Norwegian language

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Norwegian
norsk
Pronunciation[nɔʂk] (East and North)
[nɔʁsk] (West)
Native toNorway
EthnicityNorwegians
Native speakers
5.2 million (2015)[1]
Early forms
Standard forms
written Bokmål (official)
 • written Riksmål (unofficial)
written Nynorsk (official)
 • written Høgnorsk (unofficial)
Latin (Norwegian alphabet)
Norwegian Braille
Norwegian Sign Language
Official status
Official language in
 Norway
 Nordic Council
Regulated byLanguage Council of Norway (Bokmål and Nynorsk)
Norwegian Academy (Riksmål)
Ivar Aasen-sambandet (Høgnorsk)
Language codes
ISO 639-1no – inclusive code

Individual codes:
nbBokmål

nnNynorsk
ISO 639-2nor – inclusive code

Individual codes:
nob – Bokmål

nno – Nynorsk
ISO 639-3norinclusive code
Individual codes:
nob – Bokmål
nno – Nynorsk
Glottolognorw1258[2]
Linguasphere52-AAA-ba to -be;
52-AAA-cf to -cg
Norwegian Language.png
Areas where Norwegian is spoken, including North Dakota (where 0.4% of the population speaks Norwegian), western Wisconsin (<0.1% of the population), and Minnesota (0.1% of the population) (Data: U.S. Census 2000).
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties, and some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.

Today there are two official forms of written Norwegian, Bokmål (literally "book tongue") and Nynorsk ("new Norwegian"), each with its own variants. Bokmål developed from the Dano-Norwegian koiné language that evolved under the union of Denmark-Norway in the 16- and 17-century, while Nynorsk was developed based upon a collective of spoken Norwegian dialects. Norwegian is one of the two official languages in Norway. The other is Sami, spoken by some members of the Sami people, mostly in the Northern part of Norway. Norwegian and Sami are not mutually intelligible, as Sami belongs to the Finno-Ugric group of languages. Sami is spoken by less than one percent of people in Norway.

Norwegian is one of the working languages of the Nordic Council. Under the Nordic Language Convention, citizens of the Nordic countries who speak Norwegian have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable to any interpretation or translation costs.[3][4]

History[edit]

Origins[edit]

The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:
  Old West Norse dialect
  Old East Norse dialect
  Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

Like most of the languages in Europe, the Norwegian language descends from the Proto-Indo-European language spoken about 5500 years ago on the Pontic–Caspian steppe north of the Black Sea.[5] As early Indo-Europeans spread across Europe, they became isolated and new languages evolved. In the northwest of Europe, the West Germanic languages evolved, which would eventually become English, Dutch, German, and the North Germanic languages, of which Norwegian is one.

Proto-Norse is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic during the first centuries AD. It is the earliest stage of a characteristically North Germanic language, and the language attested in the Elder Futhark inscriptions, the oldest form of the runic alphabets. A number of inscriptions are memorials to the dead, while others are magical in content. The oldest are carved on loose objects, while later ones are chiseled in runestones.[6] They are the oldest written record of any Germanic language.

Around 800 AD, the script was simplified to the Younger Futhark, and inscriptions became more abundant. At the same time, the beginning of the Viking Age led to the spread of Old Norse to Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands. Viking colonies also existed in parts of the British Isles, France (Normandy), North America, and Kievan Rus. In all of these places except Iceland and the Faroes, Old Norse speakers went extinct or were absorbed into the local population.[6]

The Roman alphabet[edit]

Around 1030, Christianity came to Scandinavia, bringing with it an influx of Latin borrowings and the Roman alphabet. These new words were related to church practices and ceremonies, although many other loanwords related to general culture also entered the language.

The Scandinavian languages at this time are not considered to be separate languages, although there were minor differences among what are customarily called Old Icelandic, Old Norwegian, Old Gutnish, Old Danish, and Old Swedish.

Low German influence[edit]

The economic and political dominance of the Hanseatic League between 1250 and 1450 in the main Scandinavian cities brought large Middle Low German-speaking populations to Norway. The influence of their language on Scandinavian is similar to that of French on English after the Norman conquest.[6]

Dano-Norwegian[edit]

In the late Middle Ages, dialects began to develop in Scandinavia because the population was rural and little travel occurred. When the Reformation came from Germany, Martin Luther's High German translation of the Bible was quickly translated into Swedish, Danish, and Icelandic. Norway entered a union with Denmark in 1397. Danish was the language of the elite, the church, literature, and the law. When the union with Denmark ended in 1814, the Dano-Norwegian koiné had become the mother tongue of many Norwegians.[7]

Danish to Norwegian[edit]

From the 1840s, some writers experimented with a Norwegianised Danish by incorporating words that were descriptive of Norwegian scenery and folk life, and adopting a more Norwegian syntax. Knud Knudsen proposed to change spelling and inflection in accordance with the Dano-Norwegian koiné, known as "cultivated everyday speech." A small adjustment in this direction was implemented in the first official reform of the Danish language in Norway in 1862 and more extensively after his death in two official reforms in 1907 and 1917.

Meanwhile, a nationalistic movement strove for the development of a new written Norwegian. Ivar Aasen, a botanist and self-taught linguist, began his work to create a new Norwegian language at the age of 22. He traveled around the country collecting words and examples of grammar from the dialects and comparing the dialects among the different regions. He examined the development of Icelandic, which had largely escaped the influences under which Norwegian had come. He called his work, which was published in several books from 1848 to 1873, Landsmål, meaning "national language". The name "Landsmål" is sometimes interpreted as "rural language" or "country language", but this was clearly not Aasen's intended meaning.

