Hemu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya)
Jump to: navigation, search
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
Maharaja of Hindustan
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya.jpg
Miniature portrait of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
Coronation 7 October 1556
Born 1501
Birthplace Alwar, Rajasthan
Died 5 November 1556
Place of death Panipat, Haryana
Father Rai Puran Das
Religious beliefs Hinduism

Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (also known as Hemu Vikramaditya, Raja Vikramaditya or simply Hemu) (1501 – 5 November 1556) was a Hindu emperor of north India during the sixteenth century AD, a period when Mughals and Pashtun (pathan) were vying for power in the region.

Born in a humble family, Hemu rose to become Chief of the Army and Prime Minister to Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal[1] and the Mughal forces of Akbar and Humayun in Agra and Delhi,[2] winning 22 consecutive battles.[3][4]

Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556, assuming the title of "Vikramaditya" that had been adopted by many Hindu kings since Vedic times. His rajyabhishek (coronation) as Samrat was held at Purana Qila in Delhi. Hemu re-established the native Hindu rule (albeit for a short duration) in North India, after over 350 years of Muslim(Turkic and Mughal) rule. Some historians say that this rule was on the pattern of a strong Hindu state prevailing in South India for more than three centuries, known as 'Vijaynagar Empire'.[5] Hemu struck coins bearing his title.

Early life[edit]

Contemporary accounts of Hemu's early life are fragmentary, due to his humble background, and often biased, because they were written by Mughal historians such as Bada'uni and Abu'l-Fazl who were employed by Hemu's rival, Akbar. Modern historians differ on his family's ancestral home and caste, and his place and year of birth. What is generally accepted is that he was born in a Hindu Brahmin family of limited means, and that he spent his childhood in the town of Rewari, in the Mewat region, south-west of Delhi. His father Puran Das, was spiritually minded, a follower of Hith Harivansh, and frequently absent from home while touring to spread Harivansh's teachings. Due to his family's financial condition, Hemu at a young age started working as a tradesman, either as a green-grocer or selling saltpeter.[6][7][8][9]

Social environment[edit]

Hem Chandra Vikramaditya on horse

India was socially and politically unstable in the early sixteenth century. This was especially so in the north, where Mughals and Afghans were vying for power, whereas the south was controlled by the comparatively stable Hindu Vijayanagar Empire, ruled at that time by Krishnadevaraya. The Mughals were then, still considered a foreign force: Babur's barbaric invasion of North India in 1526 resulted in the destruction, looting and demolition of most important Hindu temples in North India, such as the Ram Temple at Ayodhya, the Krishna Temple at Mathura and the Kashi Vishwanath Temple at Benares. Mosques were constructed on the ruins of those sites — for example, the Babri Masjid at Ayodhya, the Jama Masjid at Mathura and the Gyanvapi Mosque at Benares — and this led to widespread disaffection among Hindus. For instance, Guru Nanak, a contemporary and an eye witness to Babur's invasion in the Punjab has given vivid accounts of Babur's vandalism terming him a butcher. Growing up in such an atmosphere, in a devout family of Hindu Brahmin priests, Hemu yearned to take a revenge and defeat the Mughals.[10] His first opportunity to do so and to rule North India from Delhi came after victory over Akbar's forces in the Battle for Delhi in October 1556.

Rise to fame[edit]

Portuguese colonial architecture in Hemu's Haveli in Rewari, which was renovated in 1540, when Hemu became 'Market Superintendent' in Delhi.

Rewari was an important stopover in medieval times for traders from Iran and Iraq on the way to Delhi. Hemu started his career as a supplier of cereals to Sher Shah Suri's army, moving on to more critical supplies like saltpetre (for gunpowder) later.[11] He also developed a cannon foundry in Rewari, laying the foundation of an industry in brass, copper sheets and utensils manufacture.[12] Hemu obtained technical assistance for casting cannons, and for producing saltpetre, from the Portuguese in Goa, who were also helping the Vijayanagar Empire against the Deccan Sultanates in South India, by supplying cannons, gunpowder and Arabian horses.[13]

