Sammy Smooha

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Sammy Smooha (born 1941)[1] is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Haifa and recipient of the Israel Prize.[2] He specializes in comparative ethnic relations, and has researched the internal divisions in Israeli society, and the society of Israel in comparative perspective.

Smooha introduced the concept of Ethnic democracy, in a book published in 1989.[3] Smooha contends that Israel is a model or archetypical ethnic democracy.[4]


  • Index of Arab-Jewish Relations in Israel 2004. Haifa: The Jewish-Arab Center, University of Haifa; Jerusalem: The Citizens' Accord Forum between Jews and Arabs in Israel; Tel Aviv: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. 2005.
  • Autonomy for Arabs in Israel. Beit Berl: The Institute for Israeli Arab Studies, 1999, 143 pages. (Hebrew).
  • Arabs and Jews in Israel. Vol. 2: Change and Continuity in Mutual Intolerance. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1992.
  • Arabs and Jews in Israel. Vol. 1: Conflicting and Shared Attitudes in a Divided Society. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1989.
  • The Orientation and Politicization of the Arab Minority in Israel. Haifa: The Jewish-Arab Center, University of Haifa, 1984.
  • Israel: Pluralism and Conflict. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul; Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1978.


  1. ^ Ram, Uri. Israeli Nationalism: Social conflicts and the politics of knowledge . p. 63
  2. ^ Biography (Hebrew)
  3. ^ Smooha , S. The model of ethnic democracy, European Centre for Minority Issues, ECMI Working Paper # 13, 2001, p24.
  4. ^ S Smooha, Ethnic democracy: Israel as an archetype Israel, 1997