|Born||October 23, 1800 or 1803|
|Died||April 15, 1869 (age 69-72)|
|Occupation||physician, minister, church elder, soldier|
|Employer||Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, self-employed|
|Known for||Being one of the founders and leaders of the Mormon Danites in 1838|
|Allegiance||Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints|
|Years of service||1838|
|Commands held||Mormon Danites commander|
|Battles/wars||Missouri Mormon War
Sampson Avard (October 23, 1800 – April 15, 1869) was one of the founders and leaders of the Mormon vigilantes known as the Danites, which existed in Missouri during the Missouri Mormon War in 1838.
Sampson Avard was born at St. Peter, Guernsey, Channel Islands, British Isles. As an immigrant in the United States, he worked as a physician and later became a Campbellite minister in Pennsylvania.
Pratt ordained him an Elder and leader of the local branch of the church. After serving a mission near his home with Erastus Snow, he moved to the Latter Day Saint community at Kirtland, Ohio in 1836. He was ordained a High Priest in 1837, though his position as a High Priest was also revoked that same year for unclear reasons.
In 1838, while living in Far West, Missouri and serving in the church's High Council there, Avard witnessed the heated conflict between the growing Mormon population and the established non-Mormon Missourians. He was the founding organizer and leader of the Danites, a secret paramilitary vigilante militia, bound by oaths and intent on retaliating for Mormon injuries and losses. It remains unclear the extent to which Joseph Smith was aware or in favor of Avard's activities, although he recognized the Danites and encouraged them to be lawful. Danite militaristic activities intensified the 1838 Mormon War and drew the attention of state government and militia.
Arrest and excommunication
After the Mormons were expelled from the Missouri and Joseph Smith was arrested, Avard was the chief witness against Smith, testifying that Smith was the mastermind behind the Danites. Smith denounced the group as "frauds and secret abominations" and excommunicated Avard in March 1839. Avard never attempted to return to the Latter Day Saints.
- Jessee, Dean C.; Ashurst-McGee, Mark; Jensen, Richard L., eds. (2008), "Biographical Directory", Journals, Volume 1: 1832–1839, The Joseph Smith Papers, Salt Lake City: Church Historian's Press, p. 398
- Some sources list 1803 as his birth year. See: "Mormon Biographical Register-A", Biographical Registers, BYU Studies, archived from the original on 2009-07-10, retrieved 2009-05-17
- From 1834-1838, the church founded by Joseph Smith was officially known as the Church of the Latter Day Saints. See Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints)#Early changes.
- (Bushman 2005, p. 351)
- (Bushman 2005, pp. 350, 352)
- (Bushman 2005, pp. 369, 372)
- "Mormon Biographical Register-A", Biographical Registers, BYU Studies, archived from the original on 2010-01-24, retrieved 2009-05-17
- Bushman, Richard Lyman (2005), Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 1-4000-4270-4.