The name of the Danish language in Norway was a topic of hot dispute through the 19th century. Its proponents claimed that it was a language common to Norway and Denmark, and no more Danish than Norwegian. The proponents of Landsmål thought that the Danish character of the language should not be concealed. In 1899, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson proposed the neutral name Riksmål, meaning national language like Landsmål, and this was officially adopted along with the 1907 spelling reform. The name "Riksmål" is sometimes interpreted as "state language", but this meaning is secondary at best. (Compare to Danish rigsmål from where the name was borrowed.)

After the personal union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, both languages were developed further and reached what is now considered their classic forms after a reform in 1917. Riksmål was in 1929 officially renamed Bokmål (literally "book language"), and Landsmål to Nynorsk (literally "new Norwegian"). A proposition to substitute Danish-Norwegian (dansk-norsk) for Bokmål lost in parliament by a single vote. The name Nynorsk, the linguistic term for modern Norwegian, was chosen to contrast with Danish and emphasis on the historical connection to Old Norwegian. Today, this meaning is often lost, and it is commonly mistaken as a "new" Norwegian in contrast to the "real" Norwegian Bokmål.

Bokmål and Nynorsk were made closer by a reform in 1938. This was a result of a state policy to merge Nynorsk and Bokmål into a single language, to be called Samnorsk. A 1946 poll showed that this policy was supported by 79% of Norwegians at the time. However, opponents of the official policy still managed to create a massive protest movement against Samnorsk in the 1950s, fighting in particular the use of "radical" forms in Bokmål text books in schools. In the reform in 1959, the 1938 reform was partially reversed in Bokmål, but Nynorsk was changed further towards Bokmål. Since then Bokmål has reverted even further toward traditional Riksmål, while Nynorsk still adheres to the 1959 standard. Therefore, a small minority of Nynorsk enthusiasts use a more conservative standard called Høgnorsk. The Samnorsk policy had little influence after 1960, and was officially abandoned in 2002.

Phonology[edit]

While the sound systems of Norwegian and Swedish are similar, considerable variation exists among the dialects.

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Urban East Norwegian
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palato-
alveolar
Retroflex Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ
Stop p b t d ʈ ɖ k ɡ
Fricative f s ʃ ʂ h
Approximant ʋ l ɭ j
Tap ɾ

The retroflex consonants only appear in East Norwegian dialects as a result of sandhi, combining /ɾ/ with /d/, /l/, /n/, /s/, and /t/.

The realization of the rhotic /ɾ/ depends on the dialect. In Eastern, Central, and Northern Norwegian dialects, it is a tap [ɾ], whereas in Western and Southern Norway, and for some speakers also in Eastern Norway, it is rendered more gutturally as [χ] or [ʁ]. And in the dialects of North-Western Norway, it is realized as [r], much like the trilled R of Spanish.

Vowels[edit]

Vowel phonemes of Urban East Norwegian
Orthography IPA Description
a /ɑ/ Open back unrounded
ai /ɑɪ̯/
au /æʉ/
e (short) /ɛ/, /æ/ open mid front unrounded
e (long) /e/, /æ/ close-mid front unrounded
e (weak) /ə/ schwa (mid central unrounded)
ei /æɪ/, /ɛɪ/
i (short) /ɪ/ close front unrounded
i (long) /i/ close front unrounded
o /u, o, ɔ/ close back rounded
oi /ɔʏ/
u /ʉ/, /u/ close central rounded (close front extra rounded)
y (short) /ʏ/ close front rounded (close front less rounded)
y (long) /y/ close front rounded (close front less rounded)
æ /æ/, /ɛ/ near open front unrounded
ø /ø/ close-mid front rounded
øy /øʏ/
å /ɔ/ open-mid back rounded

Accent[edit]

Norwegian is a pitch-accent language with two distinct pitch patterns, like Swedish. They are used to differentiate two-syllable words with otherwise identical pronunciation. For example, in many East Norwegian dialects, the word "bønder" (farmers) is pronounced using tone 1, while "bønner" (beans or prayers) uses tone 2. Though spelling differences occasionally differentiate written words, in most cases the minimal pairs are written alike, since written Norwegian has no explicit accent marks. In most eastern low-tone dialects, accent 1 uses a low flat pitch in the first syllable, while accent 2 uses a high, sharply falling pitch in the first syllable and a low pitch in the beginning of the second syllable. In both accents, these pitch movements are followed by a rise of intonational nature (phrase accent)—the size (and presence) of which signals emphasis or focus, and corresponds in function to the normal accent in languages that lack lexical tone, such as English. That rise culminates in the final syllable of an accentual phrase, while the utterance-final fall common in most languages is either very small or absent.

There are significant variations in pitch accent between dialects. Thus, in most of western and northern Norway (the so-called high-pitch dialects) accent 1 is falling, while accent 2 is rising in the first syllable and falling in the second syllable or somewhere around the syllable boundary. The pitch accents (as well as the peculiar phrase accent in the low-tone dialects) give the Norwegian language a "singing" quality that makes it easy to distinguish from other languages. Accent 1 generally occurs in words that were monosyllabic in Old Norse, and accent 2 in words that were polysyllabic.

Written language[edit]

Danish keyboard with keys for Æ, Ø, and Å. On Norwegian keyboards, the Æ and Ø are swapped.

Alphabet[edit]

The Norwegian alphabet has 29 letters.[8]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z æ ø å

The letters c, q, w, x and z are only used in loanwords. As loanwords are assimilated into Norwegian, their spelling might change to reflect Norwegian pronunciation and the principles of Norwegian orthography, e.g. zebra in Norwegian is written sebra. Due to historical reasons, some otherwise Norwegian family names are also written using these letters.

