Samhain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Samhain
Also calledSauin (Manx Gaelic)
Observed by
  • Historically: Gaels
  • Currently:
Type
SignificanceEnd of a harvest season, beginning of winter
Celebrations
Date
  • N.H.: 31 October–1 November
  • S.H.: 30 April–1 May
FrequencyAnnual
Related to

Samhain (/ˈsɑːwɪn, ˈsɪn/; Irish: [ˈsˠəuɪnʲ] Scottish Gaelic: [ˈs̪ãũ.ɪɲ]) is a Gaelic festival marking the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or "darker half" of the year. In the northern hemisphere, it is held on 1 November, but with celebrations beginning on the evening of 31 October,[1] as the Celtic day began and ended at sunset.[2] This is about halfway between the autumn equinox and winter solstice. It is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals, along with Imbolc, Beltaine and Lughnasa. Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man (where it is called 'Sauin'). A similar festival was held by the Brittonic Celts, called Calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav in Cornwall, and Kalan Goañv in Brittany.

Samhain is believed to have Celtic pagan origins, and some Neolithic passage tombs in Ireland are aligned with the sunrise at the time of Samhain. It is first mentioned in the earliest Irish literature, from the 9th century, and is associated with many important events in Irish mythology. The early literature says Samhain was marked by great gatherings and feasts, and was when the ancient burial mounds were open, which were seen as portals to the Otherworld. Some of the literature also associates Samhain with bonfires and sacrifices.

The festival did not begin to be recorded in detail until the early modern era. It was when cattle were brought down from the summer pastures and when livestock were slaughtered. As at Beltaine, special bonfires were lit. These were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers, and there were rituals involving them.[3] Like Beltaine, Samhain was a liminal or threshold festival, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned, meaning the Aos Sí (the 'spirits' or 'fairies') could more easily come into our world. Most scholars see the Aos Sí as remnants of pagan gods. At Samhain, they were appeased with offerings of food and drink, to ensure the people and their livestock survived the winter. The souls of dead kin were also thought to revisit their homes seeking hospitality, and a place was set at the table for them during a Samhain meal. Mumming and guising were part of the festival from at least the early modern era, whereby people went door-to-door in costume reciting verses in exchange for food. The costumes may have been a way of imitating, and disguising oneself from, the Aos Sí. Divination was also a big part of the festival and often involved nuts and apples. In the late 19th century, John Rhys and James Frazer suggested it was the "Celtic New Year", but this is disputed.[4]

In the 9th century, the Church had shifted the date of All Saints' Day to 1 November, while 2 November later became All Souls' Day. Over time, it is believed that Samhain and All Saints'/All Souls' influenced each other, and eventually merged into the modern Halloween.[5] Folklorists have used the name 'Samhain' to refer to Gaelic 'Halloween' customs up until the 19th century.[6]

Since the later 20th century, Celtic neopagans and Wiccans have observed Samhain, or something based on it, as a religious holiday.[7]

Etymology[edit]

In Modern Irish as well as Scottish Gaelic the name is Samhain. Older forms of the word include the Scottish Gaelic spellings Samhainn and Samhuinn.[8][9][10] In Manx Gaelic the traditional name is Sauin.[11] The Gaelic names for the month of November are derived from Samhain.[12]

These names all come from the Old Irish Samain or Samuin [ˈsaṽɨnʲ], the name for the festival held on 1 November in medieval Ireland. This is believed to come from Proto-Indo-European *semo- ("summer").[13][14] As John T. Koch notes, it is unclear why a festival marking the beginning of winter should include the word for "summer".[15] One suggestion is that the name means "summer's end", from sam ("summer") and fuin ("end"), but this may be a folk etymology. In 1907, Whitley Stokes suggested an etymology from Proto-Celtic *samani ("assembly"),[16] and Joseph Vendryes suggested that it is unrelated to *semo- ("summer"), because the Celtic summer ended in August.[17]

Samonios on the Coligny calendar

Coligny calendar[edit]

On Gaulish Coligny calendar, dating from the 1st century BC, the month name SAMONI is likely related to the word Samain and includes the word for "summer".[18] A festival of some kind may have been held during the "three nights of Samoni" (Gaulish TRINOX SAMONI). The month name GIAMONI, six months later, likely includes the word for "winter", but the starting point of the calendar is unclear.[19]

Origins[edit]

Samain or Samuin was the name of the festival (feis) marking the beginning of winter in Gaelic Ireland. It is attested in the earliest Old Irish literature, which dates from the 10th century onward. It was one of four Gaelic seasonal festivals: Samhain (~1 November), Imbolc (~1 February), Bealtaine (~1 May) and Lughnasa (~1 August). Samhain and Bealtaine, at opposite sides of the year, are thought to have been the most important. Sir James George Frazer wrote in his 1890 book, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, that 1 May and 1 November are of little importance to European crop-growers, but of great importance to herdsmen practising seasonal transhumance. It is at the beginning of summer that cattle are driven to the upland summer pastures and the beginning of winter that they are led back. Thus, Frazer suggests that halving the year at 1 May and 1 November dates from when the Celts were a mainly pastoral people, dependent on their herds.[20]

Some Neolithic passage tombs in Ireland are aligned with the sunrise around the times of Samhain and Imbolc. These include the Mound of the Hostages (Dumha na nGiall) at the Hill of Tara,[21] and Cairn L at Slieve na Calliagh.[22]