After Sher Shah Suri's death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became ruler of North India. Islam Shah recognised the calibre, and administrative skills of Hemu and made him his personal adviser.[14] He consulted Hemu in matters relating not only to trade and commerce, but also pertaining to statesmanship, diplomacy and general politics.[15] Islam Shah initially appointed Hemu Shahang-i-Bazar, meaning 'Market superintendent' in Persian, to manage commerce throughout the empire.[16] This post gave Hemu the opportunity to frequently interact with the king, having to apprise him of the trade and commercial situation of the kingdom.[17] Abul Fazal says that Islam Shah held Hemu in great esteem.[18] In 1550, Hemu accompanied Islam Shah to the Punjab where he was deputed along with other high officers to receive Mirza Kamran in the fort of Rohtas. Islam Shah consulted Hemu on a variety of matters.[19] After serving as Shahang-i-Bazar for some time, Hemu rose to become Chief of Intelligence or Daroga-i-Chowki (Superintendent of Post).[20] Islam Shah's health deteriorated in 1552 and he shifted his base from Delhi to Gwalior, which was considered safer. Hemu was deputed as Governor to the Punjab to safeguard the region against a Mughal invasion. Hemu held this position until 30 October 1553, when Islam Shah died.

Islam Shah was succeeded by his 12 year old son Firoz Khan who was killed within three days by Adil Shah Suri. The new king Adil was an indolent pleasure-seeker and a drunkard[21] who faced revolts all around.[22] Adil Shah took Hemu as his Chief Advisor and entrusted all his work to him.[23] appointing him the prime minister and chief of his army.[24][25] After some time, Adil Shah became insane and Hemu became the de facto king.[23][24][26]

Many Afghan governors rebelled against the weak King Adil Shah and refused to pay the taxes, but Hemu quelled them. Ibrahim Khan, Sultan Muhhamad Khan, Taj Karrani, Rukh Khan Nurani and several other Afghan rebels were defeated and killed.[27] At the battle of Chhapparghatta in December 1555, Hemu routed the Bengal forces under Muhammad Shah, who was killed in the battle.[28]

At the time the Afghans considered themselves natives of the country (and were considered as such by the Hindus), while the Mughals, writes Vincent Arthur Smith,[29] were considered foreigners. Writer K.K.Bhardwaj in his book "Hemu-Napoleon of medieval India" claimed that Hemu was a native ruler leading a native Afghan army to victory, in battle after battle. Thus, Hemu became popular among the Hindus as well as Afghans.[30] Another writer, K.R.Qanungo, writes that, this indicates that the rule which Hemu established, commanding Afghan army was secular and nationalistic.[31]

Hemu's army[edit]

Hemu's army was a result of long process of military development during Sur rule in north India. Michael Bradwin states that Hemu's army was five times superior to the army of Akbar.[32] However, recruitment of Hindus considerably increased during his rule. His army consisted of infantry, cavalry, artillery and large elephants. His infantry ran on Portuguese lines.[33] Hemu, according to Maulana Muhammed Hussain 'Azad', was very proud of his artillery.[34] The superiority of artillery which the grandfather of Akbar enjoyed over the former's campaigns against the Lodhi ruler, was not seen there in this case. General Ram Chandra (Rammaya) and Shadi Khan Kakkar, the Afghan governor from Sambhal were two of his most noted generals who commanded large forces in the Second Battle of Panipat.[33]

Victories against the Mughals[edit]

Agra Fort, won by Hem Chandra Vikramaditya in 1553, recaptured from Humayun in 1556, before capturing Delhi.
Gwalior Fort, from where Hem Chandra Vikramaditya launched most of the attacks during 1553-56, for his 22 battle victories.

After the victory of the Mughal ruler Humayun over Adil Shah's brother Sikander Suri, on 23 July 1555 the Mughals regained the Punjab, Delhi and Agra after a gap of 15 years. Hemu was in Bengal when Humayun died on 26 January 1556. Humayun's death gave Hemu an ideal opportunity to defeat the Mughals. He started a rapid march from Bengal through present day Bihar, Eastern UP and Madhya Pradesh. The Mughal fauzdars abandoned their positions and fled in panic before him. In Agra, an important Mughal stronghold, the commander of Mughal forces Iskander Khan Uzbeg fled after hearing about Hemu's invasion, without a fight. Etawah, Kalpi and Bayana, all in present day central and western UP, fell to Hemu.