Some letters may be modified by diacritics: é, è, ê, ó, ò, and ô. In Nynorsk, ì and ù and are occasionally seen as well. The diacritics are not compulsory, but may in a few cases distinguish between different meanings of the word, e.g.: for (for/to), fór (went), fòr (furrow) and fôr (fodder). Loanwords may be spelled with other diacritics, most notably ü, á and à.

Bokmål and Nynorsk[edit]

As established by law and government policy, the two official forms of written Norwegian are Bokmål (literally "book tongue") and Nynorsk ("new Norwegian"). The official Norwegian Language Council (Språkrådet) is responsible for regulating the two forms, and recommends the terms "Norwegian Bokmål" and "Norwegian Nynorsk" in English.[citation needed] Two other written forms without official status also exist, one, called Riksmål ("national language"), is today to a large extent the same language as Bokmål though somewhat closer to the Danish language. It is regulated by the unofficial Norwegian Academy, which translates the name as "Standard Norwegian". The other is Høgnorsk ("High Norwegian"), a more purist form of Nynorsk, which maintains the language in an original form as given by Ivar Aasen and rejects most of the reforms from the 20th century; this form has limited use.

Nynorsk and Bokmål provide standards for how to write Norwegian, but not for how to speak the language. No standard of spoken Norwegian is officially sanctioned, and most Norwegians speak their own dialects in all circumstances. Thus, unlike in many other countries, the use of any Norwegian dialect, whether it coincides with the written norms or not, is accepted as correct spoken Norwegian. However, in areas where East Norwegian dialects are used, a tendency exists to accept a de facto spoken standard for this particular regional dialect, Urban East Norwegian or Standard East Norwegian (Norwegian: Standard Østnorsk), in which the vocabulary coincides with Bokmål.[9][10] Outside Eastern Norway, this spoken variation is not used.

From the 16th to the 19th centuries, Danish was the standard written language of Norway. As a result, the development of modern written Norwegian has been subject to strong controversy related to nationalism, rural versus urban discourse, and Norway's literary history. Historically, Bokmål is a Norwegianised variety of Danish, while Nynorsk is a language form based on Norwegian dialects and puristic opposition to Danish. The now-abandoned official policy to merge Bokmål and Nynorsk into one common language called Samnorsk through a series of spelling reforms has created a wide spectrum of varieties of both Bokmål and Nynorsk. The unofficial form known as Riksmål is considered more conservative than Bokmål and is far closer to Danish while the unofficial Høgnorsk is more conservative than Nynorsk and is far closer to Faroese, Icelandic and Old Norse.

Norwegians are educated in both Bokmål and Nynorsk. The language form that is not registered as the main language form of a Norwegian student will be a mandatory school subject in both high school and elementary school for the student, which is called Sidemål.[11] For instance, a Norwegian with Bokmål as its main language form has Nynorsk as a mandatory school subject throughout both high school and elementary school. A 2005 poll indicates that 86.3% use primarily Bokmål as their daily written language, 5.5% use both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and 7.5% use primarily Nynorsk.[citation needed] Thus, 13% are frequently writing Nynorsk, though the majority speak dialects that resemble Nynorsk more closely than Bokmål.[12] Broadly speaking, Nynorsk writing is widespread in western Norway, though not in major urban areas, and also in the upper parts of mountain valleys in the southern and eastern parts of Norway. Examples are Setesdal, the western part of Telemark county (fylke) and several municipalities in Hallingdal, Valdres, and Gudbrandsdalen. It is little used elsewhere, but 30–40 years ago, it also had strongholds in many rural parts of Trøndelag (mid-Norway) and the southern part of northern Norway (Nordland county). Today, not only is Nynorsk the official language of four of the 19 Norwegian counties, but also of many municipalities in five other counties. NRK, the Norwegian broadcasting corporation, broadcasts in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and all governmental agencies are required to support both written languages. Bokmål is used in 92% of all written publications, and Nynorsk in 8% (2000).[citation needed]

Like some other European countries, Norway has an official "advisory board"— Språkrådet (Norwegian Language Council)— that determines, after approval from the Ministry of Culture, official spelling, grammar, and vocabulary for the Norwegian language. The board's work has been subject to considerable controversy throughout the years.

Both Nynorsk and Bokmål have a great variety of optional forms. The Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Riksmål is called moderate or conservative, depending on one's viewpoint, while the Bokmål that uses the forms that are close to Nynorsk is called radical. Nynorsk has forms that are close to the original Landsmål and forms that are close to Bokmål.

Riksmål[edit]

Map of the official language forms of Norwegian municipalities. Red is Bokmål, blue is Nynorsk and gray depicts neutral areas.

Opponents of the spelling reforms aimed at bringing Bokmål closer to Nynorsk have retained the name Riksmål and employ spelling and grammar that predate the Samnorsk movement. Riksmål and conservative versions of Bokmål have been the de facto standard written language of Norway for most of the 20th century, being used by large newspapers, encyclopedias, and a significant proportion of the population of the capital Oslo, surrounding areas, and other urban areas, as well as much of the literary tradition. Since the reforms of 1981 and 2003 (effective in 2005), the official Bokmål can be adapted to be almost identical with modern Riksmål. The differences between written Riksmål and Bokmål are comparable to American and British English differences.

Riksmål is regulated by the Norwegian Academy, which determines acceptable spelling, grammar, and vocabulary.

Høgnorsk[edit]

There is also an unofficial form of Nynorsk, called Høgnorsk, discarding the post-1917 reforms, and thus close to Ivar Aasen's original Landsmål. It is supported by Ivar Aasen-sambandet, but has found no widespread use.

