Sammarinese general election, 1923
All 60 seats to the Grand and General Council
General elections were held in San Marino on 4 March 1923 to elect the seventh term of the Grand and General Council. It was a snap election which marked the beginning of the Fascist rule of the republic. Left-wing parties were prevented from participating, while all centre-right forces ran as a single "Patriotic Bloc". Of the 60 seats, 29 were taken by the Sammarinese Fascist Party, 20 by the Sammarinese People's Party, 9 by the Sammarinese Democratic Union and two by the Fascist-puppets Volunteers of War. Later the country was taken over by the Fascist Party.
San Marino had been close to a civil war in 1921, with Socialist red forces by a hand, and Christian Democratic white forces on the opposite side together with the Conservatives. The situation was so explosive that the government introduced a six-month censorship, and called a carabinieri garrison to restore order, while Fascist brigades entered in the country without invitation. Meanwhile, Sammarinese authorities became closer to Italy, as underlined by the adoption of the anniversary of Italian victory in World War I as public holiday.
When Benito Mussolini rose to power at Rome, he immediately managed to take control over the small republic. The old Council was forcely disbanded on January 27, 1923, and a snap election was consequently called. Fascist threats obtained their goal: the Socialist Party did not take part to the election and a sole, centre-right list called Patriotic Bloc ran undisputed. The Bloc was obviously dominated by the Sammarinese Fascist Party, which obtained the majority of seats together with their puppets Volunteers of War. The turnout was very low, leftist electors boycotting the vote.
Twenty-nine years old Giuliano Gozi became the first Fascist Captain Regent in April 1923. The party political program was to dismantle all democratic reforms of the Meeting of 1906, and to emulate the Italian regime. A Sammarinese carabinieri corps was created, the anniversary of the March on Rome became a public holiday, and the Captains of the Castles of San Marino became appointed by the Captains Regents.
|Source: Nohlen & Stöver|
- Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1678 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
- Nohlen & Stöver, p1686
- Nohlen & Stöver, p1690
- Nohlen & Stöver, p1670
- Law 13 adopted on May 13, 1921. Grand and General Council database (it.)
- Law 33 adopted on November 16, 1922. Grand and General Council database (it.)