In the words of K.K.Bhardwaj, his triumphant march from Bihar to Dilli (Delhi) can be equated to the Italian campaign of Napoleon: "He came, he saw, he conquered".[35] Hemu never saw defeat in battle and went from victory to victory throughout his life (he died in the only battle he lost). Hemu won the loyalty of his soldiers by his ready distribution of the spoils of war among his soldiers.[36]

After winning Agra, Hemu moved for the final assault on Delhi. Tardi Beg Khan, who was Governor of Delhi, for Akbar, wrote to Akbar and his regent, Bairam Khan, that Hemu had captured Agra and intended to attack the capital Delhi, which could not be defended without reinforcements.[3] Bairam Khan, realising the gravity of the situation, sent his ablest lieutenant, Pir Muhammad Sharwani, to Tardi Beg. Tardi Beg Khan summoned all the Mughal commanders in the vicinity to a war council for the defence of Delhi. It was decided to stand and fight Hemu and plans were made accordingly.

Sir Jadunath Sarkar writes in detail about the Battle for Delhi at Tughlaqabad:

The Mughal army was thus drawn up. Abdullah Uzbeg commanded the Van, Haider Muhammad the right wing, Iskander Beg the left and Tardi Beg himself the centre. The choice Turki Cavalry in the van and left wing attacked and drove back the enemy forces before them and followed far in pursuit. In this assault the victors captured 400 elephants and slew 3000 men of the Afghan army. Imagining victory already gained, many of Tardi Beg's followers dispersed to plunder the enemy camp and he was left in the field thinly guarded. All this time Hemu had been holding 300 choice elephants and a force of select horsemen as a reserve in the centre. He promptly seized the opportunity and made a sudden charge upon Tardi Beg with this reserve.[37]

Confusion ensued, resulting in a defeat for the Mughals. Hemu was helped by reinforcements from Alwar with a contingent commanded by Hazi Khan. The desertion of various Mughal commanders with Pir Muhhammad Khan, who fled the battlefield, to Tardi Beg's chagrin and surprise, forced the Mughal commander to withdraw.

Hem Chandra won Delhi after a day's battle on 6 October 1556. Some 3000 soldiers died in this battle. However, Mughal forces led by Tardi Beg Khan vacated Delhi after a day's fight and Hemu Chandra entered Delhi, victorious under a royal canopy.

Coronation[edit]

Hemu in his Prime.
Purana Quila, Delhi where Hemu was crowned on 7 October 1556.

Sir Wolsey Haig[38] writes, "Hemu was so elated by the capture of Delhi as to believe that he had already reached the goal of his ambition."

Smith, who names Hemu the third claimant to the sovereignty of Hindustan at the time (the other two being the Suris and Akbar), asserts that Hemu after his occupation[39] of Delhi came to the conclusion that he had a better claim to the throne for himself rather than on behalf of Adil Shah and ventured to assume the royal state under the style of Raja Vikramaditya or Vikramaditya, a title borne by several renowned Hindu Kings in ancient times. Hemu assumed the royal robes and declared himself the Emperor of India under the title of Vikramaditya.[5][40]

His Afghan officers were reconciled to the ascendancy of an infidel by a liberal distribution of plunder,[41] and probably also by the fact that Hem Chandra had proved to be a successful general.[42]

Hemu had his formal Hindu Rajyabhishek or coronation at Purana Qila in Delhi on 7 October 1556[43] in the presence of all the Afghan Sardars and Hindu Senapatis (military commanders).[44] K. K.Bhardwaj says that thousands of guests were invited, along with various Rajput chiefs and Afghan governors and numerous scholars and Pandits. The festivities continued for three or four days.[45] "Essential parts of a Hindu King's coronation are", writes Sir Jadunath Sarkar, "washing him (abbhishake) and holding the royal umbrella over his head (Chhatra-Dharam)" and Hemu must have followed these ancient traditions, accompanied by costly gifts and robes to priests.[46] He made various appointments on the occasion, appointing his brother Jujharu Rai, governor of Ajmer and his nephew Rammayya, a general in his army.[47] He also appointed his various supporters as Chhaudhuris and Muqqudams based on their merit so that they continued to maintain their respective positions in the reign of Akbar.[48]

Thus Hemu became the first Hindu emperor of North India in 350 years. According to Abul Fazl, in the Akbarnama, after winning Delhi Hemu had planned to attack and win Kabul. He made several changes in his army, including the recruitment of many Hindus, but without the dismissal of any Afghan.[49]

Administration[edit]