Current usage[edit]

In 2010 86.5% of the pupils in the primary and lower secondary schools in Norway receive education in Bokmål, while 13.0% receive education in Nynorsk. From the eighth grade onwards pupils are required to learn both. Out of the 431 municipalities in Norway, 161 have declared that they wish to communicate with the central authorities in Bokmål, 116 (representing 12% of the population) in Nynorsk, while 156 are neutral. Of 4,549 state publications in 2000 8% were in Nynorsk, and 92% in Bokmål. The large national newspapers (Aftenposten, Dagbladet, and VG) are published in Bokmål or Riksmål. Some major regional newspapers (including Bergens Tidende and Stavanger Aftenblad), many political journals, and many local newspapers use both Bokmål and Nynorsk.

A newer trend is to write in dialect for informal use. When writing an SMS, Facebook update, or fridge note, most younger people write the way they talk rather than using Bokmål or Nynorsk.[citation needed]

Dialects[edit]

The map shows the division of the Norwegian dialects within the main groups.

There is general agreement that a wide range of differences makes it difficult to estimate the number of different Norwegian dialects. Variations in grammar, syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation cut across geographical boundaries and can create a distinct dialect at the level of farm clusters. Dialects are in some cases so dissimilar as to be unintelligible to unfamiliar listeners. Many linguists note a trend toward regionalization of dialects that diminishes the differences at such local levels; there is, however, a renewed interest in preserving dialects.

Examples[edit]

Below are a few sentences giving an indication of the differences between Bokmål and Nynorsk, compared to the conservative (closer to Danish) form Riksmål, Danish, as well as Old Norse, Swedish, Faroese, Icelandic (the living language grammatically closest to Old Norse), Old English and some modern West Germanic languages:

Language Phrase
Modern English I come from Norway What is his name? This is a horse The rainbow has many colours
Danish Jeg kommer fra Norge Hvad hedder han? Dette er en hest Regnbuen har mange farver
Norwegian Riksmål Hva heter han?
Norwegian Bokmål Regnbuen har mange farger
Norwegian Nynorsk Eg kjem frå Noreg Kva heiter han? Dette er ein hest Regnbogen har mange fargar/leter
= Regnbogen er mangleta
Norwegian Høgnorsk Regnbogen hev mange leter
= Regnbogen er manglìta
Swedish Jag kommer från Norge Vad heter han? Detta är en häst Regnbågen har många färger
Old Norse Ek kem frá Noregi Hvat heitir hann? Þetta er hross /
Þessi er hestr
Regnboginn er marglitr
Icelandic Ég kem frá Noregi Hvað heitir hann? Þetta er hestur/hross Regnboginn er marglitur
Faroese Eg komi úr Noregi/Norra Hvussu eitur hann? Hetta er eitt ross / ein hestur Ælabogin hevur nógvar litir /
Ælabogin er marglittur
Old English Ic cume fram Norwegan Hwat hāteþ he? Þis is hors Se regnboga hæfð manige hiw
German Ich komme aus Norwegen Wie heißt er? Das ist ein Pferd Der Regenbogen hat viele Farben
Dutch Ik kom uit Noorwegen Hoe heet hij? Dit is een paard De regenboog heeft veel (vele) kleuren
Afrikaans Ek kom van Noorweë Wat is sy naam?
Hoe heet hy? (more archaic and formal)
Dit is 'n perd Die reënboog het baie kleure
West Frisian Ik kom út Noarwegen Hoe hjit er? Dit is in hynder De reinbôge hat in protte kleuren
Low Saxon Ik kom üüt Noorwegen Ho hit e? Dit is een peerd De regenboge hev völe klören

Grammar[edit]

Nouns[edit]

Norwegian nouns are inflected for number (singular/plural) and for definiteness (indefinite/definite). In a few dialects, definite nouns are also inflected for the dative case.

Norwegian nouns belong to three noun classes: masculine, feminine and neuter. All feminine nouns can optionally be inflected using masculine noun class morphology in Bokmål due to its Danish heritage [13]. In comparison, the use of all three genders (including the feminine) is mandatory in Nynorsk [14].

All Norwegian dialects have traditionally retained all the three grammatical genders from Old norse to some extent [15]. The only exceptions is the dialect of Bergen and a few upper class sociolects at the west end of Oslo that has completely lost the feminine gender [15][16].

Examples, nouns in Bokmål
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
masculine en båt båten båter båtene
a boat the boat boats the boats
feminine ei/en jente jenta/jenten jenter jentene
a girl the girl girls the girls
neuter et hus huset hus husa/husene
a house the house houses the houses

Norwegian and other Scandinavian languages use a suffix to indicate definiteness of a noun, unlike English which has a separate article the to indicate the same.

In general, almost all nouns in Bokmål follow these patterns[17] (like the words in the examples above):

Nouns in Bokmål
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
masculine en -en -er -ene
feminine ei/en -a/-en
neuter et -et -/-er -a/-ene

In contrast, almost all nouns in Nynorsk follow these patterns[18] (the noun gender system is more pronounced than in Bokmål):

Nouns in Nynorsk
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
masculine ein -en -ar -ane
feminine ei -a -er -ene
neuter eit -et - -a
Examples, nouns in Nynorsk
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
masculine ein båt båten båtar båtane
a boat the boat boats the boats
feminine ei jente jenta jenter jentene
a girl the girl girls the girls
neuter eit hus huset hus husa
a house the house houses the houses

Feminine nouns cannot be inflected using masculine noun class morphology in Nynorsk, unlike Bokmål. That is, all feminine nouns in Nynorsk must follow the prescribed inflection pattern above.

There is in general no way to infer what grammatical gender a specific noun has, but there are some patterns of nouns where the gender can be inferred. For instance, all nouns ending in -nad will be masculine in both Bokmål and Nynorsk (for instance the noun jobbsøknad, which means job application). Most nouns ending in -ing will be feminine, like the noun forventning (expectation).