In Irish mythology[edit]

The hero Fionn fighting Aillen, who is said to have burned Tara each Samhain

Irish mythology was originally a spoken tradition, but much of it was eventually written down in the Middle Ages by Christian monks.[23][24]

Irish mythology says that Samhain was one of the four seasonal festivals of the year, and the 10th-century tale Tochmarc Emire ('The Wooing of Emer') lists Samhain as the first of these four "quarter days".[25] The literature says a peace would be declared and there were great gatherings where they held meetings, feasted, drank alcohol,[26] and held contests.[25] These gatherings are a popular setting for early Irish tales.[25] The tale Echtra Cormaic ('Cormac's Adventure') says that the Feast of Tara was held every seventh Samhain, hosted by the High King of Ireland, during which new laws and duties were ordained; anyone who broke the laws established during this time would be banished.[27][28]

According to Irish mythology, Samhain (like Bealtaine) was a time when the 'doorways' to the Otherworld opened, allowing supernatural beings and the souls of the dead to come into our world; while Bealtaine was a summer festival for the living, Samhain "was essentially a festival for the dead".[29] The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn says that the sídhe (fairy mounds or portals to the Otherworld) "were always open at Samhain".[30] Each year the fire-breather Aillen emerges from the Otherworld and burns down the palace of Tara during the Samhain festival after lulling everyone to sleep with his music. One Samhain, the young Fionn mac Cumhaill is able to stay awake and slays Aillen with a magical spear, for which he is made leader of the fianna. In a similar tale, one Samhain the Otherworld being Cúldubh comes out of the burial mound on Slievenamon and snatches a roast pig. Fionn kills Cúldubh with a spear throw as he re-enters the mound. Fionn's thumb is caught between the door and the post as it shuts, and he puts it in his mouth to ease the pain. As his thumb had been inside the Otherworld, Fionn is bestowed with great wisdom. This may refer to gaining knowledge from the ancestors.[31] Acallam na Senórach ('Colloquy of the Elders') tells how three female werewolves emerge from the cave of Cruachan (an Otherworld portal) each Samhain and kill livestock. When Cas Corach plays his harp, they take on human form, and the fianna warrior Caílte then slays them with a spear.[32]

Some tales suggest that offerings or sacrifices were made at Samhain. In the Lebor Gabála Érenn (or 'Book of Invasions'), each Samhain the people of Nemed had to give two-thirds of their children, their corn and their milk to the monstrous Fomorians. The Fomorians seem to represent the harmful or destructive powers of nature; personifications of chaos, darkness, death, blight and drought.[33][34] This tribute paid by Nemed's people may represent a "sacrifice offered at the beginning of winter, when the powers of darkness and blight are in the ascendant".[35] According to the later Dindsenchas and the Annals of the Four Masters—which were written by Christian monks—Samhain in ancient Ireland was associated with a god or idol called Crom Cruach. The texts claim that a first-born child would be sacrificed at the stone idol of Crom Cruach in Magh Slécht. They say that King Tigernmas, and three-fourths of his people, died while worshiping Crom Cruach there one Samhain.[36]

The legendary kings Diarmait mac Cerbaill and Muirchertach mac Ercae each die a threefold death on Samhain, which involves wounding, burning and drowning, and of which they are forewarned. In the tale Togail Bruidne Dá Derga ('The Destruction of Dá Derga's Hostel'), king Conaire Mór also meets his death on Samhain after breaking his geasa (prohibitions or taboos). He is warned of his impending doom by three undead horsemen who are messengers of Donn, god of the dead.[37] The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn tells how each Samhain the men of Ireland went to woo a beautiful maiden who lives in the fairy mound on Brí Eile (Croghan Hill). It says that each year someone would be killed "to mark the occasion", by persons unknown.[38] Some academics suggest that these tales recall human sacrifice,[39] and argue that several ancient Irish bog bodies (such as Old Croghan Man) appear to have been kings who were ritually killed,[40] some of them around the time of Samhain.[41]

In the Echtra Neraí ('The Adventure of Nera'), King Ailill of Connacht sets his retinue a test of bravery on Samhain night. He offers a prize to whoever can make it to a gallows and tie a band around a hanged man's ankle. Each challenger is thwarted by demons and runs back to the king's hall in fear. However, Nera succeeds, and the dead man then asks for a drink. Nera carries him on his back and they stop at three houses. They enter the third, where the dead man drinks and spits it on the householders, killing them. Returning, Nera sees a fairy host burning the king's hall and slaughtering those inside. He follows the host through a portal into the Otherworld. Nera learns that what he saw was only a vision of what will happen the next Samhain unless something is done. He is able to return to the hall and warns the king.[42][43]

The tale Aided Chrimthainn maic Fidaig ('The Killing of Crimthann mac Fidaig') tells how Mongfind kills her brother, king Crimthann of Munster, so that one of her sons might become king. Mongfind offers Crimthann a poisoned drink at a feast, but he asks her to drink from it first. Having no other choice but to drink the poison, she dies on Samhain eve. The Middle Irish writer notes that Samhain is also called Féile Moingfhinne (the Festival of Mongfind or Mongfhionn), and that "women and the rabble make petitions to her" at Samhain.[44][45]

Many other events in Irish mythology happen or begin on Samhain. The invasion of Ulster that makes up the main action of the Táin Bó Cúailnge ('Cattle Raid of Cooley') begins on Samhain. As cattle-raiding typically was a summer activity, the invasion during this off-season surprised the Ulstermen.[46] The Second Battle of Magh Tuireadh also begins on Samhain.[47] The Morrígan and The Dagda meet and have sex before the battle against the Fomorians; in this way the Morrígan acts as a sovereignty figure and gives the victory to the Dagda's people, the Tuatha Dé Danann. In Aislinge Óengusa ('The Dream of Óengus') it is when he and his bride-to-be switch from bird to human form, and in Tochmarc Étaíne ('The Wooing of Étaín') it is the day on which Óengus claims the kingship of Brú na Bóinne.[39]

The 'Cave of Cruachan', one of the many 'gateways to the Otherworld' whence beings and spirits were said to have emerged on Samhain.

