kramer ruled there appeared to be no rational state compelling interest in limiting marriage to heterosexual couples. His ruling was appealed to the California Court of Appeal for the 1st District, which upheld Proposition 22 on October 5, 2006. The Supreme Court of California ruled on May 15, 2008, that Proposition 22 is unconstitutional and it was struck down by the state's highest court.
  • 3 Subsequently, repealed by state legislature.

Lawsuits seeking to overturn statutory bans[edit]

The following lists cases seeking to overturn marriage bans:

State Case Date Vote for Vote against Description Restrictions unconstitutional? Final outcome
Minnesota Richard John Baker v. Gerald R. Nelson October 15, 1971 0 7 Minnesota Supreme Court ruled that Minnesota's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[458] The case was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, but dismissed on October 10, 1972.[459] No No No No
Kentucky Jones v. Callahan November 9, 1973 0 7 Kentucky Court of Appeals ruled that Kentucky's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[460] No No No No
Washington Singer v. Hara October 1974 Failed Washington Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of same-sex couple who were denied a marriage license by their county clerk. Washington Court of Appeals's decision stating that state marriage statutes only applied to opposite-sex couples upheld.[461] No No No No
District of Columbia Dean v. District of Columbia' January 1995 0 9 District of Columbia Court of Appeals ruled that District's marriage statute applied only to opposite-sex couples.[462][463] No No No No
Hawaii Baehr v. Miike December 9, 1999 0 5 Hawaii Supreme Court ruled on May 5, 1993, in a 3 in favor to 1 against decision, that state must provide a compelling interest to restricting marriage to opposite-sex couples. Remanded case to lower courts for trial on the subject. On December 3, 1996, Judge Chang ruled that the state had not established any compelling interest in denying same-sex couples the ability to marry and that, even if it had, it failed to prove that the Hawaii statute was narrowly tailored to avoid unnecessary abridgement of constitutional rights. He enjoined the state from refusing to issue marriage licenses to otherwise-qualified same-sex couples.[464] The following day Chang stayed his ruling, acknowledging the "legally untenable" position couples would be in should the Supreme Court reverse him on appeal.[465] Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 1998 state constitutional amendment.[466] No No No No
Vermont Baker v. Vermont December 20, 1999 5 0 Vermont Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriage or something similar must be implemented in 100 days.[467] Yes Yes Yes Legalized civil unions in Vermont by Vermont General Assembly
Alaska Brause v. Alaska Dept of Health & Social Services April 17, 2001 0 5 Alaska Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 1998 state constitutional amendment.[468] No No No No
Massachusetts Goodridge v. Department of Public Health November 18, 2003 4 3 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 180 days.[469] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Massachusetts on May 17, 2004
Arizona Harold Donald Standhardt and Tod Alan Keltner v. State of Arizona May 25, 2004 Failed Arizona Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of a unanimous Arizona Appellate Court ruling upholding statutory marriage ban.[470][471] No No No No
Louisiana Forum for Equality v McKeithen January 19, 2005 0 7 District Judge William Morvant of Baton Rouge struck down the constitutional amendment on the grounds that it violated a provision of the state constitution requiring that an amendment cover only one subject. The Louisiana Supreme Court, however, upheld the constitutional amendment.[472] No No No No
Oregon Mary Li and Rebecca Kennedy et al. v. State of Oregon et al. April 2005 0 7 Oregon Supreme Court ruled that plaintiffs' arguments were moot in light of 2004 state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage.[473] No No No No
New York Hernandez v. Robles July 6, 2006 2 4 New York Court of Appeals upheld New York's marriage statute did not allow same-sex marriage, and that there is no constitutional right to same-sex marriage.[474] No No No No
Georgia Perdue v. O'Kelley July 7, 2006 0 7 On May 16, 2006, Constance C. Russell of Fulton County Superior Court struck down the constitutional amendment on the grounds that it violated a provision of the state constitution requiring that an amendment cover only one subject. The Georgia Supreme Court, however, upheld the constitutional amendment.[475] No No No No
Washington Andersen v. King County July 26, 2006 4 5 Washington Supreme Court upholds Washington's statute banning same-sex marriage.[476] No No No No
New Jersey Lewis v. Harris October 25, 2006 7 0 New Jersey Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriage or something similar must be implemented in 100 days.[477] Yes Yes Yes Legalized civil unions in New Jersey by New Jersey General Assembly
Maryland Conaway v. Deane & Polyak September 2007 3 4 Maryland Court of Appeals upholds Maryland's statute banning same-sex marriage.[478] No No No No