There are some common irregular nouns, many of which are irregular in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, like the following:

Irregular noun, fot (foot)[19]
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Bokmål: en fot foten føtter føttene
Nynorsk: ein fot foten føter føtene
English: a foot the foot feet the feet

In Nynorsk, even though the irregular word fot is masculine, it is inflected like a feminine word in the plural. Another word with the same irregular inflection is son - søner (son - sons).

In Nynorsk, nouns ending in -ing typically have masculine plural inflections, like the word dronning in the following table. But they are treated as feminine nouns in every other way.[18]

Nynorsk, some irregular nouns
Gender Nouns ending with -ing English
feminine ei dronning dronninga dronningar dronningane queen
Plurals with umlaut (these irregularities also exist in Bokmål)
feminine ei bok boka bøker bøkene book
ei hand handa hender hendene hand
ei stong stonga stenger stengene rod
ei tå tåa tær tærne toe
Plurals with no ending (these irregularities also exist in Bokmål)
masculine ein ting tingen ting tinga thing

Genitive of nouns[edit]

In general, the genitive case has died out in modern Norwegian and there are only some remnants of it in certain expressions: til fjells (to the mountains), til sjøs (to the sea). To show ownership, there is an enclitic -s similar to English -'s; Sondres flotte bil (Sondre's nice car, Sondre being a personal name). There are also reflexive possessive pronouns, sin, si, sitt, sine; Det er Sondre sitt (It is Sondre's). In both Bokmål and modern Nynorsk, there is often a mix of both of these to mark possession, though it is more common in Nynorsk to use the reflexive pronouns; in Nynorsk use of the reflexive possessive pronouns is generally encouraged to avoid mixing the enclitic -s with the historical grammatical case remnants of the language. The reflexive pronouns agree in gender and number with the noun.

The enclitic -s in Norwegian evolved as a shorthand expression for the possessive pronouns sin, si, sitt and sine.

Examples
Norwegian (with pronoun) Norwegian (with enclitic 's) English
Jenta sin bil Jentas bil The girl's car
Mannen si kone Mannens kone The man's wife
Gutten sitt leketøy Guttens leketøy The boy's toy
Kona sine barn Konas barn The wife's children
Det er statsministeren sitt Det er statsministerens It is the prime minister's

Adjectives[edit]

Norwegian adjectives, like those of Swedish and Danish, inflect for definiteness, gender, number and for comparison(affirmative/comparative/superlative). Inflection for definiteness follows two paradigms, called "weak" and "strong", a feature shared among the Germanic languages.

The following table summarizes the inflection of adjectives in Norwegian. The indefinite affirmative inflection can vary between adjectives, but in general the paradigm illustrated below is the most common.[20]

Inflection patterns for adjectives in Norwegian
Definite Indefinite
Affirmative Comparative Superlative Affirmative Comparative Superlative
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Bokmål -e -ere -este - -t -e -ere -est
Nynorsk -e -are -aste - -t -e -are -ast

Predicate adjectives follow only the indefinite inflection table. Unlike attributive adjectives, they are not inflected for definiteness.

Adjective forms, examples: grønn/grøn (green), pen (pretty), stjålet/stolen (stolen)
Definite Indefinite
Affirmative Comparative Superlative Affirmative Comparative Superlative
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Bokmål grønne grønnere grønneste grønn grønt grønne grønnere grønnest
pene penere peneste pen pent åpne penere penest
stjålne - - stjålet/stjålen stjålet stjålne - -
Nynorsk grøne grønare grønaste grøn grønt grøne grønare grønast
pene penare penaste pen pent pene penare penast
stolne - - stolen stole stolne - -
English green greener greenest green greener greenest
pretty prettier prettiest pretty prettier prettiest
stolen - - stolen - -

In most dialects, some verb participles used as adjectives have a separate form in both definite and plural uses,[21] and sometimes also in the masculine-feminine singular. In some Southwestern dialects, the definite adjective is also declined in gender and number with one form for feminine and plural, and one form for masculine and neuter.

Attributive adjectives[edit]

Definite inflection[edit]

In Norwegian, a definite noun has a suffixed definite article (cf. above) compared to English which in general uses the separate word the to indicate the same. However, when a definite noun is preceded by an adjective, the adjective also gets a definite inflection, shown in the inflection table above. There is also another definite marker den that has to agree in gender with the noun when the definite noun is accompanied by an adjective [22]. It comes before the adjective and has the following forms

Determinative den (bokmål)
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Den Den Det De

Examples of definite affirmative inflection of adjectives (Bokmål):

  • Det grønne eplet (The green apple)
  • Den stjålne bilen (The stolen car)
  • Den pene jenta (The pretty girl)
  • De stjålne bilene (The stolen cars)

If the adjective is dropped completely, the meaning of the preceding article before the noun changes, as shown in this example.

Examples (Bokmål):

  • Det eplet (That apple)
  • Den bilen (That car)
  • Den jenta (That girl)
  • De bilene (Those cars)

Examples of definite comparative and superlative inflection of adjectives (Bokmål):

  • Det grønnere eplet (The greener apple)
  • Det grønneste eplet (The greenest apple)

Definiteness is also signaled by using possessive pronouns or any uses of a noun in its genitive form in either Nynorsk or Bokmål: mitt grønne hus ("my green house"), min grønne bil ("my green car"), mitt tilbaketrukne tannkjøtt ("my pulled gums"), presidentens gamle hus ("the president's old house").[23]

Indefinite inflection[edit]

Examples (Bokmål):

  • En grønn bil (A green car)
  • Ei pen jente (A pretty girl)
  • Et grønt eple (A green apple)
  • Flere grønne biler (Many green cars)

Examples of comparative and superlative inflections in Bokmål: "en grønnere bril" (a greener car), "grønnest bil" (greenest car).