Several sites in Ireland are especially linked to Samhain. Each Samhain a host of otherworldly beings was said to emerge from Oweynagat ("cave of the cats"), at Rathcroghan in County Roscommon.[48] The Hill of Ward (or Tlachtga) in County Meath is thought to have been the site of a great Samhain gathering and bonfire;[26] the Iron Age ringfort is said to have been where the goddess or druid Tlachtga gave birth to triplets and where she later died.[49]

In The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain (1996), Ronald Hutton writes: "No doubt there were [pagan] religious observances as well, but none of the tales ever portrays any". The only historic reference to pagan religious rites is in the work of Geoffrey Keating (died 1644), but his source is unknown. Hutton says it may be that no religious rites are mentioned because, centuries after Christianization, the writers had no record of them.[25] Hutton suggests Samhain may not have been particularly associated with the supernatural. He says that the gatherings of royalty and warriors on Samhain may simply have been an ideal setting for such tales, in the same way that many Arthurian tales are set at courtly gatherings at Christmas or Pentecost.[50]

Historic customs[edit]

Samhain was one of the four main festivals of the Gaelic calendar, marking the end of the harvest and beginning of winter.[26] Samhain customs are mentioned in several medieval texts. In Serglige Con Culainn ('Cúchulainn's Sickbed'), it is said that the festival of the Ulaid at Samhain lasted a week: Samhain itself, and the three days before and after. It involved great gatherings at which they held meetings, feasted, drank alcohol, and held contests.[25] The Togail Bruidne Dá Derga notes that bonfires were lit at Samhain and stones cast into the fires.[51] It is mentioned in Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, which was written in the early 1600s but draws on earlier medieval sources, some of which are unknown. He claims that the feis of Tara was held for a week every third Samhain, when the nobles and ollams of Ireland met to lay down and renew the laws, and to feast.[52] He also claims that the druids lit a sacred bonfire at Tlachtga and made sacrifices to the gods, sometimes by burning their sacrifices. He adds that all other fires were doused and then re-lit from this bonfire.[53]

Ritual bonfires[edit]

Bonfires were a big part of the festival in many areas (pictured is a Beltane bonfire in Scotland)

Similar to Bealtaine, bonfires were lit on hilltops at Samhain and there were rituals involving them.[26] However, by the modern era, they are now most common in parts of the Scottish Highlands, on the Isle of Man, in north and mid Wales, and in parts of Ulster.[54] F. Marian McNeill says that a force-fire (or need-fire) was the traditional way of lighting them, but notes that this method gradually died out.[55] Likewise, only certain kinds of wood were traditionally used, but later records show that many kinds of flammable material were burnt.[56] It is suggested that the fires were a kind of imitative or sympathetic magic—they mimicked the Sun, helping the "powers of growth" and holding back the decay and darkness of winter.[55][57][58] They may also have served to symbolically "burn up and destroy all harmful influences".[58] Accounts from the 18th and 19th centuries suggest that the fires (as well as their smoke and ashes) were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers.[59]

In Moray, boys asked for bonfire fuel from each house in the village. When the fire was lit, "one after another of the youths laid himself down on the ground as near to the fire as possible so as not to be burned, and in such a position as to let the smoke roll over him. The others ran through the smoke and jumped over him". When the bonfire burnt down, they scattered the ashes, vying with each other who should scatter them most.[59] Sometimes, two bonfires would be built side by side, and the people—sometimes with their livestock—would walk between them as a cleansing ritual. The bones of slaughtered cattle were said to have been cast upon bonfires. In the pre-Christian Gaelic world, cattle were the main form of wealth and were the center of agricultural and pastoral life.[60]

People also took flames from the bonfire back to their homes. In parts of Scotland, torches of burning fir or turf were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect them.[54] In some places, people doused their hearth fires on Samhain night. Each family then solemnly re-lit its hearth from the communal bonfire, thus bonding the community together.[3][55] The 17th century writer Geoffrey Keating claimed that this was an ancient tradition, instituted by the druids.[25] Dousing the old fire and bringing in the new may have been a way of banishing evil, which was part of New Year festivals in many countries.[57]

Divination[edit]

Snap-Apple Night (1833), painted by Daniel Maclise, shows people playing divination games on 31 October in Ireland

The bonfires were used in divination rituals, although not all divination involved fire. In 18th century Ochtertyre, a ring of stones—one for each person—was laid round the fire, perhaps on a layer of ash. Everyone then ran round it with a torch, "exulting". In the morning, the stones were examined and if any was mislaid it was said that the person it represented would not live out the year. A similar custom was observed in northern Wales[59] and in Brittany.[61] James Frazer says that this may come from "an older custom of actually burning them" (i.e. human sacrifice) or may have always been symbolic.[62] Divination has likely been a part of the festival since ancient times,[26] and it has survived in some rural areas.[63]

