Samgungnyusa, Samguk Yusa (Korean pronunciation: [sʰamɡuŋ njusʰa]) or Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms, is a collection of legends, folktales, and historical accounts relating to the Three Kingdoms of Korea (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla), as well as to other periods and states before, during, and after the Three Kingdoms period. It is the earliest extant record of the Dangun legend, which records the founding of Gojoseon as the first Korean nation.
Authorship and date
The text was written in Classical Chinese, which was used by literate Koreans at the time of its composition. The earliest version of the text is believed to have been compiled in the 1280s, and the earliest extant publication of the text is from 1512 CE.
The 20th century Korean scholars, such as Choe Nam-seon, established the Buddhist monk Iryeon (1206 - 1289) as the main compiler of the text, on the basis that his name (and full official title) was indicated in the fifth fascicle. This view is widely accepted among the modern scholars. The compilation is believed to have been expanded by Iryeon's disciple Muguk (1250-1322) and several others prior to the definitive 1512 recension.
Ha Chongnyong and Yi Kunjik produced a Critical edition of Samgungnyusa in 1997. According to Ha Chongnyong, Iryeon wrote only the fifth fascicle, since his name is mentioned only in that section of the text.
The 1512 edition of the text mentions a dynastic chronology at the beginning, which has several discrepancies with the information that appears later in the text. According to Robert Buswell Jr. and Donald S. Lopez, Jr., this chronology may have been a fourteenth century addition to Iryeon's compilation.
Many of the founding legends of the various kingdoms in Korean history are recorded in Samgungnyusa. The text covers legends from many Korean kingdoms, including Gojoseon, Wiman Joseon, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla, and Gaya.
Unlike the more factually-oriented Samguk Sagi, the Samgungnyusa focuses on various folktales, legends, and biographies from early Korean history. Given its mythical narratives, Samgungnyusa's reliability is questionable.
- Ilyeon (2006) Overlooked Historical Records of the Three Korean Kingdoms, translated by Kim Dal-Yong. Jimoondang: Seoul, Korea. ISBN 89-88095-94-4
- Ilyon (1972; 2006) Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Yonsei University Press: Seoul, Korea. ISBN 1-59654-348-5
- 일연 (1996) 삼국유사. Somun munhwasa: Seoul. ISBN 89-7004-002-1.
- 일연 (2002) 삼국유사. translated by Kim Won-jung. Eulyu munhwasa: Seoul. ISBN 89-324-6083-3.
- Daniel R. Woolf; Sarah Foot; Chase F. Robinson (25 October 2012). The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 2: 400-1400. Oxford University Press. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-19-923642-8.
- Sarah Foot; Chase F. Robinson (25 October 2012). The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 2: 400-1400. OUP Oxford. pp. 125–126. ISBN 978-0-19-163693-6.
- John Duncan; Gi-Wook Shin (28 December 2006). The Journal of Korean Studies Vol 11, Number 1 (Fall 2006). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 165–185. ISBN 978-1-4422-3484-0.
- Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (24 November 2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 754. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.
- 三國遺事 (Links to full text of Samgungnyusa in literary Chinese)
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