Predicative adjectives[edit]

There is also predicative agreement of adjectives in all dialects of Norwegian and in the written languages, unlike related languages like German and Dutch.[24] This feature of predicative agreement is shared among the Scandinavian languages. Predicative adjectives do not inflect for definiteness unlike the attributive adjectives.

This means that nouns will have to agree with the adjective when there is a copula verb involved, like in Bokmål: «være» (to be), «bli» (become), «ser ut» (looks like), «kjennes» (feels like) etc.

Adjective agreement, examples
Norwegian (bokmål) English
Masculine Bilen var grønn The car was green
Feminine Døra er grønn The door is green
Neuter Flagget er grønt The flag is green
Plural Blåbærene blir store The blueberries will be big

Verbs[edit]

Norwegian verbs are not conjugated for person or number unlike English and most European languages, though a few Norwegian dialects do conjugate for number. Norwegian verbs are conjugated according to mainly three grammatical moods: indicative, imperative and subjunctive, though the subjunctive mood has largely fallen out of use and is mainly found in a few common frozen expressions [25]. The imperative is formed by removing the last vowel of the infinitive verb form, just like in the other Scandinavian languages.

Indicative verbs are conjugated for tense: present / past / future. The present and past tense also have a passive form for the infinitive.

There are four non-finite verb forms: infinitive, passive infinitive, and the two participles: perfective/past participle and imperfective/present participle.

The participles are verbal adjectives. The imperfective participle is not declined, whereas the perfect participle is declined for gender (though not in Bokmål) and number like strong, affirmative adjectives. The definite form of the participle is identical to the plural form.

As with other Germanic languages, Norwegian verbs can be divided into two conjugation classes; weak verbs and strong verbs.

Verb forms in Nynorsk
leva (to live) and finna (to find)
Finite Non-finite
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Verbal nouns Verbal adjectives (Participles)
Present Past Infinitive Imperfective Perfective
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural/Def
Active lever levde leve lev leva levande levd levd levt levde
finn fann finn finna (har) funne funnen funnen funne funne
Passive levest levdest levast
finst fanst finnast (har) funnest
Verb forms in Bokmål
leve (to live) and finne (to find)
Finite Non-finite
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Verbal nouns Verbal adjectives (Participles)
Present Past Infinitive Imperfective Perfective
Singular Plural/Def
Active lever levde/ levet leve lev leve levende levd levde/ levet
finner fant finn finne (har) funnet funnet funne
Passive leves levdes leves
fins/ finnes fantes finnes (har funnes)

Ergative verbs[edit]

There are ergative verbs in both Bokmål and Nynorsk [26], where there is two different conjugation patterns depending on if the verb takes an object or not. In Bokmål, there are only two different conjugations for the preterite tense for the strong verbs, while Nynorsk has different conjugations for all tenses, like Swedish and a majority of Norwegian dialects. Some weak verbs are also ergative and are differentiated for all tenses in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, like «ligge»/«legge» that both means to lie down, but «ligge» does not take an object while «legge» requires an object. «legge» corresponds to the English verb «lay», while «ligge» corresponds to the English verb «lie». There are however many verbs that do not have this direct translation to English verbs.

Ergative verb «knekke» (crack)
Norwegian Bokmål English
Nøtta knakk The nut cracked
Jeg knekte nøtta I cracked the nut
Jeg ligger I'm lying down
Jeg legger det ned I'll lay it down

Pronouns[edit]

Norwegian personal pronouns are declined according to case: nominative / accusative. Like English, pronouns in Bokmål and Nynorsk are the only class that has case declension. Some of the dialects that have preserved the dative in nouns, also have a dative case instead of the accusative case in personal pronouns, while others have accusative in pronouns and dative in nouns, effectively giving these dialects three distinct cases.

In the most comprehensive Norwegian grammar, Norsk referansegrammatikk, the categorization of personal pronouns by person, gender, and number is not regarded as inflection. Pronouns are a closed class in Norwegian.

Pronouns in Bokmål
Subject form Object form Possessive
jeg (I) meg (me) min, mi, mitt (mine)
du (you) deg (you) din, di, ditt (yours)
han (he)

hun (she)

det, den (it/that)

ham/han (him)

henne (her)

det, den (it/that)

hans (his)

hennes (hers)

vi (we) oss (us) vår, vårt (our)
dere (you, plural) dere (you, plural) deres (yours, plural)
de (they) dem (them) deres (theirs)
Pronouns in Nynorsk[27]
Subject form Object form Possessive
eg (I) meg (me) min, mi, mitt (mine)
du (you) deg (you) din, di, ditt (yours)
han (he/it)

ho (she/it)

det (it/that)

han (him/it)

henne/ho (her/it)

det (it/that)

hans (his)

hennar (hers)

vi/me (we) oss (us) vår, vårt (our)
de/dokker (you, plural) dykk/dokker (you, plural) dykkar/dokkar (yours, plural)
dei (they) dei (them) deira (theirs)

The words for «mine», «yours» etc. are dependent on the gender of the noun it describes. Just like adjectives, they have to agree in gender with the noun.

Bokmål has two sets of 3rd person pronouns. Han and hun refer to male and female individuals respectively, den and det refer to impersonal or inanimate nouns, of masculine/feminine or neutral gender respectively. In contrast, Nynorsk and most dialects use the same set of pronouns han (he), ho (she) and det (it) for both personal and impersonal references, just like in German, Icelandic and Old Norse. Det also has expletive and cataphoric uses like in the English examples it rains and it was known by everyone (that) he had travelled the world.