Michigan Pride at Work v. Granholm May 7, 2008 5 2 Michigan Supreme Court ruled that Michigan's constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and civil unions also applies to domestic partner benefits.[479][480] No No No Constitution of Michigan prohibits domestic partner benefits for same-sex couples
California In re Marriage Cases May 15, 2008 4 3 California Supreme Court overturns Proposition 22 and rules that in 30 days, same-sex marriages must be legal.[481] Yes Yes Yes Same-sex marriage licenses issued in California from June 17, 2008, to November 5, 2008
No On November 5, 2008, Proposition 8 goes into effect banning same-sex marriage in the Constitution of California
Yes
Connecticut Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health October 10, 2008 4 3 Connecticut Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 30 days.[482] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Connecticut on November 12, 2008
Iowa Varnum v. Brien April 2009 7 0 Iowa Supreme Court rules that same-sex marriages must be legal in 27 days.[483] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in Iowa on April 27, 2009
California Strauss v. Horton May 26, 2009 1 6 California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8; however, same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008, are also upheld.[484] No No No California Supreme Court upholds Proposition 8; however, same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008, are also upheld.
Yes
New York Lewis v. New York State Department of Civil Service November 2009 3 2 The case challenging the recognition of same-sex marriages in the state of New York was heard by New York Court of Appeals and upheld the rights that came with the recognition of same-sex marriages.[485] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Continuing the recognition of same-sex marriages abroad.
Wisconsin McConkey v. Van Hollen June 30, 2010 0 7 Wisconsin Supreme Court upholds constitutional amendment.[486] No No No No
Wyoming Christiansen v. Christiansen June 2011 Allowed Wyoming Supreme Court allows two Wyoming residents to dissolve a legal relationship created under the laws of Canada.[487] Yes Yes Yes Couple can divorce in Wyoming
Maryland McConkey v. Van Hollen May 18, 2012 7 0 Maryland Court of Appeals upholds Maryland's recognition of out-of-state same-sex marriages.[488] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Continuing the recognition of same-sex marriages abroad.
Wisconsin Appling v. Doyle July 31, 2014 7 0 On November 4, 2009, Wisconsin Supreme Court declined to hear the challenge to Wisconsin's domestic partnership.[489] On June 20, 2011, the Circuit court Judge Dan Moeser ruled that the domestic partnership registry does not violate the state constitution, finding that the state "does not recognize domestic partnership in a way that even remotely resembles how the state recognizes marriage".[490] On December 21, 2012, District 4 Court of Appeals affirms Judge Moeser's decision in a unanimous ruling.[491] On July 31, 2014, the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the domestic partnership law does not violate the state's constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.[492] Yes Recognition upheld Yes Wisconsin's domestic partnership law is upheld.
Montana Donaldson and Guggenheim v. State of Montana December 2012 3 4 Montana Supreme Court affirmed a lower court's dismissal of this case because the plaintiffs had not identified specific state statutes in their complaint. They did not seek the right to marry, but equal treatment for same-sex couples with respect to inheritance rights, health care decisions, and parenting. The Court invited the plaintiffs to file an amended complaint citing specific statutes,[493] which the plaintiffs, did on April 16, 2013.[494] No No Pending (Lewis and Clark County District Court)
New Mexico Griego v. Oliver December 19, 2013 5 0 On March 21, 2013, ACLU filed a lawsuit in the Albuquerque District court on behalf of two New Mexico couples who are seeking the right to marry. On December 19, 2013, New Mexico's Supreme Court declared that denying marriage to same-sex couples is unconstitutional in the state.[495] Yes Yes Yes Legalized same-sex marriage in New Mexico on December 19, 2013
Texas In Re Marriage of J.B. and H.B. June 19, 2015 n/a n/a County judge ruled statutory and constitutional ban on same-sex marriage in violation of the US constitution; appealed to 5th Texas Court of Appeals. The court says Texas's same-sex marriage ban is constitutional.[496] The Fifth Circuit denied en banc review. J.B. sought review from the Texas Supreme Court in February 2011 and that court requested briefs in October.[497] On July 3, 2013, the Texas Supreme Court sua sponte ordered supplemental merits briefing in light of United States v. Windsor.[498] Case dismissed on June 19, 2015, because a Petitioner died.
Texas Texas v. Naylor June 19, 2015 5 3 On January 7, 2011, the Third Court of Appeals in Austin in the case of State of Texas v. Angelique S. Naylor and Sabina Daly rejected, on procedural grounds, the Texas attorney general's appeal of a divorce granted by a lower court to a same-sex couple married in Massachusetts.[499][500] The appeal was still pending in December 2012.[501] Third Court of Appeals upheld in a 5-3 decision on June 19, 2015. The Court ruled that the Texas government had no standing to intervene in the divorce.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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