After finishing his dissertation at Cornell University, under the tutelage of Paul de Man, Weber co-translated the first English-language collection of essays by German philosopher Theodor Adorno. Since that time he has held professorships in Germany, France and the United States.
In the late 1970s and 1980s he played a leading role in introducing and interpreting the work of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida and the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, both in the United States and Germany. Weber is recognized as a noted philosopher, theorist and critic in his own right, whose work is characterized by fine-grained, deconstructive readings of literary and philosophical texts. He is also the director of Northwestern University's Paris Program in Critical Theory.