At household festivities throughout the Gaelic regions and Wales, there were many rituals intended to divine the future of those gathered, especially with regard to death and marriage.[26][64] Apples and hazelnuts were often used in these divination rituals or games. In Celtic mythology, apples were strongly associated with the Otherworld and immortality, while hazelnuts were associated with divine wisdom.[65] One of the most common games was apple bobbing. Another involved hanging a small wooden rod from the ceiling at head height, with a lit candle on one end and an apple hanging from the other. The rod was spun round and everyone took turns to try to catch the apple with their teeth.[66] Apples were peeled in one long strip, the peel tossed over the shoulder, and its shape was said to form the first letter of the future spouse's name.[67]

Two hazelnuts were roasted near a fire; one named for the person roasting them and the other for the person they desired. If the nuts jumped away from the heat, it was a bad sign, but if the nuts roasted quietly it foretold a good match.[68][69] Items were hidden in food—usually a cake, barmbrack, cranachan, champ or sowans—and portions of it served out at random. A person's future was foretold by the item they happened to find; for example a ring meant marriage and a coin meant wealth.[70] A salty oatmeal bannock was baked; the person ate it in three bites and then went to bed in silence without anything to drink. This was said to result in a dream in which their future spouse offers them a drink to quench their thirst.[71] Egg whites were dropped in water, and the shapes foretold the number of future children. Children would also chase crows and divine some of these things from the number of birds or the direction they flew.[3][55][56]

Spirits and souls[edit]

As noted earlier, Samhain was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld could more easily be crossed.[72] This meant the aos sí, the 'spirits' or 'fairies', could more easily come into our world. Many scholars see the aos sí as remnants of the pagan gods and nature spirits.[73][74] At Samhain, it was believed that the aos sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink would be left outside for the aos sí,[75][76] and portions of the crops might be left in the ground for them.[77]

One custom—described a "blatant example" of a "pagan rite surviving into the Christian epoch"—was observed in the Outer Hebrides until the early 19th century. On 31 October, the locals would go down to the shore. One man would wade into the water up to his waist, where he would pour out a cup of ale and ask 'Seonaidh' ('Shoney'), whom he called "god of the sea", to bestow blessings on them.[54]

People also took special care not to offend the aos sí and sought to ward-off any who were out to cause mischief. They stayed near to home or, if forced to walk in the darkness, turned their clothing inside-out or carried iron or salt to keep them at bay.[26]

The dead were also honoured at Samhain. The beginning of winter may have been seen as the most fitting time to do so, as it was a time of 'dying' in nature.[78] The souls of the dead were thought to revisit their homes seeking hospitality. Places were set at the dinner table and by the fire to welcome them.[3][79] The belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world.[80] James Frazer suggests "It was perhaps a natural thought that the approach of winter should drive the poor, shivering, hungry ghosts from the bare fields and the leafless woodlands to the shelter of the cottage".[81] However, the souls of thankful kin could return to bestow blessings just as easily as that of a wronged person could return to wreak revenge.[82]

Mumming and guising[edit]

A Mari Lwyd, the Welsh equivalent of the Láir Bhán

Mumming and guising was a part of Samhain from at least the 16th century and was recorded in parts of Ireland, Scotland, Mann and Wales.[83] It involved people going from house to house in costume (or in disguise), usually reciting songs or verses in exchange for food.[83] It may have evolved from a tradition whereby people impersonated the aos sí, or the souls of the dead, and received offerings on their behalf.[83] Impersonating these spirits or souls was also believed to protect oneself from them.[84] S. V. Peddle suggests the guisers "personify the old spirits of the winter, who demanded reward in exchange for good fortune".[85] McNeill suggests that the ancient festival included people in masks or costumes representing these spirits and that the modern custom came from this.[86] In Ireland, costumes were sometimes worn by those who went about before nightfall collecting for a Samhain feast.[83]

In parts of southern Ireland during the 19th century, the guisers included a hobby horse known as the Láir Bhán (white mare). A man covered in a white sheet and carrying a decorated horse skull (representing the Láir Bhán) would lead a group of youths, blowing on cow horns, from farm to farm. At each they recited verses, some of which "savoured strongly of paganism", and the farmer was expected to donate food. If the farmer donated food he could expect good fortune from the 'Muck Olla'; not doing so would bring misfortune.[87] This is akin to the Mari Lwyd (grey mare) procession in Wales, which takes place at Midwinter. In Wales the white horse is often seen as an omen of death.[88] In some places, young people cross-dressed.[83] In Scotland, young men went house-to-house with masked, veiled, painted or blackened faces,[56][89] often threatening to do mischief if they were not welcomed.[83] This was common in the 16th century in the Scottish countryside and persisted into the 20th.[90] It is suggested that the blackened faces comes from using the bonfire's ashes for protection.[86] Elsewhere in Europe, costumes, mumming and hobby horses were part of other yearly festivals. However, in the Celtic-speaking regions they were "particularly appropriate to a night upon which supernatural beings were said to be abroad and could be imitated or warded off by human wanderers".[83]

An Irish Seán Na Gealaí turnip lantern from the early 20th century at the Museum of Country Life

