Samuel of Constantinople
|Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople|
|Church||Church of Constantinople|
|Installed||1x) May 24, 1763, |
2x) November 17, 1773
|Term ended||1x) November 5, 1768, |
2x) December 24, 1774
|Predecessor||Joannicius III, Theodosius II|
|Successor||Meletius II, Sophronius II|
|Birth name||Skarlatos Chazteris (Σκαρλάτος Χαντζερής)|
|Died||May 10, 1775|
|Buried||Church of Saint Nicholas, Heybeliada|
|Denomination||Eastern Orthodox Church|
He was born in 1700 in Istanbul. He studied in the Great School of the Nation. In a young age he was ordained deacon and later he became an archdeacon of the Patriarch Paisius II. He was elected metropolitan bishop of Derkoi in 1731 and Ecumenical Patriarch on 24 May 1763, even though he thought he was too old for this position.
During his patriarchy, he was occupied with the finances of the Patriarchate. He limited the expenses, restrained the fundraisers and the procession of the "disk" five times per year and he repealed the old habit for priests and hieromonks to contribute in kind (animals, eggs, etc.) to the Patriarchate. He reinforced education and he restored the authority of the Patriarchate. In 1767 he abolished the autocephaly of the archbishops of Peć and Ohrid, whose jurisdiction had come to include large areas of Macedonia, Epirus, Thessaly, Albania and Serbia, and placed them again under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
On a social level, he inveighed against the "slavery of the woman" and talked against the institution of dowry and commercial wedding. He decided to divide the patriarchal seal into four parts, three of which were given to synodic hierarchs. This way he emphasised the synodic administrative system of the Patriarchate, according to which there is shared responsibility and the arbitrariness of the Patriarch is limited.
His radical acts provoked reactions, which reached the point of forcing him to resign on 5 November 1768. He was exiled to Great Lavra of Mount Athos, but in 1770 he convinced the Ottoman government to allow him to return to his residence in Tarabya. After the resignation of Theodosius II, the Synod reelected Samuel Patriarch, against his will, on 17 November 1773.
This second patriarchy lasted about one year. During it he tried to solve the issue of the "Kollyvades", choosing a harsher stance than his predecessor. On 24 December 1774 he was exiled again to Mount Athos and later to Heybeliada, where he died on 10 May 1775. He was buried in the Church of Saint Nicholas in Heybeliada. It is rumored that the noblewoman Roxandra Karatza was Samuel's mistress.
- Οικουμενικό Πατριαρχείο
- Bakouros, Vasileios, Ο Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης Σαμουήλ Α΄ Χαντζέρης ο βυζάντιος: ο βίος και το έργο του (1700-1775): εκκλησιαστικός ανθρωπισμός - νεοελληνικός διαφωτισμός, PhD dissertation, 1998
More on the subject
- «Σαμουήλ Χαντζερής ο Βυζάντιος (1700-1775). Η συμβολή του στην πνευματική κίνηση του Γένους κατά τον 18ο αι.», εκδ. Πρόσωπο, Αθήνα 2008.
- Λόγοι πατριωτικοί απλοσύνθετοι, για τη σκλαβιά της γυναίκας και για το χαλασμό του γένους, στηλιτευτικοί της προίκας και τον εμπορικού γάμου, κηρυγμένοι στα 1767 από τον πατριάρχη Σαμουήλ Χαντζερή, φανερωμένοι στα λογοτεχνικά μας κι αποκαταστημένοι από τον Γ. Βαλέτα, έκδ. Βιβλία Πηγής, Αθήνα 1948.
- Ακύλα Μήλλα, Ο ιερός ναός του αγίου Νικολάου
- Σταματόπουλος Τάκης, Ο εσωτερικός αγώνας, εκδόσεις Κάλβος, τόμος Α΄, σελ. 152