Sammy Younge Jr.
|Sammy Younge Jr.|
Official image of Sammy Younge Jr. as an enlisted member in the United States Navy.
Samuel Leamon Younge Jr.|
November 17, 1944
January 3, 1966 (aged 21)|
|Cause of death||Homicide|
|Known for||Civil rights activist; first black college student activist murdered during the Civil Rights Movement|
Samuel Leamon Younge Jr. (November 17, 1944 – January 3, 1966) was a civil rights and voting rights activist who was murdered for trying to desegregate a "whites only" restroom. Younge was an enlisted service member in the United States Navy, where he served for two years before being medically discharged. Younge was an active member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and a leader of the Tuskegee Institute Advancement League.
Younge was the first African-American university student to be murdered in the United States due to his actions in support of the Civil Rights Movement. Three days after his death, SNCC became the first civil rights organization in the United States to oppose the Vietnam War, partly on the grounds that like Younge, innocent civilians should not face deadly violence.
Younge was born on November 17, 1944, in Tuskegee, Alabama. His father, Samuel Younge Sr., was an occupational therapist, and his mother was a local schoolteacher. From the age of 12 to 14, from 1956 to 1958, Younge attended Cornwall Academy, in Massachusetts. He graduated from Tuskegee Institute High School in 1962, after which he joined the United States Navy. Younge served in the United States Navy from 1962 until July 1964, when he was given a medical discharge as a result of having to have one of his kidneys removed. Upon his discharge from the Navy, Younge began attending the Tuskegee Institute, in 1965, as a political science student.
Civil rights activism
Younge became involved in the Civil Rights Movement during his first semester at the Tuskegee Institute. He participated in the Selma to Montgomery protest march in Montgomery, Alabama, against the "Bloody Sunday" incident in March 1965. Younge joined the SNCC and the Tuskegee Institute for Advancement League (TIAL) — a local civil rights student group formed with the help of the SNCC. He soon started helping to lead protests by the organizations against civil rights infractions in Alabama. Then, in April 1965, he went to Mississippi and worked with Unita Blackwell and Fannie Lou Hamer to help the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party get black voters registered. In the Summer of 1965, Younge lead Tuskegee Institute students in challenging overt discrimination in Tuskegee. The group attempted to enter white restaurants, held rallies, and picketed establishments that refused to hire black people. Several times they attempted to attend segregated white churches and were brutally beaten twice. In September 1965, Younge was arrested and jailed after attempting to drive a group of African-Americans to get registered to vote in Lee County, Alabama.
Younge was shot in the face (under the left eye)  by Marvin Segrest, a 68-year-old white gas station attendant at a Standard Oil station in Tuskegee, Alabama, on January 3, 1966. The shooting came after a verbal altercation between Younge and the attendant about Younge using the "whites-only" bathroom.
Younge became the first black college student to be murdered for his actions in support of the Civil Rights Movement. Samuel Younge Sr. said of his son's death, "This is an era of social revolution. In such revolutions, individuals sacrifice their lives."
On January 4, 1966, Segrest was arrested, but released on $20,000 bond. He was indicted for murder in the second degree and tried on December 7. The trial was moved from Macon County, where blacks outnumbered whites by a 2-1 margin, to Lee County. He was found not guilty by an all-white jury the next day. His acquittal sparked outraged protests in Tuskegee.
In January 1966, a protest was staged in front of the White House by Leslie Bayless, with a coffin with a picture of Younge attached to it. The protest was staged to call out the white supremacy caused shooting of Younge in Alabama. Police forcibly removed the casket and arrested Bayless for disorderly conduct.
After Younge's death, the SNCC decided to publicly join the opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War; stating officially, on January 6, 1966, that:
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee has a right and a responsibility to dissent with United States foreign policy on any issue when it sees fit. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee now states its opposition to United States' involvement in Vietnam on these grounds: We believe the United States government has been deceptive in its claims of concern for the freedom of the Vietnamese people, just as the government has been deceptive in claiming concern for the freedom of colored people in such other countries as the Dominican Republic, the Congo, South Africa, Rhodesia, and in the United States itself. ... The murder of Samuel [Younge] in Tuskeegee, Alabama, is no different than the murder of peasants in Vietnam, for both [Younge] and the Vietnamese sought, and are seeking, to secure the rights guaranteed them by law. In each case the United States government bears a great part of the responsibility for these deaths. Samuel [Younge] was murdered because United States law is not being enforced. Vietnamese are murdered because the United States is pursuing an aggressive policy in violation of international law. — Press release: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
- Bourlin, Olga. "Younge, Samuel ("Sammy") Leamon Jr. (1944–1966)". BlackPast.org. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Belafonte, Harry (26 February 1966). "Harry Belafonte voices plea". The Afro American. New York. p. 4. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement Veterans -- Sammy Younge". Civil Rights Movement Veterans. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- "Murdered: Sammy Younge" (PDF) (Press release). Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). 4 January 1966. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Gale, Mary (8 January 1966). "Killing of Rights Worker Jolts Tuskegee Students" (PDF). The Southern Courier. Tuskegee, Alabama. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Summerlin, Donnie (2 September 2008). "Samuel Younge Jr". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Montgomery, Nancy (9 November 2014). "When the civil rights movement became a casualty of war". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Clements, Lloyd (21 March 2014). "Letters to the Editor: Younge represented the struggle for black freedom". The Montgomery Advertiser. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Foreman, James (1968). Sammy Younge Jr: The First Black College Student to Die in the Black Liberation Movement. Open Hand Pub. ISBN 9780940880139.
- "A History of Racial Injustice Timeline: Tuskegee Students March to Protest Murder of SNCC Activist Samuel Younge Jr". Equal Justice Initiative. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Hamilton, Charles (1992). Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. New York: Vintage: Random House. p. 139. ISBN 9780679743132.
- Chandler, D.L. (3 January 2014). "Sammy Younge Killed For Using Whites-Only Bathroom On This Day In 1966". News One. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- p.3-4 https://www.justice.gov/crt/case-document/file/949026/download
- "Civil Rights: End of the Facade". Time Magazine. 14 January 1966. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Haskins, Jim (25 January 1987). "'Sammy Younge Jr.': The despair hasn't faded". Gainesville Sun. pp. 6E. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "This Week In Black History". New Pittsburgh Courier. 2 January 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Cobb, William (21 March 2014). "Evolution of an Activist". New York Times. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- Bullard, Sara (1994). Free at Last: A History of the Civil Rights Movement and Those who Died in the Struggle. Oxford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0195094506.
- "Civil Rights Division: Notice to Close File". United States Department of Justice. March 28, 2011.
- "A 'MOVING' DEMONSTRATION". Press and Sun-Bulletin. WIREPHOTO. Associated Press. 12 Jan 1966. p. 8. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
- "STATEMENT BY THE STUDENT NONVIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE ON THE WAR IN VIETNAM" (Press release). Wisconsin Historical Society. 6 January 1966. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- SNCC Digital Gateway: Murder of Sammy Younge & SNCC's Statement on Vietnam Digital documentary website created by the SNCC Legacy Project and Duke University, telling the story of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee & grassroots organizing from the inside-out
- Civil Rights Division Notice to Close File, containing a detailed description of the crime and followup
- 2011 FBI statement on Younge's murder