Hutton writes: "When imitating malignant spirits it was a very short step from guising to playing pranks". Playing pranks at Samhain is recorded in the Scottish Highlands as far back as 1736 and was also common in Ireland, which led to Samhain being nicknamed "Mischief Night" in some parts.[83] Wearing costumes at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century, as did the custom of playing pranks, though there had been mumming at other festivals.[83] At the time of mass transatlantic Irish and Scottish immigration, which popularised Halloween in North America, Halloween in Ireland and Scotland had a strong tradition of guising and pranks.[91] Trick-or-treating may have come from the custom of going door-to-door collecting food for Samhain feasts, fuel for Samhain bonfires and/or offerings for the aos sí. Alternatively, it may have come from the Allhallowtide custom of collecting soul cakes.[citation needed]

The "traditional illumination for guisers or pranksters abroad on the night in some places was provided by turnips or mangel wurzels, hollowed out to act as lanterns and often carved with grotesque faces".[83] They were also set on windowsills. By those who made them, the lanterns were variously said to represent the spirits or supernatural beings,[92] or were used to ward off evil spirits.[89][93][94] These were common in parts of Ireland and the Scotland into the 20th century.[83] They were also found in Somerset (see Punkie Night). In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns.[83]

Livestock[edit]

Traditionally, Samhain was a time to take stock of the herds and food supplies. Cattle were brought down to the winter pastures after six months in the higher summer pastures (see transhumance).[26] It was also the time to choose which animals would be slaughtered. This custom is still observed by many who farm and raise livestock.[3][55] It is thought that some of the rituals associated with the slaughter have been transferred to other winter holidays. On St. Martin's Day (11 November) in Ireland, an animal—usually a rooster, goose or sheep—would be slaughtered and some of its blood sprinkled on the threshold of the house. It was offered to Saint Martin, who may have taken the place of a god or gods,[57] and it was then eaten as part of a feast. This custom was common in parts of Ireland until the 19th century,[95] and was found in some other parts of Europe. At New Year in the Hebrides, a man dressed in a cowhide would circle the township sunwise. A bit of the hide would be burnt and everyone would breathe in the smoke.[57] These customs were meant to keep away bad luck, and similar customs were found in other Celtic regions.[57]

Celtic Revival[edit]

During the late 19th and early 20th century Celtic Revival, there was an upswell of interest in Samhain and the other Celtic festivals. Sir John Rhys put forth that it had been the "Celtic New Year". He inferred it from contemporary folklore in Ireland and Wales, which he felt was "full of Hallowe'en customs associated with new beginnings". He visited Mann and found that the Manx sometimes called 31 October "New Year's Night" or Hog-unnaa. The Tochmarc Emire, written in the Middle Ages, reckoned the year around the four festivals at the beginning of the seasons, and put Samhain at the beginning of those. However, Hutton says that the evidence for it being the Celtic or Gaelic New Year's Day is flimsy.[96] Rhys's theory was popularised by Sir James George Frazer, though at times he did acknowledge that the evidence is inconclusive. Frazer also put forth that Samhain had been the pagan Celtic festival of the dead and that it had been Christianized as All Saints and All Souls.[96] Since then, Samhain has been popularly seen as the Celtic New Year and an ancient festival of the dead. The calendar of the Celtic League, for example, begins and ends at Samhain.[97]

Samhuinn Wikipedia editathon at the University of Edinburgh, 2016

Related festivals[edit]

In the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages, Samhain is known as the 'calends of winter'. The Brythonic lands of Wales, Cornwall and Brittany held festivals on 31 October similar to the Gaelic one. In Wales it is Calan Gaeaf, in Cornwall it is Allantide or Kalan Gwav and in Brittany it is Kalan Goañv.[39]

The Manx celebrate Hop-tu-Naa on 31 October, which is a celebration of the original New Year's Eve. Traditionally, children carve turnips rather than pumpkins and carry them around the neighbourhood singing traditional songs relating to hop-tu-naa.[98]

Allhallowtide[edit]

In 609, Pope Boniface IV endorsed 13 May as a Catholic holy day commemorating all Christian martyrs.[99] By 800, there is evidence that churches in Ireland,[100] Northumbria (England) and Bavaria (Germany) were holding a feast commemorating all saints on 1 November, which became All Saints' Day.[99][101][102] Alcuin of Northumbria commended his friend Arno of Salzburg, Bavaria for holding the feast on this date.[100] James Frazer suggests this date was a Celtic idea (being the date of Samhain), while Ronald Hutton suggests it was a Germanic idea, writing that the Irish church commemorated all saints on 20 April. Some manuscripts of the Irish Martyrology of Tallaght and Martyrology of Óengus, which date to this time, have a commemoration of all saints "of Europe" on 20 April, but a commemoration of all saints of the world on 1 November.[103] Alcuin used his influence with Charlemagne to introduce the Irish-Northumbrian Feast of All Saints to the Frankish Empire.[104] In 835, the 1 November date was officially adopted in the Frankish Empire, at the behest of Pope Gregory IV.[99]

In the 11th century, 2 November became established as All Souls' Day. This created the three-day observance known as Allhallowtide: All Hallows' Eve (31 October), All Hallows' Day (1 November), and All Souls' Day (2 November).