Because of long association with the Sur administration since the 1540s, first as a supplier of various items to Sher Shah Suri, then as Superintendent of Markets, Minister of Internal security and Governor of Punjab with Islam Shah, Prime Minister-cum-Chief of Army with Adil Shah, Hemu had great experience of administration and sound knowledge of how system works.[50]

Although he did not have much time to rule, Hemu revitalised the administration that had flagged after the demise of Sher Shah Suri. With his knowledge of trade and commerce he gave fresh impetus to commerce throughout the country. He spared no one indulging in black-marketing, hoarding, overcharging and under-weighing of goods.[51] After his conquest of Agra and Delhi, he replaced all corrupt officers.[52] He also introduced coinage bearing his image.[38]

Second Battle of Panipat[edit]

Mural of second Battle of Panipat at war site, 'Kala Amb' Panipat.

On hearing of Hemu's serial victories and the fall of large territories like Agra and Delhi, the Mughal army at Kalanaur[disambiguation needed] lost heart and many commanders refused to fight Hemu.[53] Most of his commanders advised Akbar to retreat to Kabul, which would serve better as a strong-hold. However, Bairam Khan, Akbar's guardian and chief strategist, insisted on fighting Hemu in an effort to gain control of Delhi.

On 5 November 1556, the Mughal army met Hemu's army at the historic battlefield of Panipat. Bairam Khan exhorted his army in a speech with religious overtones and ordered them into battle. Akbar and Bairam Khan stayed in the rear, eight miles from the battleground, with the instructions to leave India in case of defeat. The Mughal army was led by Ali Kuli Khan, Sikandar Khan and Abdulla Khan Uzbeg.[54] Hemu led his army himself into battle, atop an elephant. His left was led by his sister's son General Ramiya and the right by Shadi Khan Kakkar. He was on the cusp of victory, when he was wounded in the eye by an arrow, and collapsed unconscious. This led to confusion amongst the soldiers, with no supreme commander to coordinate decisions. According to Abul Fazl, 5000 soldiers of Hemu were slain.[55]

Death[edit]

'Beheaded Skulls Minaret' built by Akbar's army after 2nd Battle of Panipat

Unconscious and at death's door, Hemu was captured by Shah Qulin Khan and carried to the Mughal camp for execution. According to Badayuni[56] Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of Ghazi. Akbar replied 'He is already dead, if he had any stregth for a dual, I would have killed him'. After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded by Bairam Khan.[57] Hemu's head was sent to Kabul in Afghanistan, where it was hanged outside the Delhi Darwaza, to be shown to Afghans to prove that the great Hindu warrior is dead, while his body was placed in a gibbet outside Purana Quila in Delhi to terrorise the native Indians (Turk-Afghans and Hindus).

Aftermath[edit]

After Hemu's death, a massacre of Hemu's community and followers was ordered by Bairam Khan. Thousands were beheaded and towers of skulls were built with their heads, to instill terror among the Hindus and Afghans. At least one painting of such minarets is displayed in the "Panipat Wars Museum" at Panipat in Haryana. These towers were still in existence about 60 years later as described by Peter Mundy, a British traveler who visited India during the time of Jahangir.[citation needed]

His attempts to drive the Mughals out of Hindustan and establish a peaceful union of Hindus and Afghans who shared a common history and hence considered Mughals as invading foreigners, was a continuation of various efforts by the indigenous faiths to regain control from Mughal invaders. As the Mughals were intolerant[58] to their religion, they never reconciled to their rule. Romilla Thapar says that "although the Muslims ruled the infidels, the infidels called them barbarians."[59]

Nirod Bhushan Roy considers Hemu to be "the harbinger of a new era in which the Hindus were to share equally with the Mughals the threat to the state".[60]

Historians on Hemu's Life[edit]

According to Sarkar and Datta, Hemu assumed the title of Vikramaditya or Vikramadity (Sarkar and Datta, 56). But Michael Edwardes writes that Hemu "declared himself King under the title of Raja Vikramaditya" (Edwardes, 139). Hemu's proclamation of his being a Raja is very significant. The title of Raja reminds one of the ancient and medieval Indian Hindu Kings. Colonel H.C. Kar comments:[61] "He assumed the title of Vikramaditya. He emerged as a monarch in his own right and the only Hindu to occupy the throne of Delhi during the medieval history of India. Himself a staunch Hindu, he had no disrespect for any religion, Islam or Christianity". K.K. Bhardwaj writes in "Hemu-Napoleon of Medieval India"[62] that, Babur was a foreign invader and never thought of making India as his home or native land plus the atrocities and cruelties that he inflicted upon the Indian people over which Guru Nanak lamented before the Almighty God in holy books, Hemu undertook upon him as his solemn duty or Dharma being a true patriot to expel the Mughals bag and baggage out of India and liberate the motherland by reviving the ancient glories of Bharat-Varsha and establishing the 'Hindu Raj'. This was indeed a lofty ideal and he strove hard to achieve it. He deserves the honour of being considered the medieval Samudra Gupta or the medieval Napoleon as he fought and won twenty two battles continuously.