Examples in Nynorsk and Bokmål of the use of the pronoun «it»
Nynorsk Bokmål English
Kor er boka mi? Ho er her Hvor er boka mi? Den er her Where is my book? It is here
Kor er bilen min? Han er her Hvor er bilen min? Den er her Where is my car? It is here
Kor er brevet mitt? Det er her Hvor er brevet mitt? Det er her Where is my letter? It is here

Ordering of possessive pronouns[edit]

The ordering of possessive pronouns is somewhat freer than in Swedish or Danish. When there is no adjective, the most common word order is the one used in the examples in the table above, where the possessive comes after the noun, while the noun is in its definite form; «boka mi» (my book). If one wishes to emphasize the owner of the noun, the possessive pronoun usually come first. In Bokmål however, due to its Danish origins, one could choose to always write the possessive first «min bil» (my car), but this may sound very formal. Some dialects that have been very influenced by Danish do this too, some speakers in Bærum and the west of Oslo may always use this word order. When there is an adjective describing the noun, the possessive pronoun will always come first; «min egen bil» (my own car).

Norwegian (Bokmål/Nynorsk) English
Det er mi bok! It is my book! (owner emphasized)
Kona mi er vakker My wife is beautiful

Determiners[edit]

The closed class of Norwegian determiners are declined in gender and number in agreement with their argument. Not all determiners are inflected.

Determiner forms
egen (own) in Bokmål
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
egen/eigen egen/eiga eget/eige egne/eigne
Determiner forms
eigen (own) in Nynorsk
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
eigen eiga eige eigne

Numerals[edit]

Cardinal numbers from 0 to 12 in Nynorsk and Bokmål
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Bokmål null en, ei, et to tre fire fem seks sju/syv åtte ni ti elleve tolv
Nynorsk ein, ei, eit sju
Cardinal numbers from 13 to 19 in Nynorsk and Bokmål
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Bokmål tretten fjorten femten seksten sytten atten nitten
Nynorsk


Particle classes[edit]

Norwegian has five closed classes without inflection, i.e. lexical categories with grammatical function and a finite number of members that may not be distinguished by morphological criteria. These are interjections, conjunctions, subjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs. The inclusion of adverbs here requires that traditional adverbs that are inflected in comparison be classified as adjectives, as is sometimes done.

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives in Norwegian. English usually creates adverbs from adjectives by the suffix -ly, like the adverb beautifully from the adjective beautiful. By comparison, Scandinavian languages usually form adverbs from adjectives by the grammatical neuter singular form of the adjective. This is in general true for both Bokmål and Nynorsk.

Example (Bokmål):

  • Han er grusom (He is terrible)
  • Det er grusomt (It is terrible)
  • Han er grusomt treig (He is terribly slow)

In the third sentence, grusomt is an adverb. In the second sentence, it is an adjective.

Another example is the adjective vakker (beautiful) which exist in both Nynorsk and Bokmål and has the neuter singular form vakkert.

Example (Nynorsk):

  • Ho er vakker (She is beautiful)
  • Det er vakkert (It is beautiful)
  • Ho syng vakkert (She sings beautifully)

Compound words[edit]

In Norwegian compound words, the head, i.e. the part determining the compound's class, is the last part. If the compound word is constructed from many different nouns, the last noun in the compound noun will determine the gender of the compound noun. Only the first part has primary stress. For instance, the compound tenketank (think tank) has primary stress on the first syllable and is a masculine noun since the noun «tank» is masculine.

Compound words are written together in Norwegian, which can cause words to become very long, for example sannsynlighetsmaksimeringsestimator (maximum likelihood estimator) and menneskerettighetsorganisasjoner (human rights organizations). Other examples are the title høyesterettsjustitiarius (Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, originally a combination of supreme court and the actual title, justiciar) and the translation En midtsommernattsdrøm for A Midsummer Night's Dream.

If they are not written together, each part is naturally read with primary stress, and the meaning of the compound is lost. Examples of this in English are the difference between a green house and a greenhouse or a black board and a blackboard.

This is sometimes forgotten, occasionally with humorous results. Instead of writing, for example, lammekoteletter (lamb chops), people make the mistake of writing lamme koteletter (lame, or paralyzed, chops). The original message can even be reversed, as when røykfritt (lit. "smoke-free" meaning no smoking) becomes røyk fritt (smoke freely).

Other examples include:

  • Terrasse dør ("Terrace dies") instead of Terrassedør ("Terrace door")
  • Tunfisk biter ("Tuna bites", verb) instead of Tunfiskbiter ("Tuna bits", noun)
  • Smult ringer ("Lard calls", verb) instead of Smultringer ("Doughnuts")
  • Tyveri sikret ("Theft guaranteed") instead of Tyverisikret ("Theft proof")
  • Stekt kylling lever ("Fried chicken lives", verb) instead of Stekt kyllinglever ("Fried chicken liver", noun)
  • Smør brød ("Butter bread", verb) instead of Smørbrød ("Sandwich")
  • Klipp fisk ("Cut fish", verb) instead of Klippfisk ("Clipfish")
  • På hytte taket ("On cottage the roof") instead of På hyttetaket ("On the cottage roof")
  • Altfor Norge ("Too Norway") instead of Alt for Norge ("Everything for Norway", the royal motto of Norway)

These misunderstandings occur because most nouns can be interpreted as verbs or other types of words. Similar misunderstandings can be achieved in English too. The following are examples of phrases that both in Norwegian and English mean one thing as a compound word, and something different when regarded as separate words:

  • stavekontroll (spellchecker) or stave kontroll (spell checker)
  • kokebok (cookbook) or koke bok (cook book)
  • ekte håndlagde vafler (real handmade waffles) or ekte hånd lagde vafler (real hand made waffles)

Syntax[edit]

Norwegian syntax is predominantly SVO with the subject of the sentence coming first, the verb coming second, and the object after that. However, like many other Germanic languages, it follows the V2 rule, which means that the finite verb is invariably the second element in a sentence. For example:

•"Jeg spiser fisk i dag" (I eat fish today)

•"I dag spiser jeg fisk" (Today, I eat fish)

•"Jeg vil drikke kaffe i dag" (I want to drink coffee today)

•"I dag vil jeg drikke kaffe" (Today, I want to drink coffee)

Regardless of which element is placed first, the finite verb comes second.