It is widely believed that many of the modern secular customs of All Hallows' Eve (Halloween) were influenced by the festival of Samhain.[105][106] Other scholars argue that Samhain's influence has been exaggerated, and that All Hallows' also influenced Samhain itself.[107]

Neopaganism[edit]

Samhain and Samhain-based festivals are held by some Neopagans. As there are many kinds of Neopaganism, their Samhain celebrations can be very different despite the shared name. Some try to emulate the historic festival as much as possible. Other Neopagans base their celebrations on sundry unrelated sources, Gaelic culture being only one of the sources.[7][108][109] Folklorist Jenny Butler[110] describes how Irish pagans pick some elements of historic Samhain celebrations and meld them with references to the Celtic past, making a new festival of Samhain that is inimitably part of neo-pagan culture.

Neopagans usually celebrate Samhain on 31 October–1 November in the Northern Hemisphere and 30 April–1 May in the Southern Hemisphere, beginning and ending at sundown.[111][112][113][114] Some Neopagans celebrate it at the astronomical midpoint between the autumn equinox and winter solstice (or the full moon nearest this point), which is usually around 6 or 7 November in the Northern hemisphere.[115]

Celtic Reconstructionism[edit]

Like other Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans (CRs) emphasize historical accuracy. They base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore as well as research into the beliefs of the polytheistic Celts.[109][116] They celebrate Samhain around 1 November, but may adjust the date to suit their regional climate, such as when the first winter frost arrives.[117] Their traditions include saining the home and lighting bonfires.[117] Some follow the old tradition of building two bonfires, which celebrants and animals then pass between as a ritual of purification.[3][55] For CRs, it is a time when the dead are especially honoured. Though CRs make offerings at all times of year, Samhain is a time when more elaborate offerings are made to specific ancestors.[117] This may involve making a small altar or shrine. They often have a meal, where a place for the dead is set at the table and they are invited to join. An untouched portion of food and drink is then left outside as an offering. Traditional tales may be told and traditional songs, poems and dances performed. A western-facing door or window may be opened and a candle left burning on the windowsill to guide the dead home. Divination for the coming year is often done, whether in all solemnity or as games. The more mystically inclined may also see this as a time for deeply communing with their deities, especially those seen as being particularly linked with this festival.[3][55][109][116][117]

Wicca[edit]