John Clark Marshman [63] wrote in 1873, that "Hemu was one of the greatest commanders of the age. He was one and all combined in his personality. As a general of sterling qualities, he displayed great valour in the battlefield and embarked upon wonderful planning and strategies to win twenty two battles he waged against the enemies of the state and won all. As an energetic soldier, he never shrank away from the battlefield and when the fight was most fierce, he did not bother for his personal safety and always fought with his adversaries courageously along with his comrades.This earned him goodwill, affection and praise of his entire heterogeneous army consisting of Afghans, Rajputs and various other tribes. He was an outstanding commander and his orders were obeyed by all his troops without grudge and demur".

William Erskine [64] writes that "in spite of the prejudiced and partial representations of the house of Timur, Hemun must have been a man of extraordinary capacity". A highly efficient civil administrator, he pulled up slack and corrupt public servants and introduced many new innovations in the public administration. His honesty and devotion to the interests of the state were exemplary and made an abiding impact on the administrative services. As he personally made all appointments both as Prime Minister and the Emperor of India, he reorganised the provincial administration by appointing the new governors of provinces and efficient administrators on key positions. This was bound to render beneficial results and as Sir Jadunath Sarkar commends, the Government of Adil Shah "gained unwonted strength" [65] from him and many appointments made by him of Muqadams and Chaudheries were continued in the reign of Akbar.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bhardwaj, K. K. "Hemu-Napoleon of Medieval India", Mittal Publications, New Delhi, pp.59–60
  2. ^ Smith, Vincent A. "Akbar: The Great Mogul", Oxford, (1926), pp.36–37
  3. ^ a b Bhardwaj, K. K. "Hemu-Napoleon of Medieval India", Mittal Publications, New Delhi, p.25
  4. ^ Sarkar, J. N. "Military History of India", p.67
  5. ^ a b Kar, L. Colonel H. C. "Military History of India", Calcutta (1980), p.283
  6. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1984). "Hemu: A forgotten Hindu Hero". The History and Culture of the Indian People Vol 7: The Mughal Empire. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 
  7. ^ Smith, Vincent Arthur (1919). Akbar, the great Mughal 1542-1605. Clarendon Press. pp. 34–35. 
  8. ^ Erskine, William (1854). A History of India Under the Two First Sovereigns of the House of Taimur, Báber and Humáyun, Volume 2. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. pp. 490–493. 
  9. ^ Sarker, Sunil Kumar (1 January 1994). Himu, the Hindu "Hero" of Medieval India: Against the Background of Afghan-Mughal Conflicts. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. pp. 36–56. ISBN 978-81-7156-483-5. 
  10. ^ Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, published by SHCVDBMC Trust, Rekmo Press, New Delhi, Page 3
  11. ^ Samrat Hemchander Vikramaditya By Samrat Hemchander Vikramaditya Dhusar Bhargava Memorial Charitable Trust, page 6, printed by Rakmo Printers, New Delhi
  12. ^ http://www.rewari.nic.in
  13. ^ "Manas: History and Politics, Mughals". Sscnet.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-24. 
  14. ^ HEMU Life and Times of Hemchandra Vikramaditya By R.K.Bhardwaj;Hope India Publications,Gurgaon,page30
  15. ^ Tabaqat-I-Akbari written by Nizamuddin Ahmed(trans.B.De),Vol.II,p198
  16. ^ AKI Ahirwal Ka Itihas By Dr. K.C. Yadav pages 30