Attributive adjectives always precede the noun that they modify.

Vocabulary[edit]

Norwegian ambulances changed their markings in 2005. This is the old appearance, with the Norwegian ambulanse, "Ambulance."

Norwegian vocabulary descends primarily from Old Norse. Middle Low German is the largest source of loanwords, having a marked influence on Norwegian vocabulary from the late Middle Ages onwards (in addition some impact on grammatical structures such as genitive constructions). Many of these loanwords, however, while found in Bokmål and many dialects, are absent from Nynorsk, which retains or has substituted words derived from Old Norse. Nynorsk thus shares more vocabulary with Icelandic and Faroese than does Bokmål.

At present, the main source of new loanwords is English e.g. rapper, e-mail, catering, juice, bag (originally a loan word to English from Old Norse). Norwegian has also borrowed words and phrases from Danish and Swedish and continues to do so.

The spelling of some loanwords has been adapted to Norwegian orthographic conventions, but in general Norwegianised spellings have taken a long time to take hold. For example, sjåfør (from French chauffeur) and revansj (from French revanche) are now the common Norwegian spellings, but juice is more often used than the Norwegianised form jus, catering more often than keitering, service more often than sørvis, etc.

In the case of Danish and Swedish, the spelling in Norwegian of both loanwords and native cognates is often less conservative than the spelling in those languages, and, arguably, closer to the pronunciation. Four of the letters most shunned in Norwegian in comparison to the other Scandinavian languages are "c", "d", "j" and "x". Norwegian hei is hej in Swedish and Danish; the words "sex" and "six" are sex and seks in Norwegian, but in Swedish they are both sex; Danish words ending in -tion end in -sjon to reflect pronunciation and many traditional Danish spellings with d preceded by another consonant are changed to double consonants, such as in the Danish for water, vand, versus Norwegian (Bokmål) spelling vann, but "sand" is spelled sand in both languages (Norwegian was standardized this way because in some dialects a "d" was pronounced in sand, whereas Norwegian speakers pronounced vann without a "d"-sound). (The word for water in Nynorsk is vatn.)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Norwegian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Norwegian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Konvention mellan Sverige, Danmark, Finland, Island och Norge om nordiska medborgares rätt att använda sitt eget språk i annat nordiskt land" [Convention between Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway on the right of Nordic citizens to use their own language in another Nordic country]. Nordic Council (in Norwegian). 2 May 2007. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
  4. ^ "20th anniversary of the Nordic Language Convention". Nordic Council. 22 February 2007. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2007.
  5. ^ Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language : How bronze-age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the modern world (8th reprint. ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05887-0.
  6. ^ a b c Faarlund, Jan Terje; Haugen, Einar (1917). "Scandinavian languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. 99 (2495): 505. Bibcode:1917Natur..99..505T. doi:10.1038/099505a0. Retrieved September 11, 2016.
  7. ^ Husby, Olaf (October 2010). "The Norwegian language". Norwegian on the Web. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  8. ^ Torp, Arne (2001). "Bokstaver og alfabet" [Letters and alphabet]. Språknytt (in Norwegian) (4): 1–4. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  9. ^ Vannebo, Kjell Ivar (2001). "Om begrepene språklig standard og språklig standardisering" [About the terms linguistic standard and linguistic standardization]. Sprog I Norden (in Norwegian): 119–128. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  10. ^ Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000). The Phonology of Norwegian. Oxford University Press. pp. 6–11. ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5.
  11. ^ "Læreplan i norsk (NOR1-05)". www.udir.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  12. ^ Venås, Kjell (1994). "Dialekt og normaltalemålet" [Dialect and normal speech]. Apollon (in Norwegian). 1. ISSN 0803-6926. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011.
  13. ^ "Grammatisk kjønn og variasjon i norsk". Språkrådet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2019-06-17.
  14. ^ "Språkrådet". elevrom.sprakradet.no. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  15. ^ a b Skjekkeland, Martin (2018-09-10), "dialekter i Bergen", Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian), retrieved 2019-06-17
  16. ^ Hanssen, Eskil; Kjærheim, Harald; Skjekkeland, Martin (2016-09-13), "dialekter og språk i Oslo", Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian), retrieved 2018-07-14
  17. ^ "Bøying". www.ressurssidene.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  18. ^ a b "Språkrådet". elevrom.sprakradet.no. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  19. ^ "Bokmålsordboka | Nynorskordboka". ordbok.uib.no. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  20. ^ "Språkrådet". elevrom.sprakradet.no. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
  21. ^ 1906-1970., Berulfsen, Bjarne (1977). Norwegian grammar (4. impression ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. ISBN 978-8203043123. OCLC 4033534.
  22. ^ Fossen, Christian. "1 Repetisjon". www.ntnu.edu. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  23. ^ "Språkrådet". elevrom.sprakradet.no. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  24. ^ "Predikativ". ressurssidene.pedit.no (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  25. ^ "modus – grammatikk", Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian), 2018-02-20, retrieved 2019-06-18
  26. ^ "Språkrådet". elevrom.sprakradet.no. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  27. ^ "Språkrådet". elevrom.sprakradet.no. Retrieved 2018-07-14.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]