Wiccans celebrate a variation of Samhain as one of their yearly Sabbats of the Wheel of the Year. It is deemed by most Wiccans to be the most important of the four "greater Sabbats". Samhain is seen by some Wiccans as a time to celebrate the lives of those who have died, and it often involves paying respect to ancestors, family members, elders of the faith, friends, pets and other loved ones who have died. In some rituals the spirits of the dead are invited to attend the festivities. It is seen as a festival of darkness, which is balanced at the opposite point of the wheel by the spring festival of Beltane, which Wiccans celebrate as a festival of light and fertility.[118] Wiccans believe that at Samhain the veil between this world and the afterlife is at its thinnest point of the whole year, making it easier to communicate with those who have left this world.[119]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "How Halloween Traditions Are Rooted in the Ancient Pagan Festival of Samhain". Time. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  2. ^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth Legend and Romance: An Encyclopaedia of the Irish Folk Tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p. 402
  3. ^ a b c d e f g O'Driscoll, Robert (ed.) (1981) The Celtic Consciousness New York: Braziller ISBN 0-8076-1136-0 pp. 197–216: Ross, Anne "Material Culture, Myth and Folk Memory" (on modern survivals); pp. 217–42: Danaher, Kevin "Irish Folk Tradition and the Celtic Calendar" (on specific customs and rituals)
  4. ^ Hutton, Ronald (1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-288045-4, p. 363.
  5. ^ Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund (1989). Oxford English Dictionary (second ed.). London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2. OCLC 17648714.
  6. ^ Hutton, Ronald. The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press, 1996. pp. 365–69
  7. ^ a b Hutton, Ronald (8 December 1993). The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 327–41. ISBN 0-631-18946-7.
  8. ^ Macbain, Alexander (1911). An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language.
  9. ^ "Samhuinn Halloween festival to be staged on Edinburgh’s Calton Hill". The Scotsman, 26 September 2018.
  10. ^ "Samhainn". Am Faclair Beag.
  11. ^ Rhys, John (1901). Celtic Folklore: Welsh and Manx. Cambridge University Press, 2016. pp.315-316
  12. ^ Koch, Celtic Culture, p.331
  13. ^ Pokorny, Julius. IEW (1959), s.v. "sem-3", p. 905.
  14. ^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). "Samhain and the Celtic Origins of Halloween". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, pp. 11–21. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516896-8.
  15. ^ Koch, Celtic Culture, p.1558
  16. ^ Stokes (1907). "Irish etyma". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung. 40: 245.
  17. ^ Vendryes, Lexique Étymologique de l'Irlandais Ancien (1959).[page needed]
  18. ^ Stüber, Karin, The historical morphology of n-stems in Celtic, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, 1998, p. 111.
  19. ^ Koch, Celtic Culture, p.464
  20. ^ Frazer, Sir James George. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Forgotten Books, 2008. p. 644
  21. ^ Murphy, Anthony; Moore, Richard (2006). Island of the Setting Sun: In Search of Ireland's Ancient Astronomers. Bentonville, Arkansas: Liffey Press. p. 81. ASIN B01HCARQ1G.
  22. ^ Brennan, Martin. The Stones of Time: Calendars, Sundials, and Stone Chambers of Ancient Ireland. Inner Traditions, 1994. pp. 110–11
  23. ^ Harpur, James (2016). Celtic Myth: A Treasury of Legends, Art, and History. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781317475286.
  24. ^ Leeming, David (8 May 2003). From Olympus to Camelot: The World of European Mythology. OUP US. ISBN 9780195143614.
  25. ^ a b c d e f Hutton, Ronald (1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-288045-4, p. 361.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h Monaghan, p. 407
  27. ^ Cormac's adventure in the Land of Promise, and the decision as to Cormac's sword Section 55
  28. ^ Cormac's adventure in the Land of Promise, and the decision as to Cormac's sword Section 56
  29. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (2004). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. New York City: Infobase Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 978-0816075560.
  30. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 388. ISBN 978-1851094400.
  31. ^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí (1991). Myth Legend and Romance: An Encyclopaedia of the Irish Folk Tradition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0132759595.
  32. ^ Dooley, Ann; Roe, Harry, eds. (2005). Tales of the Elders of Ireland: A new translation of Acallam na Senórach. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0199549856.
  33. ^ MacCulloch, John Arnott (2009). The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Portland, Oregon: The Floating Press. pp. 80, 89, 91. ISBN 978-1475164480.
  34. ^ Smyth, Daragh. A Guide to Irish Mythology. Irish Academic Press, 1996. p. 74
  35. ^ MacCulloch (2009), p. 80
  36. ^ Annals of the Four Masters: Part 6 at Corpus of Electronic Texts.
  37. ^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth, Legend & Romance: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. pp. 165–66
  38. ^ Cross, Tom P., & Clark Harris Slover, ed. & trans (1936). The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn – Ancient Irish Tales. New York: Henry Holt. pp. 360–69.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. ^ a b c Koch, John T.; Minard, Antone (2012). The Celts: History, Life, and Culture. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 690. ISBN 978-1598849646.
  40. ^ Kelly, Eamonn (2013). "An Archaeological Interpretation of Irish Iron Age Bog Bodies". In Ralph, Sarah (ed.). The Archaeology of Violence. Albany, New York: SUNY Press. pp. 232–40. ISBN 978-1438444420.
  41. ^ Bentley, Diana (March–April 2015). "The Dark Secrets of the Bog Bodies". Minerva: The International Review of Ancient Art & Archaeology. Nashville, Tennessee: Clear Media: 34–37.
  42. ^ Monaghan, p. 107
  43. ^ Ó hÓgáin, Dáithí. Myth Legend and Romance: An Encyclopaedia of the Irish Folk Tradition. Prentice Hall Press, 1991. p. 317
  44. ^ Stokes, Whitley (1903). "Revue Celtique". Revue Celtique. 24: 179.
  45. ^ Byrne, Francis John. Irish King and High Kings. Four Courts Press, 2001. p. 75
  46. ^ Monaghan, p. 438
  47. ^ Monaghan, p. 345
  48. ^ O'Halpin, Andy. Ireland: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford University Press, 2006. p. 236
  49. ^ Monaghan, p. 449
  50. ^ Hutton, Ronald (1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-288045-4, p. 362.
  51. ^ The Destruction of Dá Derga's Hostel – Translated by Whitley Stokes.
  52. ^ Keating, Geoffrey. Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, Section 26. Corpus of Electronic Texts.
  53. ^ Keating, Geoffrey. Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, Section 39. Corpus of Electronic Texts.
  54. ^ a b c Hutton, p. 369
  55. ^ a b c d e f g McNeill, F. Marian (1961, 1990) The Silver Bough, Vol. 3. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-948474-04-1 pp. 11–46
  56. ^ a b c Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 pp. 559–62
  57. ^ a b c d e MacCulloch, John Arnott (1911). The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Chapter 18: Festivals.