  17. ^ History of the Afghans in India, by Rahim, page 94
  18. ^ Muntkhab-ul-Tawarikh,By Badauni, Vol. I page 384,
  19. ^ History of Afghans in India, by Rahim.page 94
  20. ^ Sher Shah and his Times, by K.R.Quanungo, page 448
  21. ^ AkbarNama Vol. I By Abul Fazal page 619
  22. ^ Ahirwal By Dr.K.C.Yadav, page 35
  23. ^ a b HEMU Life and Times of Hemchander Vikramaditya, page 32 published by Hope Publications, Gurgaon
  24. ^ a b De Laet, "The Empire of the Great Mogul", pp.140–41
  25. ^ Ahmed, Nizamuddin. "Tahaqat-i-Akbari", Vol.II, p.114
  26. ^ Rise and fall of Mughal Empire, By Tripathi, page 158,
  27. ^ Samrat Hemchander Vikramaditya by SHVDBMC Trust, Rekmo Press New Delhi, published 2001, page 9
  28. ^ Sunil Kumar Sarker, HIMU The Hindu 'HERO' of Medieval India, Published by Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 1994, ISBN 81-7156-483-6
  29. ^ Akbar the Great Mughal (Indian Reprint), Delhi, p.7
  30. ^ Hemu-Napoleon of medieval India, By K.K.Bhardwaj, Mittal Publication, New Delhi, page4
  31. ^ Sher Shah and His Times, Orient, 1965, page 448
  32. ^ Rahul Sankrityayana, Akbar, Chapter 1,page 5-10
  33. ^ a b Hemu:Life and Times of Hemchandra Vikramaditya
  34. ^ Muhammad Hussain 'Azad', 'Akhri Darbar', (Hindi Translation by Ram Kumar Verma, Vol.1, page50
  35. ^ Modern Europe, By C.D.Hazen, (Reprint), Delhi(1956), p.156
  36. ^ The Mughal Empire By Ishwari Prasad, Allahabad (1974), page 197
  37. ^ The Successors of Sher Shah, Dacca (1934), page 81
  38. ^ a b The Cambridge History of India, Volume IV, The Mughal Period, Delhi (1965),page 72
  39. ^ The Emperor Akbar (Vol.1),Patna (1973), page 72,
  40. ^ "Himu – A forgotten Hindu Hero", Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan, p.100
  41. ^ Akbar, By Dr. Qureshi (Delhi, 1978), p51
  42. ^ Hemu Napoleon of Medieval India, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, page 27
  43. ^ Abdullah, Tarikh-i-Daudi (Elliot and Dowson), vol.IV, 5-6
  44. ^ Rahul Sankrityayana, Akbar, p. 7
  45. ^ Hemu-Napoleon of Medieval India, Mittal Publications, Delhi,Page 27
  46. ^ Shivaji and His Times, Calcutta (1929),page 216-17,
  47. ^ Hemu and His Times, M.L.Bhargava, New Delhi,(1991), p.91
  48. ^ Hemu and His Times, by M. L. Bhargava, Reliance Publishing House, 1991, New Delhi, page 91
  49. ^ Volume 1, page 618
  50. ^ Dr. Parshu Ram Gupt, "Rashtra Gaurav Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya", Gorakhpur, p.45
  51. ^ Akbarnama Vol II, By Abul Fazl, page 619
  52. ^ Tarikh-i-Salatin-i-Afghana,page 62
  53. ^ Akbarnama Vol I by Abul Fazl page 619
  54. ^ Dr. Parshu Ram Gupt, Rashtra Gaurav Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, p. 65
  55. ^ Abul Fazl, Akbarnama, Vol. II, pp. 71-72
  56. ^ Abdul Quadir Badayuni, Muntkhib-ul-Tawarikh, Volume 1, page 6
  57. ^ tarikh-i-Akbari, by Mohammad Arif Qandhari, page 22
  58. ^ Quoted by Michael Edwards in A History of India , NEL Mentor Edition (1967), page 125
  59. ^ Romila Thapar, A History of India Vol. I (Reprint), Penguin (1992), Page 279
  60. ^ Nirodh Bhushan Roy, The Successors of Sher Shah, Dacca (1934), page 92.
  61. ^ L.Colonel H.C. Kar, Military History of India, Calcutta (1980),p.283
  62. ^ K.K. Bhardwaj, Hemu-Napoleon of Medieval India, page 51
  63. ^ John Clark Marshman, The History of India from the Earliest Period to the Present Time, London (1873), page 50.
  64. ^ Erskine Williams, The History of India under the two first sovereigns of the House of Timur - Babur and Humayun Vol II (Reprint) Oxford (1974), page 490
  65. ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar, Military History of India, Orient Longmam, (1960), page 66