  58. ^ a b Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter 63, Part 1: On the Fire-festivals in general.
  59. ^ a b c Hutton, pp. 365–68
  60. ^ Nicholls, Kenneth W. (2008) [1987]. "Chapter XIV: Gaelic society and economy". In Cosgrove, Art (ed.). A New History of Ireland, Volume II: Medieval Ireland 1169-1534. Oxford University Press. pp. 397–438. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199539703.003.0015. ISBN 978-0-19-953970-3.
  61. ^ Frazer, p. 647
  62. ^ Frazer, pp. 663–64
  63. ^ Danaher (1972), pp. 218–27
  64. ^ Hutton, p. 380
  65. ^ MacLeod, Sharon. Celtic Myth and Religion. McFarland, 2011. pp. 61, 107
  66. ^ Danaher (1972), pp. 202–05
  67. ^ Danaher (1972), p. 223
  68. ^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough Volume III, pp. 33–34
  69. ^ Danaher (1972), p. 219
  70. ^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough Volume III, p. 34
  71. ^ McNeill (1961), The Silver Bough Volume III, p. 34
  72. ^ Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. 2006. p. 1557
  73. ^ Monaghan, p. 167
  74. ^ Santino, Jack. The Hallowed Eve: Dimensions of Culture in a Calendar Festival of Northern Ireland. University Press of Kentucky, 1998. p. 105
  75. ^ Evans-Wentz, Walter (1911). The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. p. 44.
  76. ^ McNeill, F. Marian (1961). The Silver Bough, Volume 3. p. 34.
  77. ^ Danaher (1972), p. 200
  78. ^ MacCulloch, John Arnott (1911). The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Chapter 10: The Cult of the Dead.
  79. ^ McNeill, The Silver Bough, Volume 3, pp. 11–46
  80. ^ Miles, Clement A. (1912). Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. Chapter 7: All Hallow Tide to Martinmas.
  81. ^ Frazer, James George (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion. Chapter 62, Part 6: The Hallowe'en Fires.
  82. ^ Monaghan, p. 120
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hutton, pp. 380–82
  84. ^ Hole, Christina. British Folk Customs. Hutchinson, 1976. p. 91
  85. ^ Peddle, S.V. (2007). Pagan Channel Islands: Europe's Hidden Heritage. p. 54
  86. ^ a b McNeill, F. Marian. Hallowe'en: its origin, rites and ceremonies in the Scottish tradition. Albyn Press, 1970. pp. 29–31
  87. ^ Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Volume 2. 1855. pp. 308–09
  88. ^ Montserrat Prat, 'Metamorphosis of a Folk Tradition' in Simon Callow, Andrew Green, Rex Harley, Clive Hicks-Jenkins, Kathe Koja, Anita Mills, Montserrat Prat, Jacqueline Thalmann, Damian Walford Davies and Marly Youmand, Clive Hicks-Jenkins (Lund Humprhies, 2011), pp. 63–79
  89. ^ a b Arnold, Bettina (31 October 2001). "Bettina Arnold – Halloween Lecture: Halloween Customs in the Celtic World". Halloween Inaugural Celebration. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee: Center for Celtic Studies. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
  90. ^ Bannatyne, Lesley Pratt (1998) Forerunners to Halloween Pelican Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56554-346-7 p. 44
  91. ^ Rogers, Nicholas. (2002) "Festive Rights:Halloween in the British Isles". Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. pp. 43, 48. Oxford University Press.
  92. ^ Hutton, Ronald. The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford University Press, 1996. pp. 382–83
  93. ^ Palmer, Kingsley. Oral folk-tales of Wessex. David & Charles, 1973. pp. 87–88
  94. ^ Wilson, David Scofield. Rooted in America: Foodlore of Popular Fruits and Vegetables. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1999. p. 154
  95. ^ Hutton, The Stations of the Sun, p. 386
  96. ^ a b Hutton, p. 363
  97. ^ "The Celtic League Calendar". Celticleague.org. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  98. ^ "Hop-Tu-Naa :: isleofman.com". www.isleofman.com. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  99. ^ a b c Hutton, p. 364
  100. ^ a b Farmer, David. The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fifth Edition, Revised). Oxford University Press, 2011. p.14
  101. ^ Pseudo-Bede, Homiliae subdititiae; John Hennig, 'The Meaning of All the Saints', Mediaeval Studies 10 (1948), 147–61.
  102. ^ "All Saints Day," The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition, ed. E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 41–42; The New Catholic Encyclopedia, eo.loc.
  103. ^ Butler, Alban. Butler's Lives of the Saints, New Full Edition, Volume 11: November (Revised by Sarah Fawcett Thomas). Burns & Oates, 1997. pp.1-2. Quote: "Some manuscripts of the ninth-century Félire, or martyrology, of St Oengus the Culdee and the Martyrology of Tallaght (c. 800), which have a commemoration of the martyrs on 17 April, a feast of 'all the saints of the whole of Europe' on 20 April, and a feast of all saints of Africa on 23 December, also refer to a celebration of all the saints on 1 November".
  104. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia (Second ed.). 2003. pp. 242–243. ISBN 0-7876-4004-2.
  105. ^ "BBC – Religions – Christianity: All Hallows' Eve". British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011. It is widely believed that many Hallowe'en traditions have evolved from an ancient Celtic festival called Samhain which was Christianised by the early Church
  106. ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. 1999. p. 408. ISBN 9780877790440. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve, holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date.
  107. ^ O’Donnell, Hugh; Foley, Malcolm (18 December 2008). Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-4438-0265-9.
  108. ^ Adler, Margot (1979, revised edition 2006) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston: Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. pp. 3, 243–99
  109. ^ a b c McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. pp. 12, 51
  110. ^ Butler, Jenny (2009), "Neo-Pagan Celebrations of Samhain" 67–82 in Foley, M. and O'Donnell, H., ed. Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 1-4438-0153-4
  111. ^ Nevill Drury (2009). "The Modern Magical Revival: Esbats and Sabbats". In Pizza, Murphy; Lewis, James R (eds.). Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. pp. 63–67. ISBN 978-9004163737.
  112. ^ Hume, Lynne (1997). Witchcraft and Paganism in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 978-0522847826.
  113. ^ Vos, Donna (2002). Dancing Under an African Moon: Paganism and Wicca in South Africa. Cape Town: Zebra Press. pp. 79–86. ISBN 9781868726530.
  114. ^ Bodsworth, Roxanne T (2003). Sunwyse: Celebrating the Sacred Wheel of the Year in Australia. Victoria, Australia: Hihorse Publishing. ISBN 978-0909223038.
  115. ^ "Chart of 2020 equinox, solstice and cross quarter dates and times, worldwide from". archaeoastronomy.com. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  116. ^ a b Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York: Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. pp. 128–40, 179, 183–84
  117. ^ a b c d Kathryn NicDhana et al. The CR FAQ: An Introduction to Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism. 2007. pp. 97–98
  118. ^ Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York: Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp. 193–96 (revised edition)
  119. ^ Nevill Drury (2009). "The Modern Magical Revival". In Pizza, Murphy; Lewis, James R (eds.). Handbook of Contemporary Paganism. Leiden: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 978-9004163737.

Secondary sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]